Givaudan is a Swiss manufacturer of flavours and active cosmetic ingredients. As of 2008, it is the world's largest company in the fragrance industries; the company's scents and flavours are developed for food and beverage makers, used in household goods, as well as grooming and personal care products and perfumes. Givaudan’s flavours and fragrances are custom-made and sold under confidentiality agreements. Givaudan uses a technology that captures the chemical makeup of smell from living plants; the company has locations in Europe and the Middle East, North America, Latin America and Asia Pacific. In 2019, Givaudan had sales of CHF 6,2 billion with an overall market share of 25%, it is one of Switzerland’s 30 biggest listed companies in terms of market capitalization. In 2019, CHF 528 million of its sales were reinvested in R&D. Givaudan is a member of the European Flavour Association. Givaudan was founded as a perfumery company in 1895 in Lyon France by Leon and Xavier Givaudan, although some parts of the modern company date back as far as 1796.
In 1898 Givaudan constructed a factory in Vernier. In 1946, Givaudan opened a perfumery school, which trained a third of the world’s creative perfumers. In 1948 the company acquired Ersolko SA, which transitioned Givaudan into the flavor industry. In 1963, Givaudan was acquired by Roche and in 1964, Roche acquired one of Givaudan's competitors, Roure. Roure was founded in Grasse, France during 1820. In 1937 Roure created the first designer perfume: Schocking for Schiaparelli. Givaudan's original United States fragrance headquarters, in Teaneck, New Jersey, was built in 1972 from a design by Der Scutt, architect of the Trump Tower; the company moved to East Hanover, NJ. In 1991 Givaudan and Roure were merged to form Givaudan-Roure. In 1991, the company bought Fritzsche and Olcott. In 1997 Givaudan-Roure acquired another flavor company, based in Cincinnati; the merger made Givaudan the largest flavor company in the world. In 2000 Givaudan-Roure was spun off by Roche as Givaudan and listed on the Swiss Stock Exchange where it is part of the SLI.
In 2002 Givaudan acquired FIS, the flavours division of Nestle, for which Nestle received a 10% stake in the company. The following year Givaudan purchased the cheese flavor company IBF. In 2004 the company expanded its operations in China, in place since the 1990s. On 22 November 2006, Givaudan announced the acquisition of Quest International to be completed Q1 2007. On 21 February 2007, the EU approved the merger of Givaudan and Quest clearing the final regulatory hurdle for the merger after the United States authorities approved the merger earlier in the month; the merger deal closed on 2 March 2007. The acquisition makes Givaudan the global leader in both fine fragrances and consumer products; the acquisition of Quest boosted Givaudan's sales by 42% from CHF 2,909 million in 2006 to CHF 4,132 million in 2007. In 2013 Nestle sold its share in Givaudan for $1.3 billion. By 2014 the company had about $4.6 USD billion in revenues. That year the company had its first acquisition since Quest. Givaudan released the TasteSolutions Richness line of flavours.
It launched the Givaudan Foundation, has a programme that works with patchouli and other grower collection networks to establish sustainable development practices, called the Innovative Naturals programme. On July 10, 1976 the Seveso disaster, Italy’s worst ecological disaster, released a toxic cloud into the atmosphere. Italy's highest court awarded moral damages to the residents for anxiety incurred. Givaudan, the parent company of ICMESA paid EUR103.9 million in cleanup costs and compensation to those who suffered physical injuries as a result of the incident. In the 2000s, Givaudan partnered with local communities in Guam, where the local crop of gum is used as an export business; the partnership supports sustainability efforts in the trade of benzoin. These efforts included the building of two secondary schools in the region to institute formal education for the children of the region; the firm works with the local communities on forest preservation. Official website
Archips xylosteana, the variegated golden tortrix or brown oak tortrix, is a moth of the family Tortricidae. This Palearctic moth is widespread in most of Europe, in Asia, in northern Africa; this moth species inhabit scrub in hilly and mountainous areas. Archips xylosteana is a medium-sized to large moth with a wingspan reaching 14–23 millimetres; the females are slightly larger than the males. The basic color of the fore wings varies from yellow-brown or ocher to pinkish brown, mottled with dark reddish brown markings. Forewings are broad and rectangular. Hind wings are light grayish brown; the design of the wings may appear asymmetric, because at rest one of the wing covers the other and hides part of it. The caterpillar have a black head; these moths fly from June to August in one generation. They rest during the day in the foliage of shrubs, their activity begins at dusk. They overwinter on thick boughs. Caterpillars grow protected in perpendicularly to the midrib, from April to June; these larvae are polyphagous, feeding on various shrubs and deciduous trees oak, Linden, maples, ash.
They can be found on various fruit trees and on some herbaceous plants. Linnaeus, C.: Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, genera, cum characteribus, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. 1-824. Holmiae. Robinson, G. S. & E. Schmidt Nielsen: The Microlepidoptera described by Linnaeus and Clerck. — Systematic Entomology 8: 191-242. Lepiforum e. V
Cyber Weapon Z is a manhua series adapted into a 3D-CG Chinese animation TV series in Hong Kong. In 1990 Andy Seto joined the Freeman publication label, where he took on drawing manhua and other comics. In 1993 he started the 10 volume Cyber Weapon Z manhua series with writer Chris Lau in Hong Kong; the story ran as a 3D animation series in 1995. Though much of the success did not begin until a French comic company, republished the comic in Europe where it became more popular. Andy's style is influenced by Yoshikazu Yasuhiko, who animated Venus Wars. For 1000 years, the men have understood the importance of the economic stakes. Now, they live thanks to an perfect social structure, it is because of this way of life that physical faculties of the man do not evolve, they begin to deteriorate little by little. Park Iro and Anling are two newcomers with Southern Shaolin, one of the sections of martial arts of the most famous school of combat: the Monastery of Shaolin; the purpose of this school is to give rise to a new human race by developing to the maximum physical capacities of the students.
As of the night of their arrival, an unknown force attacks the temple and awake Molitofu, a demon locked up 10 years before by the Luba general