Grímnismál is one of the mythological poems of the Poetic Edda. It is preserved in the AM 748 I 4to fragment, it is spoken through the voice of one of the many guises of the god Odin. The name suggests guise, or mask or hood. Through an error, King Geirröth tortured Odin-as-Grímnir, a fatal mistake, since Odin caused him to fall upon his own sword; the poem is written in the ljóðaháttr metre, typical for wisdom verse. The work starts out with a lengthy prose section describing the circumstances leading up to Grímnir's monologue; the monologue itself comprises 54 stanzas of poetic verse describing the worlds and Odin's many guises. The third and last part of the poem is prose, a brief description of Geirröth's demise, his son's ascension, Odin's disappearance; the prose sections were most not part of the original oral versions of Grímnismál. Henry Adams Bellows suggests that they were added in the 12th or 13th century and based on some sort of narrative tradition regarding the poem; this is not certain.
The poem itself was composed in the first half of the 10th century. Odin and his wife, were sitting in Hlidskjalf, looking out on the worlds, they turned their eyes towards King Geirröth, reigning in the stead of his late father, King Hrauthung. Geirröth and his older brother Agnarr had been raised by Frigg, respectively; the god and goddess had disguised themselves as a peasant and his wife, had taught the children wisdom. Geirröth returned to his father's kingdom where he became king upon his father's death, while Agnarr dwelt with a giantess in a cave. In Hliðskjálf, Odin remarked to Frigg that his foster-child Geirröth seemed to be prospering more so than her Agnarr. Frigg retorted that Geirröth was so parsimonious and inhospitable that he would torture his guests if he thought there were too many of them. Odin disputed this, the couple entered into a wager in this respect. Frigg sent her maid Fulla to Geirröth, advising him that a magician would soon enter his court to bewitch him, saying that he could be recognised by the fact that no dog was fierce enough to attack him.
Geirröth heeded Fulla's false warning. He ordered his men to capture the man the dogs wouldn't attack. Odin-as-Grímnir, dressed in a dark blue cloak, allowed himself to be captured, he stated that his name was Grímnir. Geirröth had him tortured to force him to speak, putting him between two fires for eight nights. After this time, Geirröth's son, named Agnarr after the king's brother, came to Grímnir and gave him a full horn from which to drink, saying that his father, the king, was not right to torture him. Grímnir spoke, saying that he had suffered eight days and nights, without succour from any save Agnarr, Geirröth's son, whom Grímnir prophesied would be Lord of the Goths, he revealed himself for who he was, as the Highest One, promising Agnarr reward for the drink which he brought him. Shifting from prose to poetry for Odin-as-Grímnir's monologue, Grímnir describes at great length the cosmogony of the worlds, the dwelling places of its inhabitants, himself and his many guises. Grímnir turns to Geirröth and promises him misfortune, revealing his true identity.
Geirröth realized the magnitude of his mistake. Having learned that he is undone, he rose to pull Odin from the fires, but the sword which he had lain upon his knee slipped and fell hilt down, so that when the king stumbled he impaled himself upon it. Odin vanished, Agnarr, son of the dead King Geirröth, ruled in his father's stead; the 12th album of the comic Valhalla is loosely based on the poem. In the 2017 Starz television adaptation of Neil Gaiman's American Gods, the character Mad Sweeney refers to Mr. Wednesday as Grimnir. Mr. Wednesday emulates Odin's reveal of his identity through his various names when revealing his own true nature. Grímnismál in old Norse and Henry Adams Bellows' translation, at voluspa.org
Sól or Sunna is the Sun personified in Norse mythology. One of the two Old High German Merseburg Incantations, written in the 9th or 10th century CE, attests that Sunna is the sister of Sinthgunt. In Norse mythology, Sól is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda she is described as the sister of the personified moon, Máni, is the daughter of Mundilfari, is at times referred to as Álfröðull, is foretold to be killed by a monstrous wolf during the events of Ragnarök, though beforehand she will have given birth to a daughter who continues her mother's course through the heavens. In the Prose Edda, she is additionally described as the wife of Glenr; as a proper noun, Sól appears throughout Old Norse literature. Scholars have produced theories about the development of the goddess from potential Nordic Bronze Age and Proto-Indo-European roots.
One of the two Merseburg Incantations, recorded in Old High German, mentions Sunna, described as having a sister, Sinthgunt. The incantation describes how Phol and Wodan rode to a wood, there Balder's foal sprained its foot. Sinthgunt sang charms, her sister Sunna sang charms, Friia sang charms, her sister Volla sang charms, Wodan sang charms, followed by a verse describing the healing of the foal's bone. In the poem Völuspá, a dead völva recounts the history of the universe and foretells the future to the disguised god Odin. In doing so, the völva recounts the early days of the universe, in which: In the poem Vafþrúðnismál, the god Odin tasks the jötunn Vafþrúðnir with a question about the origins of the sun and the moon. Vafþrúðnir responds that Mundilfari is the father of both Sól and Máni, that they must pass through the heavens every day to count the years for man: In a stanza Vafþrúðnismál, Odin asks Vafþrúðnir from where another sun will come from once Fenrir has assailed the current sun.
Vafþrúðnir responds in a further stanza, stating that before Álfröðull is assailed by Fenrir, she will bear a daughter who will ride on her mother's paths after the events of Ragnarök. In a stanza of the poem Grímnismál, Odin says that before the sun is a shield named Svalinn, if the shield were to fall from its frontal position and sea "would burn up". In stanza 39 Odin says that both the moon are pursued through the heavens by wolves. In the poem Alvíssmál, the god Thor questions the dwarf Alvíss about the sun, asking him what the sun is called in each of the worlds. Alvíss responds that it is called "sun" by mankind, "sunshine" by the gods, "Dvalinn's deluder" by the dwarves, "everglow" by the jötnar, "the lovely wheel" by the elves, "all-shining" by the "sons of the Æsir". Sól is referenced in the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, where she is introduced in chapter 8 in a quote from stanza 5 of Völuspá. In chapter 11 of Gylfaginning, Gangleri asks the enthroned figure of High how the sun and moon are steered.
High describes that Sól is one of the two children of Mundilfari, states that the children were so beautiful they were named after the sun and the moon. Mundilfari has Sól married to a man named Glenr. High says that the gods were "angered by this arrogance" and that the gods had the two placed in the heavens. There, the children were made to drive the horses Árvakr and Alsviðr that drew the chariot of the sun. High says that the gods had created the chariot to illuminate the worlds from burning embers flying from the fiery world of Muspelheim. In order to cool the horses, the gods placed two bellows beneath their shoulders, that "according to the same lore" these bellows are called Ísarnkol. In chapter 12 of Gylfaginning, Gangleri tells High that the sun moves almost as if she were moving so that she fears something, that she could not go faster if she were afraid of her own death. High responds; the one chasing her comes close, there is no escape for her except to run." Gangleri asks who chases her, to which High responds that two wolves give chase to Máni.
The first wolf, Sköll, chases Sól, despite her fear, Sköll will catch her. Hati Hróðvitnisson, the second wolf, runs ahead of Sól to chase after Máni, whom Hati Hróðvitnisson will catch. In chapter 35, Sól's status as a goddess is stated by High, along with Bil. In chapter 53, High says that after the events of Ragnarök, Sól's legacy will be continued by a daughter, no less beautiful than she, who will follow the path she once rode, and, in support, Vafþrúðnismál stanza 47 is quoted. In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Sól is first presented in chapter 93, where the kennings "daughter of Mundilfæri", "sister of Máni", "wife of Glen", "fire of sky and air" are given for her, followed by an excerpt of a work by the 11th century skald Skúli Þórsteinsson: God-blithe bedfellow of Glen steps to her divine sanctuary with brightness. In chapter 56, additional names for Sól are given. In chapter 58, following a list of horses, the horses Arvakr and Alsviðr are listed as drawing the sun, and, in chapter 75, Sól is again included in a list of goddesses.
Scholars have proposed that Sól, as a goddess, may represe
Snorri Sturluson was an Icelandic historian and politician. He was elected twice as lawspeaker to the Althing, he was the author of the Prose Edda or Younger Edda, which consists of Gylfaginning, a narrative of Norse mythology, the Skáldskaparmál, a book of poetic language, the Háttatal, a list of verse forms. He was the author of the Heimskringla, a history of the Norwegian kings that begins with legendary material in Ynglinga saga and moves through to early medieval Scandinavian history. For stylistic and methodological reasons, Snorri is taken to be the author of Egil's saga. Snorri Sturluson was born in Hvammur í Dölum into the wealthy and powerful Sturlungar family of the Icelandic Commonwealth in 1179, his parents were his second wife, Guðný Böðvarsdóttir. He had two older brothers, Þórðr Sturluson and Sighvatr Sturluson, two sisters and nine half-siblings. Snorri was raised from the age of three by Jón Loftsson, a relative of the Norwegian royal family, in Oddi, Iceland; as Sturla was trying to settle a lawsuit with the priest and chieftain Páll Sölvason, Páll's wife lunged at him with a knife — intending, she said, to make him like his one-eyed hero Odin — but bystanders deflected the blow to his cheek instead.
The resulting settlement would have beggared Páll, but Jón Loftsson intervened in the Althing to mitigate the judgment and, to compensate Sturla, offered to raise and educate Snorri. Snorri therefore received an excellent education and made connections that he might not otherwise have made, he attended the school of Sæmundr fróði, grandfather of Jón Loftsson, at Oddi, never returned to his parents' home. His father died in his mother as guardian soon wasted Snorri's share of the inheritance. Jón Loftsson died in 1197; the two families arranged a marriage in 1199 between Snorri and Herdís, the daughter of Bersi Vermundarson. From her father, Snorri inherited an estate at a chieftainship, he soon chieftainships. Snorri and Herdís were together for four years at Borg, they had Hallbera and Jón. The marriage succumbed to Snorri's philandering, in 1206, he settled in Reykholt as manager of an estate there, but without Herdís, he made significant improvements including a hot outdoor bath. The bath and the buildings have been preserved to some extent.
During the initial years at Reykholt he fathered five children by three different women: Guðrún Hreinsdóttir, Oddný, Þuríður Hallsdóttir. Snorri became known as a poet, but was a lawyer. In 1215, he became lawspeaker of the Althing, the only public office of the Icelandic commonwealth and a position of high respect. In the summer of 1218, he sailed to Norway, by royal invitation. There he became well acquainted with the teen-aged King Hákon Hákonarson and his co-regent, Jarl Skúli, he spent the winter as house-guest of the jarl. They showered gifts upon him, including the ship in which he sailed, he in return wrote poetry about them. In the summer of 1219 he met his Swedish colleague, the lawspeaker Eskil Magnusson, his wife, Kristina Nilsdotter Blake, in Skara, they were both related to royalty and gave Snorri an insight into the history of Sweden. Snorri was interested in history and culture; the Norwegian regents, cultivated Snorri, made him a skutilsvein, a senior title equivalent to knight, received an oath of loyalty.
The king hoped to extend his realm to Iceland, which he could do by a resolution of the Althing, of which Snorri had been a key member. In 1220, Snorri returned to Iceland and by 1222 was back as lawspeaker of the Althing, which he held this time until 1232; the basis of his election was his fame as a poet. Politically he was the king's spokesman, supporting union with Norway, a platform that acquired him enemies among the chiefs. In 1224, Snorri married Hallveig Ormsdottir, a granddaughter of Jón Loftsson, now a widow of great means with two young sons, made a contract of joint property ownership with her, their children did not survive to adulthood, but Hallveig's sons and seven of Snorri's children did live to adulthood. Snorri was the most powerful chieftain in Iceland during the years 1224–1230. Many of the other chiefs found his position as royal office-holder contrary to their interests the other Sturlungar. Snorri's strategy was to consolidate power over them, at which point he could offer Iceland to the king.
His first moves were civic. On the death in 1222 of Sæmundur, son of Jón Loftsson, he became a suitor for the hand of his daughter, Sólveig. Herdís' silent vote did nothing for his suit, his nephew, Sturla Sighvatsson, Snorri's political opponent, stepped in to marry her in 1223, the year before Snorri met Hallveig. A period of clan feuding followed. Snorri perceived that only resolute, saga-like actions could achieve his objective, but he proved unwilling or incapable of carrying them out, he raised an armed party under another nephew, Böðvar Þórðarson, another under his son, Órækja, with the intent of executing a first strike against his brother Sighvatur and Sturla Sighvatsson. On the eve of battle he dismissed those offered terms to his brother. Sighvatur and Sturla with a force of 1000 men drove Snorri into the countryside, where he sought refuge among the other chiefs. Órækja undertook guerrilla operations in the fjords of western Iceland and the war was on. Haakon IV made an effort to intervene from afar, inviting al
In Germanic mythology, Odin is a revered Germanic god. In Norse mythology, from which stems most surviving information about the god, Odin is associated with wisdom, death, the gallows, war, victory, poetry and the runic alphabet, is the husband of the goddess Frigg. In wider Germanic mythology and paganism, the god was known in Old English as Wōden, in Old Saxon as Wōdan, in Old High German as Wuotan or Wōtan, all stemming from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic theonym *wōđanaz. Odin is a prominently mentioned god throughout the recorded history of the Germanic peoples, from the Roman occupation of regions of Germania through the tribal expansions of the Migration Period and the Viking Age. In the modern period, Odin continued to be acknowledged in the rural folklore of Germanic Europe. References to Odin appear in place names throughout regions inhabited by the ancient Germanic peoples, the day of the week Wednesday bears his name in many Germanic languages, including English. In Old English texts, Odin holds a particular place as a euhemerized ancestral figure among royalty, he is referred to as a founding figure among various other Germanic peoples, such as the Langobards.
Forms of his name appear throughout the Germanic record, though narratives regarding Odin are found in Old Norse works recorded in Iceland around the 13th century. These texts make up the bulk of modern understanding of Norse mythology. In Old Norse texts, Odin is depicted as one-eyed and long-bearded wielding a spear named Gungnir, wearing a cloak and a broad hat, he is accompanied by his animal companions and familiars—the wolves Geri and Freki and the ravens Huginn and Muninn, who bring him information from all over Midgard—and rides the flying, eight-legged steed Sleipnir across the sky and into the underworld. Odin is the son of Bestla and Borr and has two brothers, Vili and Vé. Odin is attested as having many sons, most famously the gods Thor and Baldr, is known by hundreds of names. In these texts, he seeks greater knowledge, at times in disguise, makes wagers with his wife Frigg over the outcome of exploits, takes part in both the creation of the world by way of slaying the primordial being Ymir and giving the gift of life to the first two humans Ask and Embla.
Odin has a particular association with Yule, mankind's knowledge of both the runes and poetry is attributed to him, giving Odin aspects of the culture hero. In Old Norse texts, female beings associated with the battlefield—the valkyries—are associated with the god and Odin oversees Valhalla, where he receives half of those who die in battle, the einherjar; the other half are chosen by the goddess Freyja for Fólkvangr. Odin consults the disembodied, herb-embalmed head of the wise being Mímir for advice, during the foretold events of Ragnarök, Odin is told to lead the einherjar into battle before being consumed by the monstrous wolf Fenrir. In folklore, Odin appears as a leader of the Wild Hunt, a ghostly procession of the dead through the winter sky, he is associated with charms and other forms of magic in Old English and Old Norse texts. Odin is a frequent subject of study in Germanic studies, numerous theories have been put forward regarding his development; some of these focus on Odin's particular relation to other figures.
Other approaches focus on Odin's place in the historical record, a frequent question being whether the figure of Odin derives from Proto-Indo-European religion, or whether he developed in Germanic society. In the modern period, Odin has inspired numerous works of poetry and other forms of media, he is venerated in most forms of the new religious movement Heathenry, together with other gods venerated by the ancient Germanic peoples. The Old Norse theonym Óðinn and its cognates, including Old English Wōden, Old Saxon Wōden, Old High German Wuotan, derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic theonym *wōđanaz; the masculine noun *wōđanaz developed from the Proto-Germanic adjective *wōđaz, related to Latin vātēs and Old Irish fáith, both meaning'seer, prophet'. Adjectives stemming from *wōđaz include Gothic woþs'possessed', Old Norse óðr,'mad, furious', Old English wōd'mad'; the adjective *wōđaz was further substantivised, leading to Old Norse óðr'mind, soul, sense', Old English ellen-wōd'zeal', Middle Dutch woet'madness', Old High German wuot'thrill, violent agitation'.
Additionally the Old Norse noun æði'rage, fury' and Old High German wuotī'madness' derive from the feminine noun *wōđīn, from *wōđaz. The weak verb *wōđjanan derived from *wōđaz, gave rise to Old Norse æða'to rage', Old English wēdan'to be mad, furious', Old Saxon wōdian'to rage', Old High German wuoten'to be insane, to rage'. Over 170 names are recorded for Odin; these names are variously descriptive of attributes of the god, refer to myths involving him, or refer to religious practices associated with the god. This multitude of names makes Odin the god with the most names known among the Germanic peoples; the modern English weekday name Wednesday derives from Old English wōdnesdæg. Cognate terms are found in other Germanic languages, such as Middle Low German wōdensdach, Old Norse Óðinsdagr (Danish, Nor
In Norse mythology, Sif is a goddess associated with earth. Sif is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, in the poetry of skalds. In both the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, Sif is the wife of the thunder god Thor and is known for her golden hair. In the Prose Edda, Sif is named as the mother of the goddess Þrúðr by Thor and of Ullr with a father whose name is not recorded; the Prose Edda recounts that Sif once had her hair shorn by Loki, that Thor forced Loki to have a golden headpiece made for Sif, resulting in not only Sif's golden tresses but five other objects for other gods. Scholars have proposed that Sif's hair may represent fields of golden wheat, that she may be associated with fertility, wedlock and/or that she is connected to rowan, that there may be an allusion to her role or her name in the Old English poem Beowulf; the name Sif is the singular form of the plural Old Norse word sifjar.
Sifjar only appears in singular form. Sifjar is cognate to the Old English sibb and modern English sib and in other Germanic languages: Gothic, Old High German sippa, modern German Sippe. Sifjar appears not only in ancient poetry and records of law, but in compounds. Using this etymology, scholar John Lindow gives the meanings "in-law-relationship", scholar Andy Orchard provides "relation", scholar Rudolf Simek gives "relation by marriage". In stanza 48 of the Poetic Edda poem Hárbarðsljóð, Hárbarðr meets Thor at an inlet of a gulf; the two engage in flyting, Hárbarðr refuses to ferry Thor across the bay. Among numerous other insults, Hárbarðr claims. In response, Thor says that Hárbarðr is speaking carelessly "of what seems worst to me" and lying. In stanzas 53 and 54 of the poem Lokasenna, after pouring Loki a crystal cup of mead during his series of insults towards the gods, Sif states that there is nothing Loki can say only in regard to her. In response, Loki claims that Sif has had an affair with him: Then Sif went forward and poured out mead for Loki into a crystal cup and said: Welcome now and take the crystal cup full of ancient mead, you should admit, that of the children of the Æsir, that I alone am blameless.
He took the horn and drank it down: That indeed you would be, if you were so, if you were shy and fierce towards men. Sif does not respond, the exchange turns to Beyla. Sif is additionally mentioned in two kennings found in poems collected in the Poetic Edda. In the Prose Edda, Sif is mentioned once in the Prologue, in chapter 31 of Gylfaginning, in Skáldskaparmál as a guest at Ægir's feast, the subject of a jötunn's desire, as having her hair shorn by Loki, in various kennings. Sif is introduced in chapter three of the Prologue section of the Prose Edda. Snorri states that Thor married Sif, that she is known as "a prophetess called Sibyl, though we know her as Sif". Sif is further described as "the loveliest of women" and with hair of gold. Although he lists her own ancestors as unknown, Snorri writes that Thor and Sif produced a son by the name of Lóriði, who "took after his father". In chapter 31 of the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, Ullr is referred to as a son of Sif and a stepson of Thor: Ull is the name of one.
The son of Sif, he is the stepson of Thor. He is so skillful a skier that no one can compete with him, he is beautiful to look at, is an accomplished warrior. He is a good person to pray to when in single combat; as reported in the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Thor once engages in a duel with Hrungnir, there described as the strongest of the jötnar. Prior to this, Hrungnir had been drunkenly boasting of his desire to, amongst other things, kill all of the gods except Freyja and Sif, whom he wanted to take home with him. However, at the duel, Hrungnir is killed by the enraged Thor. Further in Skáldskaparmál, Snorri relates a story; when Thor discovers this, he grabs hold of Loki, resulting in Loki swearing to have a headpiece made of gold to replace Sif's locks. Loki fulfills this promise by having a headpiece made by the Sons of Ivaldi. Along with the headpiece, the dwarfs produced Gungnir; as the story progresses, the incident leads to the creation of the ship Skíðblaðnir and the boar Gullinbursti for Freyr, the multiplying ring Draupnir for Odin, the mighty hammer Mjöllnir for Thor.
Sif appears in Skáldskaparmál listed as a heiti for "earth", appears in a kenning for a gold-keeping woman, once for Hildr. Poetic means of referring to Sif calling her "wife of Thor", "mother of Ullr", "the fair-haired deity", "rival of Járnsaxa", as "mother of Þrúðr". 19th-century scholar Jacob Grimm records that in his time residents of Värmland, Sweden "call Thor's wife godmor, good mother." In Old English, sib is cognate with sif. In the Old English poem Beowulf, Hroðgar's wife, Wealhþeow, moves through the hall serving mead to the warriors and defusing conflict. Various scholars beginning with Magnus Olsen have pointed to the similarity with what Sif does at the feast described in Lokasenna. Richard North further notes that unusually, sib is personified here and in lines 2599 to 2661, a
Sága and Sökkvabekkr
In Norse mythology, Sága is a goddess associated with the wisdom Sökkvabekkr. At Sökkvabekkr, Sága and the god Odin merrily drink. Both Sága and Sökkvabekkr are attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, in the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. Scholars have proposed theories about the implications of the goddess and her associated location, including that the location may be connected to the goddess Frigg's fen residence Fensalir and that Sága may be another name for Frigg; the etymology of the name Sága is held to be connected to the Old Norse verb sjá, meaning "to see". This may mean. Since Frigg is referred to as a seeress in the poem Lokasenna, this etymology has led to theories connecting Sága to Frigg. Rudolf Simek says that this etymology raises vowel problems and that a link to saga and segja is more yet that this identification is problematic. In the Poetic Edda poem Grímnismál, Sökkvabekkr is presented fourth among a series of stanzas describing the residences of various gods.
In the poem, Odin tells the young Agnar that Odin and Sága drink there from golden cups while waves resound: In the Poetic Edda poem Helgakviða Hundingsbana I, the hero Sinfjötli references Sága in the name of a location found in a stanza where Sinfjötli flyts with Guðmundr. The location name, nes Ságu, has been variously translated as "Saga's Headland," "Saga's Cape," and "Saga's ness" Part of the stanza may be missing and, due to this, some editors have joined it with the stanza prior. Sága is mentioned once in both the Prose Edda books Gylfaginning and Skáldskaparmál, while Sokkvabekk is only mentioned once, in Gylfaginning. In chapter 35 of Gylfaginning, High tells Gangleri about the ásynjur. High follows a description of Frigg and her dwelling Fensalir with "Second is Saga, she dwells in Sokkvabekk, and, a big place." In chapter 75 of the book Skáldskaparmál, Sága is present among a list of 27 ásynjur, but no information is provided about her there. John Lindow says that due to similarity between Sökkvabekkr and Fensalir, "Odin's open drinking with Sága", the potential etymological basis for Sága being a seeress has "led most scholars to understand Sága as another name for Frigg."
Stephan Grundy states that the words Sága and Sökkvabekkr may be by-forms of Frigg and Fensalir used for the purpose of composing alliterative verse. Britt-Mari Näsström theorizes that "Frigg's role as a fertility goddess is revealed in the name of her abode, Fensalir ", that Frigg is the same as Sága, that both the names Fensalir and Sökkvabekkr "imply a goddes living in the water and recall the fertility goddess Nerthus". Näsström adds that "Sökkvabekkr, the subterranean water, alludes to the well of Urd, hidden under the roots of Yggdrasil and the chthonic function, manifest in Freyja's character."Rudolf Simek says that Sága should be considered "one of the not closer defined Asyniur" along with Hlín, Sjöfn, Snotra, Vár, Vör, that they "should be seen as female protective goddesses." Simek adds that "these goddesses were all responsible for specific areas of the private sphere, yet clear differences were made between them so that they are in many ways similar to matrons."19th century scholar Jacob Grimm comments that "the gods share their power and influence with goddesses, the heroes and priests with wise women."
Grimm notes that Sökkvabekkr is "described as a place where cool waters rush" and that Odin and Sága "day to day drink gladly out of golden cups." Grimm theorizes that the liquid from these cups is: the drink of immortality, at the same time of poesy. Saga may be taken as daughter of Oðinn. With the Greeks the Musa was a daughter of Zeus, but hear of three or nine Muses, who resemble our wise women and schöpferins, dwell beside springs or wells; the cool flood well befits daughters of Wish. Saga can be no other than our sage, the'mære' personified and deified
Höðr is a blind god and a son of Odin and Frigg in Norse mythology. Tricked and guided by Loki, he shot the mistletoe arrow, to slay the otherwise invulnerable Baldr. According to the Prose Edda and the Poetic Edda, the goddess Frigg, Baldr's mother, made everything in existence swear never to harm Baldr, except for the mistletoe, which she found too unimportant to ask; the gods amused themselves by seeing them fail to do any harm. Loki, the mischief-maker, upon finding out about Baldr's one weakness, made a spear from mistletoe, helped Höðr shoot it at Baldr. In reaction to this and the giantess Rindr gave birth to Váli, who grew to adulthood within a day and slew Höðr; the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus recorded an alternative version of this myth in his Gesta Danorum. In this version, the mortal hero Høtherus and the demi-god Balderus compete for the hand of Nanna. Høtherus slays Balderus. In the Gylfaginning part of Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda Höðr is introduced in an ominous way. Höðr is not mentioned again.
All things except the mistletoe have sworn an oath not to harm Baldr, so the Æsir throw missiles at him for sport. The Gylfaginning does not say. In fact it states that Baldr cannot be avenged, at least not immediately, it does seem, that Höðr ends up in Hel one way or another for the last mention of him in Gylfaginning is in the description of the post-Ragnarök world. Snorri's source of this knowledge is Völuspá as quoted below. In the Skáldskaparmál section of the Prose Edda several kennings for Höðr are related. None of those kennings, are found in surviving skaldic poetry. Neither are Snorri's kennings for Váli, which are of interest in this context, it is clear from this that Snorri was familiar with the role of Váli as Höðr's slayer though he does not relate that myth in the Gylfaginning prose. Some scholars have speculated that he found it distasteful since Höðr is innocent in his version of the story. Höðr is referred to several times always in the context of Baldr's death; the following strophes are from Völuspá.
This account seems to fit well with the information in the Prose Edda, but here the role of Baldr's avenging brother is emphasized. Baldr and Höðr are mentioned in Völuspá's description of the world after Ragnarök; the poem Vafþrúðnismál informs us that the gods who survive Ragnarök are Viðarr, Váli, Móði and Magni with no mention of Höðr and Baldr. The myth of Baldr's death is referred to in another Eddic poem, Baldrs draumar. Höðr is not mentioned again by name in the Eddas, he is, referred to in Völuspá in skamma. The name of Höðr occurs several times in skaldic poetry as a part of warrior-kennings, thus Höðr brynju, "Höðr of byrnie", is a warrior and so is Höðr víga, "Höðr of battle". Some scholars have found the fact that the poets should want to compare warriors with Höðr to be incongruous with Snorri's description of him as a blind god, unable to harm anyone without assistance, it is possible that this indicates that some of the poets were familiar with other myths about Höðr than the one related in Gylfaginning - some where Höðr has a more active role.
On the other hand, the names of many gods occur in kennings and the poets might not have been particular in using any god name as a part of a kenning. In Gesta Danorum Hotherus is a human hero of the Swedish royal lines, he is gifted in swimming, archery and music and Nanna, daughter of King Gevarus falls in love with him. But at the same time Balderus, son of Othinus, has caught sight of Nanna bathing and fallen violently in love with her, he resolves to his rival. Out hunting, Hotherus is led astray by a mist and meets wood-maidens who control the fortunes of war, they warn him that Balderus has designs on Nanna but tell him that he shouldn't attack him in battle since he is a demigod. Hotherus asks him for his daughter; the king replies that he would gladly favour him but that Balderus has made a like request and he does not want to incur his wrath. Gevarus tells Hotherus that Balderus is invincible but that he knows of one weapon which can defeat him, a sword kept by Mimingus, the satyr of the woods.
Mimingus has another magical artifact, a bracelet that increases the wealth of its owner. Riding through a region of extraordinary cold in a carriage drawn by reindeer, Hotherus captures the satyr with a clever ruse and forces him to yield his artifacts. Hearing about Hotherus's artifacts, king of Saxony, equips a fleet to attack him. Gevarus tells him where to meet Gelderus in battle; when the battle is joined and his men save their missiles while defending themselves against those of the enemy with a testudo formation. With his missiles exhausted, Gelderus is forced to sue for peace, he becomes his ally. Hotherus gains another ally with his eloquent oratory by helping King Helgo of Hålogaland win a bride. Meanwhile, Balderus enters the country of king Gevarus sues for Nanna. Gevarus tells him to learn Nanna's own mind. Balderus is refused. Nanna tells him that because of the great difference in their nature and stature, since he is a demigod, they are not suitable for marriage; as news of Balderus's efforts reaches Hotherus, he and his allies resolve to attack Balderus.
A great naval battle ensues. Thoro in par