SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Glacial period

A glacial period is an interval of time within an ice age, marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials, on the other hand, are periods of warmer climate between glacial periods; the last glacial period ended about 15,000 years ago. The Holocene epoch is the current interglacial. A time with no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state. Within the Quaternary, there have been a number of interglacials; the Penultimate Glacial Period is the glacial period. It began ~194,000 years ago, ended 135,000 years ago with the beginning of the Eemian interglacial; the last glacial period was the most recent glacial period within the Quaternary Ice Age, occurring in the Pleistocene epoch, which began about 110,000 years ago and ended about 15,000 years ago. The glaciations that occurred during this glacial period covered many areas of the Northern Hemisphere and have different names, depending on their geographic distributions: Wisconsin, Midlandian, Würm, Dali, Taibai Luoji Shan, Tianchi Qomolangma, Llanquihue.

The glacial advance reached its maximum extent about 26,500 BP. In Europe, the ice sheet reached Northern Germany. In the last 650,000 years, there were, on average, seven cycles of glacial retreat. Since orbital variations are predictable, computer models that relate orbital variations to climate can predict future climate possibilities. Work by Berger and Loutre suggests; the amount of heat trapping gases being emitted into Earth's Oceans and atmosphere may delay the next glacial period by an additional 50,000 years

Russell Green (footballer)

Russell Green was an English professional footballer who played as a wing half. Born in Donington, Green made 125 appearances in the Football League for Lincoln City between 1957 and 1964, played non-league football for Corby Town and Gainsborough Trinity. Russell Green, a former blacksmith's apprentice, was an exceptionally strong and fit player, once described as'a "they shall not pass" sort of player', he was part of Lincoln City's famous "Great Escape" team of 1957–58, which seemed doomed to relegation from Division 2, but narrowly avoided the drop by winning all their last 6 games. Although wing-half was his favoured position, Lincoln City manager Bill Anderson played the versatile Green at fullback. During the 1961–62 season he served a stint playing at centre forward, scored a match-winning hat trick when Lincoln beat Newport County 3–2. Subsequently, as captain and player coach at Gainsborough Trinity, Green again played in a variety of positions, this time including centre-half, he led Trinity to the Midlands Counties League championship in the 1966–67 season

Kofyar people

The Kofyar are a population in central Nigeria numbering around 50,000. After several anthropological studies, they provide good illustrations of how colonial authorities become unwittingly enmeshed in local politics; the population known as the Kofyar comprises three different "tribes" as designated by British colonial officers: the Doemak and Kwalla. However the three groups have a common language, economic pattern, origin myth, had formed into a union called the Koffyer Federation in the 1940s; when first encountered by early British colonial authorities, they lived in the rugged hills in the southeastern corner of the Jos Plateau and in settlements around the plateau base. Their subjugation by the British was non-violent until 1930, when a young Assistant District Officer named Barlow was killed in the hill village of Latok by a rock thrown at his head. After this the residents of Latok and neighboring villages were forced out of the hills and made to live on the plains below for nine years.

In an award-winning study, anthropologist Robert Netting explained how Barlow had been unknowingly used in a local political dispute. Robert Netting began anthropological research with the Kofyar in the early 1960s. In the Kofyar homeland population densities were high. Netting's primary focus was on the Kofyar ecological adaptations, including the intensive agriculture being practiced and the social institutions that were instrumental to sustainability. Much of the land was in annual cultivation, with animal herds providing dung compost for fertilizer, steep hillsides were intricately terraced. Netting's Hill Farmers of Nigeria, a classic book in the field of cultural ecology, showed how social institutions such as household form and land tenure had adjusted to the intensive cultivation system. Netting compared adaptations of Kofyar and their neighbors to demonstrate Ester Boserup's thesis that agricultural intensification relates to the growth of dense population and decreasing per capita land area.

Kofyar families farmed most intensively close to their homesteads while using less intensive bush and forest fallow systems, which required less investment, on more distant fields. Netting observed that the Kofyar demonstrated a reversion to less labor-intensive long-fallow systems when land became available on the plains south of their traditional region, he further developed these ideas and placed the Kofyar within a much broader comparative context in his Smallholders, Householders. During the 1950s, the Kofyar began to settle in the fertile plains of the Benue Valley to the south of the Jos Plateau. Pioneering farms there used extensive slash-and-burn methods, but with rising population density and market stimulus, intensive methods were introduced. By the 1980s, Benue Valley Kofyar were producing considerable surpluses of yams, peanuts, pearl millet and sorghum using labor-intensive but sustainable methods – an interesting contrast to the externally supported agricultural development schemes in the region, which have failed.

As in the homeland, millet beer was found to play a key role not only in daily life but in the organization of agricultural production. The productive farming system ran entirely on human labor, with little external inputs, a key strategy for mobilizing local labor was the "mar muos", a festive labor party at which all workers were served generous amounts of millet beer. Although most Kofyars now live in the Benue Valley, the Jos Plateau homeland is still inhabited because of the Kofyars' efforts to maintain it as a cultural and economic resource. Many Kofyar who live elsewhere still keep secondary homes in the homeland