The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, southwestern Colorado. The Ancestral Puebloans are believed to have developed, at least in part, from the Oshara Tradition, who developed from the Picosa culture, they lived in a range of structures that included small family pit houses, larger structures to house clans, grand pueblos, cliff-sited dwellings for defense. The Ancestral Puebloans possessed a complex network that stretched across the Colorado Plateau linking hundreds of communities and population centers, they held a distinct knowledge of celestial sciences. The kiva, a congregational space, used chiefly for ceremonial purposes, was an integral part of this ancient people's community structure. In contemporary times, the people and their archaeological culture were referred to as Anasazi for historical purposes; the Navajo, who were not their descendants, called them by this term.
Reflecting historic traditions, the term was used to mean "ancient enemies". Contemporary Puebloans do not want this term to be used. Archaeologists continue to debate; the current agreement, based on terminology defined by the Pecos Classification, suggests their emergence around the 12th century BC, during the archaeologically designated Early Basketmaker II Era. Beginning with the earliest explorations and excavations, researchers identified Ancestral Puebloans as the forerunners of contemporary Pueblo peoples. Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites located in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park and Taos Pueblo. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, was a term originating with the Spanish explorers who used it to refer to the people's particular style of dwelling; the Navajo people, who now reside in parts of former Pueblo territory, referred to the ancient people as Anaasází, an exonym meaning "ancestors of our enemies", referring to their competition with the Pueblo peoples.
The Navajo now use the term in the sense of referring to "ancient people" or "ancient ones". Hopi people used the term Hisatsinom, to describe the Ancestral Puebloans; the Ancestral Puebloans were one of four major prehistoric archaeological traditions recognized in the American Southwest. This area is sometimes referred to as Oasisamerica in the region defining pre-Columbian southwestern North America; the others are the Mogollon and Patayan. In relation to neighboring cultures, the Ancestral Puebloans occupied the northeast quadrant of the area; the Ancestral Puebloan homeland centers on the Colorado Plateau, but extends from central New Mexico on the east to southern Nevada on the west. Areas of southern Nevada and Colorado form a loose northern boundary, while the southern edge is defined by the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers in Arizona and the Rio Puerco and Rio Grande in New Mexico. Structures and other evidence of Ancestral Puebloan culture has been found extending east onto the American Great Plains, in areas near the Cimarron and Pecos Rivers and in the Galisteo Basin.
Terrain and resources within this large region vary greatly. The plateau regions have high elevations ranging from 4,500 to 8,500 feet. Extensive horizontal mesas are capped by sedimentary formations and support woodlands of junipers and ponderosa pines, each favoring different elevations. Wind and water erosion have created steep-walled canyons, sculpted windows and bridges out of the sandstone landscape. In areas where resistant strata, such as sandstone or limestone, overlie more eroded strata such as shale, rock overhangs formed; the Ancestral Puebloans favored building under such overhangs for shelters and defensive building sites. All areas of the Ancestral Puebloan homeland suffered from periods of drought, wind and water erosion. Summer rains could be unreliable and arrived as destructive thunderstorms. While the amount of winter snowfall varied the Ancestral Puebloans depended on the snow for most of their water. Snow melt allowed the germination of seeds, both cultivated, in the spring.
Where sandstone layers overlay shale, snow melt could accumulate and create seeps and springs, which the Ancestral Puebloans used as water sources. Snow fed the smaller, more predictable tributaries, such as the Chinle, Animas and Taos Rivers; the larger rivers were less directly important to the ancient culture, as smaller streams were more diverted or controlled for irrigation. The Ancestral Puebloan culture is best known for the stone and earth dwellings its people built along cliff walls during the Pueblo II and Pueblo III eras, from about 900 to 1350 AD in total; the best-preserved examples of the stone dwellings are now protected within United States' national parks, such as Navajo National Monument, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, Mesa Verde National Park, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Aztec Ruins National Monument, Bandelier National Monument, Hovenweep National Monument, Canyon de Chelly National Monument. These villages, called pueblos by Spanish colonists, were accessible only by rope or through rock climbing.
These astonishing building achievements had modest beginnings. The first Ancestral Puebloan homes and villages were based on the pit-house, a common feature in the Basketmaker periods. Ancestral Puebloans are known for their pottery. In general, pottery used for cooking or storage in the region was unpainted gray, either smooth or textured. Pottery used for more formal purposes was more richly adorned. In the n
A seashell or sea shell known as a shell, is a hard, protective outer layer created by an animal that lives in the sea. The shell is part of the body of the animal. Empty seashells are found washed up on beaches by beachcombers; the shells are empty because the animal has died and the soft parts have been eaten by another animal or have decomposed. A seashell is the exoskeleton of an invertebrate, is composed of calcium carbonate or chitin. Most shells that are found on beaches are the shells of marine mollusks because these shells are made of calcium carbonate, endure better than shells made of chitin. Apart from mollusk shells, other shells that can be found on beaches are those of barnacles, horseshoe crabs and brachiopods. Marine annelid worms in the family Serpulidae create shells which are tubes made of calcium carbonate cemented onto other surfaces; the shells of sea urchins are called "tests", the moulted shells of crabs and lobsters are exuviae. While most seashells are external, some cephalopods have internal shells.
Seashells have been used by humans for many different purposes throughout pre-history. However, seashells are not the only kind of shells; when the word "seashells" refers only to the shells of marine mollusks studying seashells is part of conchology. Conchologists or serious collectors who have a scientific bias are in general careful not to disturb living populations and habitats: though they may collect a few live animals, most responsible collectors do not over-collect or otherwise disturb ecosystems; the study of the entire molluscan animal is known as malacology. Seashells are found in beach drift, natural detritus deposited along strandlines on beaches by the waves and the tides. Shells are often washed up onto a beach empty and clean, the animal having died. Empty seashells are picked up by beachcombers. However, the majority of seashells which are offered for sale commercially have been collected alive and killed and cleaned for the commercial trade; this type of large-scale exploitation can sometimes have a strong negative impact on local ecosystems, sometimes can reduce the distribution of rare species.
The word seashell is used to mean only the shell of a marine mollusk. Marine mollusk shells that are familiar to beachcombers and thus most to be called "seashells" are the shells of marine species of bivalves, scaphopods and cephalopods; these shells are often the most encountered, both in the wild, for sale as decorative objects. Marine species of gastropods and bivalves are more numerous than land and freshwater species, the shells are larger and more robust; the shells of marine species often have more sculpture and more color, although this is by no means always the case. In the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, there are far more species of colorful, shallow water shelled marine mollusks than there are in the temperate zones and the regions closer to the poles. Although there are a number of species of shelled mollusks that are quite large, there are vast numbers of small species too, see micromollusks. Not all mollusks are marine. There are numerous freshwater mollusks, see for example snail and freshwater bivalves.
In addition, not all mollusks have an external shell: some mollusks such as some cephalopods have an internal shell, many mollusks have no shell, see for example slug and nudibranch. Bivalves are the most common seashells that wash up on large sandy beaches or in sheltered lagoons, they can sometimes be numerous. The two valves become separated. There are more than 15,000 species of bivalves that live in both freshwater. Examples of bivalves are clams, scallops and oysters; the majority of bivalves consist of two identical shells. The animal's body is held protectively inside these two shells. Bivalves that do not have two shells either have one shell or they lack a shell altogether; the shells are formed in layers by secretions from the mantle. Bivalves known as pelecypods, are filter feeders; some bivalves have an open circulatory system. Bivalves are used all as a source of pearls; the larvae of some freshwater mussels can bore through wood. Shell Beach, Western Australia, is a beach, made up of the shells of the cockle Fragum erugatum.
Certain species of gastropod seashells can sometimes be common, washed up on sandy beaches, on beaches that are surrounded by rocky marine habitat. Chiton plates or valves wash up on beaches in rocky areas where chitons are common. Chiton shells, which are composed of eight separate plates and a girdle come apart not long after death, so they are always found as disarticulated plates. Plates from larger species of chitons are sometimes known as "butterfly shells" because of their shape. Only a few species of cephalopods have shells; some cephalopods such as Sepia, the cuttlefish, have a large internal shell, the cuttlefi
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Ann Arbor is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County. The 2010 census recorded its population to be 113,934. Ann Arbor is home to the University of Michigan; the university shapes Ann Arbor's economy as it employs about 30,000 workers, including about 12,000 in the medical center. The city's economy is centered on high technology, with several companies drawn to the area by the university's research and development infrastructure. Ann Arbor was founded in 1824, named for wives of the village's founders, both named Ann, the stands of bur oak trees; the University of Michigan moved from Detroit to Ann Arbor in 1837, the city grew at a rapid rate in the early to mid-20th century. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as a center for left-wing politics. Ann Arbor became a focal point for political activism, such as opposition to the Vietnam War and support for the legalization of cannabis. In about 1774, the Potawatomi founded two villages in the area of.
Ann Arbor was founded in 1824 by land speculators John Elisha Walker Rumsey. On May 25, 1824, the town plat was registered with Wayne County as "Annarbour", the earliest known use of the town's name. Allen and Rumsey decided to name it for their wives, both named Ann, for the stands of bur oak in the 640 acres of land they purchased for $800 from the federal government at $1.25 per acre. The local Ojibwa named the settlement kaw-goosh-kaw-nick, after the sound of Allen's sawmill. Ann Arbor became the seat of Washtenaw County in 1827, was incorporated as a village in 1833; the Ann Arbor Land Company, a group of speculators, set aside 40 acres of undeveloped land and offered it to the state of Michigan as the site of the state capital, but lost the bid to Lansing. In 1837, the property was accepted instead as the site of the University of Michigan, which moved from Detroit. Since the university's establishment in the city in 1837, the histories of the University of Michigan and Ann Arbor have been linked.
The town became a regional transportation hub in 1839 with the arrival of the Michigan Central Railroad, a north–south railway connecting Ann Arbor to Toledo and other markets to the south was established in 1878. Throughout the 1840s and the 1850s settlers continued to come to Ann Arbor. While the earlier settlers were of British ancestry, the newer settlers consisted of Germans and African-Americans. In 1851, Ann Arbor was chartered as a city, though the city showed a drop in population during the Depression of 1873, it was not until the early 1880s that Ann Arbor again saw robust growth, with new emigrants from Greece, Italy and Poland. Ann Arbor saw increased growth in manufacturing in milling. Ann Arbor's Jewish community grew after the turn of the 20th century, its first and oldest synagogue, Beth Israel Congregation, was established in 1916. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as an important center for liberal politics. Ann Arbor became a locus for left-wing activism and anti-Vietnam War movement, as well as the student movement.
The first major meetings of the national left-wing campus group Students for a Democratic Society took place in Ann Arbor in 1960. S. teach-in against the Vietnam War. During the ensuing 15 years, many countercultural and New Left enterprises sprang up and developed large constituencies within the city; these influences washed into municipal politics during the early and mid-1970s when three members of the Human Rights Party won city council seats on the strength of the student vote. During their time on the council, HRP representatives fought for measures including pioneering antidiscrimination ordinances, measures decriminalizing marijuana possession, a rent-control ordinance. Alongside these liberal and left-wing efforts, a small group of conservative institutions were born in Ann Arbor; these include Word of a charismatic inter-denominational movement. Following a 1956 vote, the city of East Ann Arbor merged with Ann Arbor to encompass the eastern sections of the city. In the past several decades, Ann Arbor has grappled with the effects of rising land values and urban sprawl stretching into outlying countryside.
On November 4, 2003, voters approved a greenbelt plan under which the city government bought development rights on agricultural parcels of land adjacent to Ann Arbor to preserve them from sprawling development. Since a vociferous local debate has hinged on how and whether to accommodate and guide development within city limits. Ann Arbor ranks in the "top places to live" lists published by various mainstream media outlets every year. In 2008, it was ranked by CNNMoney.com 27th out of 100 "America's best small cities". And in 2010, Forbes listed Ann Arbor as one of the most liveable cities in the United States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.70 square miles, of which, 27.83 square miles of it is land and 0.87 square miles is water, much of, part of the Huron River. Ann Arbor is about 35 miles west of Detroit. Ann Arbor Charter Township adjoins the city's north and east sides. Ann Arbor is situated on the Huron River in a productive fruit-growing region.
The landscape of Ann Arbor consists of hills and valleys, with the terrain becoming steeper near the Huron River. The elevation ranges from about 750 feet along the Huron River to 1,015 feet (309
The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture refers to what were a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system; the Adena lived in an area including parts of present-day Ohio, Wisconsin, West Virginia, New York and Maryland. The Adena Culture was named for the large mound on Thomas Worthington's early 19th-century estate located near Chillicothe, which he named "Adena", Adena sites are concentrated in a small area - maybe 200 sites in the central Ohio Valley, with another 200 scattered throughout Wisconsin, Kentucky, West Virginia and Maryland, although those in Ohio may once have numbered in the thousands; the importance of the Adena complex comes from its considerable influence on other contemporary and succeeding cultures. The Adena culture is seen as the precursor to the traditions of the Hopewell culture, which are sometimes thought as an elaboration, or zenith, of Adena traditions.
The Adena were notable for their agricultural practices, artistic works, extensive trading network, which supplied them with a variety of raw materials, ranging from copper from the Great Lakes to shells from the Gulf Coast. Lasting traces of Adena culture are still seen in the remains of their substantial earthworks. At one point, larger Adena mounds numbered in the hundreds, but only a small number of the remains of the larger Adena earthen monuments still survive today; these mounds ranged in size from 20 feet to 300 feet in diameter and served as burial structures, ceremonial sites, historical markers, gathering places. These earthen monuments were built using hundreds of thousands of baskets full of specially selected and graded earth. According to archaeological investigations, Adena earthworks were built as part of their burial rituals, in which the earth of the earthwork was piled atop a burned mortuary building; these mortuary buildings were intended to keep and maintain the dead until their final burial was performed.
Before the construction of the earthworks, some utilitarian and grave goods would be placed on the floor of the structure, burned with the goods and honored dead within. The earthwork would be constructed, a new mortuary structure would be placed atop the new earthwork. After a series of repetitions, mortuary/earthwork/mortuary/earthwork, a quite prominent earthwork would remain. In the Adena period, circular ridges of unknown function were sometimes constructed around the burial earthworks. Although the mounds are beautiful artistic achievements themselves, Adena artists created smaller, more personal pieces of art. Art motifs that became important to many Native Americans began with the Adena. Motifs such as the weeping eye and cross and circle design became mainstays in many succeeding cultures. Many pieces of art seemed to revolve around shamanic practices, the transformation of humans into animals—particularly birds, wolves and deer—and back to human form; this may indicate a belief that the practice imparted the animals' qualities to the wearer or holder of the objects.
Deer antlers, both real and constructed of copper, wolf and mountain lion jawbones, many other objects were fashioned into costumes and other forms of regalia by the Adena. Distinctive tubular smoking pipes, with either flattened or blocked-end mouthpieces, suggest the offering of smoke to the spirits; the objective of pipe smoking may have been altered states of consciousness, achieved through the use of the hallucinogenic plant Nicotiana rustica. All told, Adena was a manifestation of a broad regional increase in the number and kind of artifacts devoted to spiritual needs; the Adena carved small stone tablets 4 or 5 inches by 3 or 4 inches by.5 inches thick. On one or both flat sides were gracefully composed stylized zoomorphs or curvilinear geometric designs in deep relief. Paint has been found on some Adena tablets, leading archaeologists to propose that these stone tablets were used to stamp designs on cloth or animal hides, or onto their own bodies, it is possible. Unlike in other cultures, Adena pottery was not buried with the dead or the remains of the cremated, as were other artifacts.
Adena pottery was tempered with grit or crushed limestone and was thick. The vessel shapes were flat-bottomed jars, sometimes with small foot-like supports; the large and elaborate mound sites served a nearby scattering of people. The population was dispersed in small settlements of one to two structures. A typical house was built in a circle form from 15 to 45 feet in diameter; the walls were made of paired posts tilted outward, that were joined to other pieces of wood to form a cone shaped roof. The roof was covered with bark and the walls may have been bark and/or wickerwork, their sustenance was acquired through the cultivation of native plants. Hunted deer, black bear, beaver, turkey, trumpeter swan, ruffed grouse. Gathered several edible seed and nuts. Cultivated pumpkin, squash and goosefoot; the Adena ground stone axes. Somewhat rougher slab-like stones with chipped edges were used as hoes. Bone and antler were used in small tools, but more prominently in ornamental objects such as beads and worked animal-jaw gorgets or paraphernalia.
Spoons and other implements were made fro
Logan County, Ohio
Logan County is a county in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 45,858; the county seat is Bellefontaine. The county is named for Benjamin Logan. Logan County comprises the Bellefontaine, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Columbus-Marion-Zanesville, OH Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 467 square miles, of which 458 square miles is land and 8.3 square miles is water. Campbell Hill, the highest natural point in Ohio at 1,549 feet, is located northeast of Bellefontaine. Hardin County Union County Champaign County Shelby County Auglaize County U. S. Route 33 U. S. Route 68 State Route 47 State Route 117 State Route 235 State Route 245 State Route 273 State Route 274 State Route 287 State Route 292 State Route 347 State Route 365 State Route 366 State Route 368 State Route 508 State Route 533 State Route 540 State Route 559 State Route 706 State Route 708 State Route 720 As of the census of 2000, there were 46,005 people, 17,956 households, 12,730 families residing in the county.
The population density was 100 people per square mile. There were 21,571 housing units at an average density of 47 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.15% White, 1.71% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, 1.24% from two or more races. 0.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 96.8% spoke English, 1.0% German and 1.0% Spanish as their first language. There were 17,956 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.10% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.70% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $41,479, the median income for a family was $47,516. Males had a median income of $37,134 versus $24,739 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,984. About 7.10% of families and 9.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.80% of those under age 18 and 8.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 45,858 people, 18,111 households, 12,569 families residing in the county; the population density was 100.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 23,181 housing units at an average density of 50.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.3% white, 1.6% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 30.9% were German, 13.5% were Irish, 11.5% were American, 9.1% were English.
Of the 18,111 households, 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families, 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 39.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,493 and the median income for a family was $53,601. Males had a median income of $42,702 versus $29,537 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,974. About 11.0% of families and 14.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.3% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. Logan County is a Republican county, having only backed Democratic Party presidential candidates twice from 1872 onward in 1912 & 1964. Commissioners: John F. Bayliss, Dustin A. Wickersham, Anthony E. Core Auditor: Jack Reser Clerk of Courts: Barb McDonald Recorder: Pat Myers Treasurer: Dara J. Wren Prosecuting Attorney: Eric Stewart Sheriff: Randall J. Dodds Engineer: Scott Coleman Coroner: Michael E. Failor D.
O. Judge Court of Common Pleas: William T. Goslee Judge Court of Common Pleas Probate/Juvenile Division: Kim Kellogg-Martin Judge Court of Common Pleas Domestic Relations-Juv.-Probate Division: Dan W. Bratka Judge Municipal Court: Ann E. Beck Bellefontaine https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites Chippewa Park East Liberty Lewistown George Bartholomew - inventor of concrete pavement Blue Jacket - Shawnee chief Bethany Dillon - singer. Born in Columbus but grew up in Logan County near Belle Center. Edward D. Jones - investment banker Austin Eldon Knowlton - architect William Lawrence - Republican politician involved with the attempt to impeach Andrew Johnson, creating the United States Department of Justice, helping to create the American Red Cross, ratifying the Geneva Convention The Mills Bro
Fort Ancient is a name for a Native American culture that flourished from Ca. 1000-1750 CE and predominantly inhabited land near the Ohio River valley in the areas of modern-day southern Ohio, northern Kentucky, southeastern Indiana and western West Virginia. Although a contemporary of the Mississippian Culture, they are considered a "sister culture" and distinguished from the Mississippian Culture. Although far from agreed upon, there is evidence to suggest that the Fort Ancient Culture were not the direct descendants of the Hopewellian Culture], it is suspected. The Fort Ancient Culture were most the builders of the Great Serpent Mound; the name of the culture originates from the Fort Ohio archeological site. However, the Fort Ancient Site is now thought to have been built by Ohio Hopewellian people, it was occupied by the succeeding Fort Ancient culture. The site is located on a hill above the Little Miami River, close to Ohio. Despite its name, most archaeologists do not believe that Fort Ancient was used as a fortress by either the Ohio Hopewell culture or the Fort Ancient culture.
Starting in about 1000 CE, terminal Late Woodland groups in the Middle Ohio Valley adopted maize agriculture. They began settling in small, year-round nuclear family households and settlements of no more than 40 to 50 individuals; these small scattered settlements, located along terraces that overlooked rivers and sometimes on flood plains, would be occupied for short periods before the groups moved on to new locations. By 1200 the small villages began to coalesce into larger settlements of up to 300 people, they were occupied for longer periods up to 25 years. During the Early and Middle Fort Ancient period, the houses were designed as single-family dwellings. Fort Ancient buildings are larger multi-family dwellings. Settlements were permanent, as the people moved to a new location after one or two generations, when the natural resources surrounding the old village were exhausted; the people laid out the villages around an open oval central plaza, surrounded by circular and/or rectangular domestic structures facing the plaza.
The arrangement of buildings in Fort Ancient settlements is thought to have served as a sort of solar calendar, marking the positions of the solstices and other significant dates. The people began to build low platform mounds for ceremonial purposes, many villages added defensive palisades to their boundaries; the plaza was the center of village life: the place where ceremonies and other social events were held. The Late Fort Ancient period from 1400 to 1750 is the protohistoric era in the Middle Ohio Valley. During this era, the dispersed populations began to coalesce; the Gist-phase villages became much larger than during the preceding period, with populations as high as 500. Archaeologists have speculated that the larger villages and palisades are evidence that after 1450, warfare and intergroup strife increased, leading the people to consolidate their villages for better protection; this era showed increased contact with Mississippian peoples. The Madisonville horizon of artifacts after 1400 includes high proportions of bowls, salt pans, triangular strap handles, negative painted pottery and beaded rims, some effigies, all items and styles that are associated with the Mississippian cultures of the Lower Ohio Valley, at sites such as Angel Mounds and Kincaid Mounds.
These sites were abandoned during this time period. During the Montour phase, the people inhabited their villages year-round, although less densely in the winter than in the summer months; this may indicate that during the winter, family groups and hunting parties may have returned to the regions occupied by their ancestors. Such a pattern was observed for example, among the Miami and Potawatomi. By their trading, the Fort Ancient people had access to European trade items, such as glass, iron and copper, which have been found as grave goods at sites such as Lower Shawneetown and Hardin Village; such artifacts appeared and were used in the area before the arrival of European explorers or settlers. Although the Fort Ancient peoples did not encounter Europeans at this time, like other groups in the interior of the continent, may have suffered high fatalities from their diseases, transmitted among Native Americans by trade contacts; the next-known inhabitants of the area, who were encountered by French and English explorers, were the historic Shawnee tribe.
Scholars believe that the Fort Ancient society, like the Mississippian cultures to the south and west, may have been disrupted by waves of infectious disease epidemics from the first Spanish explorers in the mid-16th century. After 1525 at the Madisonville Site, the type site for the Madisonville Phase, dwellings were built on a smaller scale and in fewer number; this change indicated the culture was less attached to a sedentary life. Scholars believe that similarities in material culture, art and Shawnee oral history link the historic tribe to the Fort Ancient people; the Fort Ancient culture can be divided into Early, Middle & Late Phases. It is not believed that they merged into a singular society until close to the end of the Middle Phase. At this time, Fort Ancients were poor sedentary societies, they lived. The locals farmed corn, beans & sunflower-- the last of which being a plant
The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna at Blackwater Locality No. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s. It appears around 11,500–11,000 uncalibrated radiocarbon years before present at the end of the last glacial period, is characterized by the manufacture of "Clovis points" and distinctive bone and ivory tools. Archaeologists' most precise determinations at present suggest this radiocarbon age is equal to 13,200 to 12,900 calendar years ago. Clovis people are considered to be the ancestors of most of the indigenous cultures of the Americas; the only human burial, directly associated with tools from the Clovis culture included the remains of an infant boy researchers named Anzick-1. Paleogenetic analyses of Anzick-1's ancient nuclear, Y-chromosome DNA reveal that Anzick-1 is related to modern Native American populations, which lends support to the Beringia hypothesis for the settlement of the Americas.
The Clovis culture was replaced by several more localized regional societies from the Younger Dryas cold-climate period onward. Post-Clovis cultures include the Folsom tradition, Suwannee-Simpson, Plainview-Goshen and Redstone; each of these is thought to derive directly from Clovis, in some cases differing only in the length of the fluting on their projectile points. Although this is held to be the result of normal cultural change through time, numerous other reasons have been suggested as driving forces to explain changes in the archaeological record, such as the Younger Dryas postglacial climate change which exhibited numerous faunal extinctions. After the discovery of several Clovis sites in eastern North America in the 1930s, the Clovis people came to be regarded as the first human inhabitants who created a widespread culture in the New World. However, this theory has been challenged, in the opinion of many archaeologists, by several archaeological discoveries, including sites such as Cactus Hill in Virginia, Paisley Caves in the Summer Lake Basin of Oregon, the Topper site in Allendale County, South Carolina, Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Pennsylvania, the Friedkin site in Texas, Cueva Fell in Chile, Monte Verde in Chile.
The oldest claimed human archaeological site in the Americas is the Pedra Furada hearths, a site in Brazil that precedes the Clovis culture and the other sites mentioned by 19,000 to 30,000 years. This claim has become an issue of contention between North American archaeologists and their South American and European counterparts, who disagree on whether it is conclusively proven to be an older human site. A hallmark of the toolkit associated with the Clovis culture is the distinctively shaped, fluted-stone spear point, known as the Clovis point; the Clovis point is bifacial and fluted on both sides. Archaeologists do not agree on whether the widespread presence of these artifacts indicates the proliferation of a single people, or the adoption of a superior technology by diverse population groups; the culture is named after artifacts found between 1936 at Blackwater Locality No. 1, an archaeological site between the towns of Clovis and Portales, New Mexico. These finds were deemed important due to their direct association with mammoth species and the extinct Bison antiquus.
The in situ finds of 1936 and 1937 included most of four stone Clovis points, two long bone points with impact damage, stone blades, a portion of a Clovis blade core, several cutting tools made on stone flakes. Clovis sites have since been identified throughout much of the contiguous United States, as well as Mexico and Central America, into northern South America. Clovis people are accepted to have hunted mammoths, as well as extinct bison, gomphotheres, tapir, camelops and other smaller animals. More than 125 species of plants and animals are known to have been used by Clovis people in the portion of the Western Hemisphere they inhabited; the oldest Clovis site in North America is believed to be El Fin del Mundo in northwestern Sonora, discovered during a 2007 survey. It features occupation dating around 13,390 calibrated years BP. In 2011, remains of gomphotheres were found; the Aubrey site in Denton County, produced an identical radiocarbon date. The most held perspective on the end of the Clovis culture is that a decline in the availability of megafauna, combined with an overall increase in a less mobile population, led to local differentiation of lithic and cultural traditions across the Americas.
After this time, Clovis-style fluted points were replaced by other fluted-point traditions with an uninterrupted sequence across North and Central America. An continuous cultural adaptation proceeds from the Clovis period through the ensuing Middle and Late Paleoindian periods. Whether the Clovis culture drove the mammoth, other species, to extinction via overhunting – the so-called Pleistocene overkill hypothesis – is still an open, controversial, question, it has been hypothesized that the Clovis culture had its decline in the wake of the Younger Dryas cold phase. This'cold shock', lasting 1500 years, affected many parts of the world, including North America; this appears to have been triggered by a vast amount of meltwater – from Lake Agassiz – emptying into the North Atlantic, disrupting the thermohaline circulation. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis, or Clovis comet hypothesis proposed that a large air burst or earth impact of a comet or comets from outer space initiated the Younger Drya