Danish is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status. Minor Danish-speaking communities are found in Norway, Spain, the United States, Canada and Argentina. Due to immigration and language shift in urban areas, around 15–20% of the population of Greenland speak Danish as their first language. Along with the other North Germanic languages, Danish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples who lived in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. Danish, together with Swedish, derives from the East Norse dialect group, while the Middle Norwegian language before the influence of Danish and Norwegian Bokmål are classified as West Norse along with Faroese and Icelandic. A more recent classification based on mutual intelligibility separates modern spoken Danish and Swedish as "mainland Scandinavian", while Icelandic and Faroese are classified as "insular Scandinavian".
Until the 16th century, Danish was a continuum of dialects spoken from Schleswig to Scania with no standard variety or spelling conventions. With the Protestant Reformation and the introduction of printing, a standard language was developed, based on the educated Copenhagen dialect, it spread through use in the education system and administration, though German and Latin continued to be the most important written languages well into the 17th century. Following the loss of territory to Germany and Sweden, a nationalist movement adopted the language as a token of Danish identity, the language experienced a strong surge in use and popularity, with major works of literature produced in the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, traditional Danish dialects have all but disappeared, though regional variants of the standard language exist; the main differences in language are between generations, with youth language being innovative. Danish has a large vowel inventory comprising 27 phonemically distinctive vowels, its prosody is characterized by the distinctive phenomenon stød, a kind of laryngeal phonation type.
Due to the many pronunciation differences that set apart Danish from its neighboring languages the vowels, difficult prosody and "weakly" pronounced consonants, it is sometimes considered to be a difficult language to learn and understand, some evidence shows that small children are slower to acquire the phonological distinctions of Danish. The grammar is moderately inflective with strong and weak inflections. Nouns and demonstrative pronouns distinguish neutral gender. Like English, Danish only has remnants of a former case system in the pronouns. Unlike English, it has lost all person marking on verbs, its syntax is V2 word order, with the finite verb always occupying the second slot in the sentence. Danish is a Germanic language of the North Germanic branch. Other names for this group are the Scandinavian languages. Along with Swedish, Danish descends from the Eastern dialects of the Old Norse language. Scandinavian languages are considered a dialect continuum, where no sharp dividing lines are seen between the different vernacular languages.
Like Norwegian and Swedish, Danish was influenced by Low German in the Middle Ages, has been influenced by English since the turn of the 20th century. Danish itself can be divided into three main dialect areas: West Danish, Insular Danish, East Danish. Under the view that Scandinavian is a dialect continuum, East Danish can be considered intermediary between Danish and Swedish, while Scanian can be considered a Swedified East Danish dialect, Bornholmsk is its closest relative. Danish is mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Swedish. Proficient speakers of any of the three languages can understand the others well, though studies have shown that speakers of Norwegian understand both Danish and Swedish far better than Swedes or Danes understand each other. Both Swedes and Danes understand Norwegian better than they understand each other's languages; the reason Norwegian occupies a middle position in terms of intelligibility is because of its shared border with Sweden resulting in a similarity in pronunciation, combined with the long tradition of having Danish as a written language which has led to similarities in vocabulary.
Among younger Danes, Copenhageners are worse at understanding Swedish than Danes from the provinces, in general, younger Danes are not as good at understanding the neighboring languages as are Norwegian and Swedish youths. The Danish philologist Johannes Brøndum-Nielsen divided the history of Danish into a period from 800 AD to 1525 to be "Old Danish", which he subdivided into "Runic Danish", Early Middle Danish and Late Middle Danish. By the eighth century, the common Germanic language of Scandinavia, Proto-Norse, had undergone some changes and evolved into Old Norse; this language was called the "Danish tongue", or "Norse language". Norse was written in the runic alphabet, first with the elder futhark and from the 9th century with the younger futhark. From the seventh century, the common Norse language began to undergo changes that did not spread to all of Scandinavia, resulting in the appearance of two dialect areas, Old West Norse and Old East Norse. Most of the changes separating East Norse from West Norse started as innovatio
Christoph, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein
Christoph, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein has been the head of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and, by agnatic primogeniture, of the entire House of Oldenburg since 1980. He is the current titular Duke of Schleswig-Holstein and Duke of Glücksburg, traditionally styled as His Highness, he is a male-line descendant of Christian I of Denmark, is descended cognatically from numerous more recent monarchs, including Queen Victoria, Emperor Alexander II of Russia and several more recent Danish kings. The members of the house he heads include the reigning monarchs of Denmark and Norway, the deposed monarch of Greece, the heir-apparent to the British throne; the House of Oldenburg — in one of its cadet branches — is patrilineally the royal house of Denmark and Norway, has been the reigning dynasty of several other countries including Greece and Russia, includes the heir to the throne of the United Kingdom. As such, Christoph is the agnatic head of the family that today includes Margrethe II of Denmark, Harald V of Norway, Constantine II of Greece and, Charles, Prince of Wales.
His great-great-grandfather, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, was the older brother of Christian IX of Denmark, through him Christoph is heir by male primogeniture to the Danish title Duke of Glücksburg conferred by the Danish crown in 1825. Christoph is cognatically, a descendant of Queen Victoria and Alexander II of Russia, is in the line of succession to the British throne. Christoph was born in Louisenlund Castle in Güby, the eldest son of Peter, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein and his wife Princess Marie Alix of Schaumburg-Lippe, he has a diploma in Agricultural Engineering. Christoph served as a Reservist in the German Army for two years holding the rank of lieutenant, he succeeded to the headship of the ducal house on 30 September 1980 following the death of his father. While possession of the united duchies of Schleswig and Holstein had been allocated by a series of wars and treaties since the First Schleswig War of 1848 and the London Protocol of 1852, the ducal title was borne by Christoph's father and paternal grandfather.
However Christoph is known by the title, shared by male cadets of the dynasty, "Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg". Since 1980, Christoph chairs the board of the family foundation that owns the ancestral castle, Glücksburg Castle, he is a founding member of the GLC Glücksburg Consulting Group and serves as chairman of its advisory board. He resides in Grünholz near Schwansen where he has business interests in agriculture and real estate, he is the owner of the Grünholz and Bienebek estates and is one of the largest landowners of Schleswig-Holstein. His sister, Princess Ingeborg, chairs the board of a further family foundation, the Stiftung Louisenlund. Christoph married Princess Elisabeth of Lippe-Weissenfeld, daughter of Prince Alfred of Lippe-Weissenfeld and Baroness Irmgard Julinka Wagner von Wehrborn, at Glücksburg civilly on 23 September 1981 and religiously on 3 October. Christoph and Elisabeth have four children: Princess Sophie of Schleswig-Holstein, she married Anders Wahlquist in 2015.
They have two children. Friedrich Ferdinand, Hereditary Prince of Schleswig-Holstein Prince Constantin of Schleswig-Holstein Prince Leopold of Schleswig-Holstein 22 August 1949 – 10 February 1965: His Highness Prince Christoph of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 10 February 1965 – 30 September 1980: His Highness The Hereditary Prince of Schleswig-Holstein 30 September 1980 – present: His Highness The Prince of Schleswig-Holstein House of Oldenburg: Sovereign Knight Grand Cross of the House and Merit Order of Peter Frederick Louis House of Oldenburg Schloss Glücksburg The Prince of Schleswig-Holstein's company website
Ryd Abbey or Rüde Abbey was a Cistercian monastery in Munkbrarup that occupied the present site of Glücksburg Castle in Glücksburg on the Flensburg Fjord in the Schleswig-Flensburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Ryd Abbey was settled by the Cistercians of Esrum Abbey in 1210; the monastic community originated however in St. Michael's Abbey in Schleswig, a Benedictine double monastery which had become disorderly, with a reputation for immorality and drunkenness. In 1192 Nicholas I, the de facto officiating Bishop of Schleswig, therefore moved the monks to a remote site, where they established Guldholm Abbey; this was not a success, the monks were moved again to the site at Munkbrarup. This coincided with the arrival in Denmark of the new and severe Cistercian order, to whom the bishop entrusted the new foundation, with a substantial endowment; the monastery was thus at last placed on a stable footing and prospered under the more rigorous discipline of the Cistercians. In the century however the abbey acquired unwelcome notoriety because of the abbot Arnfast, accused of murdering King Christopher I of Denmark by giving him poisoned communion wine on 29 May 1259 in Ribe Cathedral, in retaliation for the king's imprisonment and mistreatment of the Archbishop of Lund, Jacob Erlandsen.
In the following year Archbishop Jacob named Arnfast bishop of Aarhus, but the pope made another appointment and Arnfast never assumed office. Arnfast was declared an enemy of the new king, Erik V, fled to Øm Abbey; when the king came to hear of it, he accused the monks at Øm of harboring a criminal, but despite a search throughout Denmark's monastic houses, Arnfast could not be located. In 1433 the abbey was granted the lucrative right to the income from the pilgrimage chapel at a miraculous hermitage nearby, the Klues. At its greatest extent the monastery precinct measured 200 meters wide, it consisted of a church and cemetery, guest house, farm and a wing for lay brothers, with kitchen and refectory. The abbey is best known as the place of origin of the Annales Ryenses, or the Annals of Ryd, which chronicles the history of Denmark from the legendary King Dan to King Erik VI; the chronicle was started not long after the Cistercians took over Ryd Abbey and ends in 1288. It is clear from the writing that the writers were southern Jutlanders and thus have a different perspective from that of other contemporary chroniclers.
The tone is distinctly anti-German. Along with Saxo's Gesta Danorum, the Annales Ryenses constitutes one of the main Danish sources for the history of the Middle Ages; the monastery was suppressed in 1538 after Denmark had become Lutheran on 30 October 1536. The monks were turned out of the monastery and scattered: some went to work on farms; the abandoned buildings fell into disrepair. In 1582 Duke John the Younger of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg ordered the remains to be demolished, had the stone reused for the construction of Glücksburg Castle, which still occupies the site; the site has been investigated archaeologically a number of times, most in 2005, when excavations under the drained castle lake found numerous artefacts, the foundations of the monastic buildings and church and the monastic cemetery. Historische Gesellschaft Glücksburg Abendblatt.de: Report of site investigation 2005 Pictures of the site and of the drained pond at Schloss Glücksburg Klöster in Schleswig-Holstein
Glücksburg is a small town in the district Schleswig-Flensburg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany and is the farmost northern settlement of Germany. It is situated on the south side of an inlet of the Baltic Sea, approx. 10 km northeast of Flensburg. The town was the home of the family Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, since 1863 the royal family of Denmark and since 1905 of Norway. A branch of the family is the former royal family of Greece, which includes Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, his descendants, including Charles, Prince of Wales, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Prince George of Cambridge, are members of the House of Windsor under British law, but genealogically are members of a cadet branch of the House of Glücksburg. Glücksburg is home to a German Navy base. Among the facilities at the base is the transmitter, callsign DHJ58. DHJ58, situated at 54° 50'N and 9° 32' E, ceased its transmissions on longwave frequency 68.9 kHz in 2002 and in 2004 its longwave antenna was disassembled.
Kai-Uwe von Hassel, was mayor of Glücksburg, Minister President of Schleswig-Holstein, Federal Minister, President of the Bundestag Gui Bonsiepe and design theorist Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Glücksburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Flensburg Firth or Flensborg Fjord, is the westernmost inlet of the Baltic Sea. It forms part of the border between Germany to Denmark to the north, its length is either 50 km, depending to the definition of its limits. It has the largest surface of all Förden and East Jutland Fjorde, which are a special type of inlets, different from geological fjords. Two peninsulas, Broager peninsula on the northern side and Holnis peninsula on the southern side divide the inlet in an outer and an inner part. West of them, near the Danish coast, there are two small islands called Okseøerne. On the Danish side, outer part of the northern limits of the firth is formed by the island of Als with the town of Sønderborg. Towards the west, continuing on the Danish side are Broager, Egernsund, Gråsten, Rinkenæs, Sønderhav, Kollund. In Germany at the Danish border there is Harrislee, at the inner end of the inlet the town of Flensburg, east of it on the southern shore the town of Glücksburg and the villages Munkbrarup, Westerholz, Steinberg, Niesgrau and Nieby.
The Tourist attraction of the Flensburg Firth are the church of Broager, the Ox isles, the Sønderborg Castle, the Naval Academy Mürwik and the harbor of Flensburg. Map Google maps satellite image