Kelleys Island, Ohio
Kelleys Island is both a village in Erie County, United States, the island which it occupies in Lake Erie. The British called it Sandusky Island; the United States took it over and designated it as Island Number 6 and Cunningham Island. It was renamed as Kelleys Island in 1840 by brothers Datus and Irad Kelley, who had purchased nearly the entire island. Kelleys Island was occupied by Native Americans of the area. During the beginning of the War of 1812, the island was used as a military rendezvous post, first by the British and by the US Military. During the early 19th century, the island was uninhabited. After the Kelley brothers purchased the land, there was commercial development through extraction of the island's limestone and lumber resources, the population began to grow with workers and families. There was growing of grapes as a commodity crop; as of the 2010 census, the island's population was 312. Today, Kelleys Island is a vacation destination, is visited by thousands of people each summer.
Notable attractions include its various beaches and campgrounds. Several ferries provide regular transport to the mainland for most travelers, it is the largest of the American Lake Erie Islands, is a part of the Sandusky, Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area. Kelleys Island is a remnant of a Devonian limestone ridge carved around 10,000 B. C. during the Pleistocene era. The first known occupants of Kelleys Island were either Erie, Cat, or Neutral Native Americans, who lived in the area dating to around the 17th century. On the south shore of the island, there is a large limestone rock featuring petroglyphs carved over a number of years by these and earlier indigenous inhabitants; the Kelleys Island Historical Association relies on the Henry Rowe Schoolcraft investigations, which dated the carvings to 1643. He theorized that the rock was used by members of "seasonal" Native American tribes, to impart information to one another about how the hunting had been in the area, where their group would next be traveling.
Many different items and scenes are cut into the large flat top side of the rock, which measures 32 feet by 21 feet. Over time, most of the inscriptions on this rock, have been eroded away; the indigenous peoples who are thought to have inscribed these images, are said to have been annihilated about 1665 by Iroquois nations from the New York area, who were trying to conquer territory to control the fur trade. This island is called "Sandusky Island" on maps produced in the latter half of the 18th-century. In the 1790s after the American Revolutionary War, the Connecticut Land Company did a general survey of the Lake Erie area. A more thorough survey was completed in 1806, when this island was designated as "Island Number 6"; the name "Cunningham's Island" was used to refer to this island. There is a legend that the first European American resident of this island was a man named "Cunningham", he was said to have traveled to the island in 1803 with the intention of making his home there, at a time when it was still inhabited by Native Americans.
For a while, Cunningham enjoyed friendly relationship with the native people: he built a log cabin near their village, socialized with their hunters, traded goods with them on a regular basis. But Cunningham had a disagreement with the Native Americans, a group tore down his home, stole all his possessions, attempted to kill him, he died shortly afterward from his wounds. For many years after his death, the island was known as Cunningham Island. Prior to the War of 1812, several other white adventurers are documented as trying to settle this island, but all of them were being driven away, either by the native people, or by the incoming U. S. pioneers and land-owners. By the time the war had ended, the few remaining Native Americans had also vacated the island. During the War of 1812, the west shore of Cunningham Island was developed as a military rendezvous post by US General William Henry Harrison. In 1818, a man named Killam attempted to start a logging company, but abandoned the island after the large steam-powered boat he used to transport wood to the mainland wrecked and sank.
Around 1826, people began settling on the island. About the year 1833, Ben Napier, a French-Canadian veteran of the War of 1812, claimed ownership of this "Cunningham Island", through squatters rights. Napier and his associates bullied the incoming pioneer settlers, sometimes hijacking their cabins and stealing or killing their livestock. Napier was legally ousted after the court system ruled that he had no ownership rights. In 1830, John Clemons and his brother began mining the island's limestone, opened its first quarry, they built a dock on the north side. Shortly afterward, brothers Datus and Irad Kelley became aware of the islan
The Columbus Limestone is a mapped bedrock unit consisting of fossiliferous limestone, it occurs in Ohio and Virginia in the United States, in Ontario, Canada. The depositional environment was most shallow marine; the Columbus conformably overlies the Lucas Dolomite in northeastern Ohio, unconformably overlies other dolomite elsewhere. It unconformably underlies the Ohio Shale in northwestern Ohio and the Delaware Limestone in eastern Ohio, its members include: Bellepoint, Tioga Ash Bed, Delhi and East Liberty. The type section is located in Ohio; the glacial grooves on Kelleys Island are cut into the Columbus Limestone. It is quarried there. An exposure in Ontario is located at Ontario; the Columbus Limestone contains brachiopods, bryozoans, corals and echinoderms. Due to their mid-continent depositional environment, the fossils are free of deformation caused by tectonic activity common in the Appalachian Mountains. Tabulate corals include Syringopora tabulata, Favosites hemispherica minuta, Emmonsia polymorpha, Thamnoptychia alternans, Pleurodictyum sp. and Coenites dublinensis.
Rugose corals include Prismatophyllum rugosum, Hexagonaria anna, Eridophyllum seriale, Synaptophyllum simcoense, Amplexus yandelli, Zaphrenthis perovalis, Heterophrentis nitida, Cystiphylloides americanum, Odontophyllum convergens, Siphonophrentis gigantea. Brachiopods include Brevispirifer gregarius; the gastropod Laevidentalhum martinei is present, as well as the crinoid Nucleocrinus verneulli. Fish fossils have been found in the East Liberty Member. Goniatites have been found including Werneroceras staufferi and Tornoceras eberlei. Another cephalopod species is Goldringia cyclops. Relative age dating of the Columbus Limestone places it in the Early to Middle Devonian period; the Columbus has been mined for aggregate. Its Calcium carbonate content is higher. List of types of limestone
Firn is compacted névé, a type of snow, left over from past seasons and has been recrystallized into a substance denser than névé. It is ice, at an intermediate stage between snow and glacial ice. Firn has the appearance of wet sugar, but has a hardness that makes it resistant to shovelling, its density ranges from 0.4 g/cm³ to 0.83 g/cm³, it can be found underneath the snow that accumulates at the head of a glacier. Snowflakes are compressed under the weight of the overlying snowpack. Individual crystals near the melting point are semiliquid and slick, allowing them to glide along other crystal planes and to fill in the spaces between them, increasing the ice's density. Where the crystals touch they bond together, squeezing the air between them to the surface or into bubbles. In the summer months, the crystal metamorphosis can occur more because of water percolation between the crystals. By summer's end, the result is firn; the minimum altitude that firn accumulates on a glacier is called the firn limit, firn line or snowline.
In colloquial and technical language,'firn' is used to describe certain forms of old snow or harsch: Old snowfields or névé if the snow is not yet one year old the more recent snow layers of a glacier the uppermost, soft layer of snow, frozen overnight and, as a result of spring sunshine and high air temperatures, forms on an area of old snow or harsch "Firn". Encyclopædia Britannica. "Fundamentals of Physical Geography". Physicalgeography.net."Greenland Meltwater Storage in Firn Limited". Nature.com. "USGS Glossary of Selected Glacier and Related Terminology". Ulcan.wr.usgs.gov. Fern
A crevasse is a deep crack, or fracture, found in an ice sheet or glacier, as opposed to a crevice that forms in rock. Crevasses form as a result of the movement and resulting stress associated with the shear stress generated when two semi-rigid pieces above a plastic substrate have different rates of movement; the resulting intensity of the shear stress causes a breakage along the faces. Crevasses have vertical or near-vertical walls, which can melt and create seracs and other ice formations; these walls sometimes expose layers. Crevasse size depends upon the amount of liquid water present in the glacier. A crevasse may be as deep as 100 metres, as wide as 20 metres, up to several hundred metres long. A crevasse may be covered, but not filled, by a snow bridge made of the previous years' accumulation and snow drifts; the result is that crevasses are rendered invisible, thus lethal to anyone attempting to navigate their way across a glacier. A snow bridge over an old crevasse may begin to sag, providing some landscape relief, but this cannot be relied upon.
Anyone planning to travel on a glacier should be trained in crevasse rescue. The presence of water in a crevasse can increase its penetration. Water-filled crevasses may reach the bottom of glaciers or ice sheets and provide a direct hydrologic connection between the surface, where significant summer melting occurs, the bed of the glacier, where additional water may moisten and lubricate the bed and accelerate ice flow. Longitudinal crevasses form parallel to flow, they develop such as where a valley widens or bends. They are concave down and form an angle greater than 45° with the margin. Splashing crevasses result from shear stress from the margin of the glacier and longitudinal compressing stress from lateral extension, they extend from the glacier's margin and are concave up with respect to glacier flow, making an angle less than 45° with the margin. At the centre line of the glacier, there is zero pure shear from the margins, so this area is crevasse-free. Transverse crevasses are the most common crevasse type.
They form in a zone of longitudinal extension where the principal stresses are parallel to the direction of glacier flow, creating extensional tensile stress. These crevasses stretch across the glacier transverse to cross-glacier, they form where a valley becomes steeper. Bergschrund – A crevasse between moving glacier ice and the stagnant ice or firn above Bowie Crevasse Field Glaciology – Scientific study of ice and natural phenomena involving ice Boon, S. & M. J. Sharp. "The role of hydrologically-driven ice fracture in drainage system evolution on an Arctic glacier". Geophysical Research Letters. 30: 1916. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Colgan, W. & Rajaram, H. & Abdalati, W. & McCutchan, C. & Mottram, R. & Moussavi, M. S. & Grigsby, S.. "Glacier crevasses: Observations and mass balance implications". Rev. Geophys. 54. Doi:10.1002/2015RG000504. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter "Crevasse". Encyclopædia Britannica. Das, S. B. Joughin, I. & Behn, M. D. & Howat, I. M. & King, M. A. & Lizarralde, D. & Bhatia, M.
P.. "Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet during supraglacial lake drainage". Science. 320: 778. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills. ISBN 0-89886-309-0. Paterson, W. S. B.. The Physics of Glaciers. ISBN 0-7506-4742-6. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter van der Veen, C. J.. "Fracture mechanics approach to penetration of surface crevasses on glaciers". Cold Regions Technology. 27: 31–47. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Zwally, H. J. & Abdalati, W. & Herring, T. & Larson, K. & Saba, J. & Steffen, K.. "Greenland ice-sheet". Science. 297: 218–222. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Media related to Crevasses at Wikimedia Commons
Little Ice Age
The Little Ice Age was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period. Although it was not a true ice age, the term was introduced into scientific literature by François E. Matthes in 1939, it has been conventionally defined as a period extending from the 16th to the 19th centuries, but some experts prefer an alternative timespan from about 1300 to about 1850. The NASA Earth Observatory notes three cold intervals: one beginning about 1650, another about 1770, the last in 1850, all separated by intervals of slight warming; the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report considered the timing and areas affected by the Little Ice Age suggested largely-independent regional climate changes rather than a globally-synchronous increased glaciation. At most, there was modest cooling of the Northern Hemisphere during the period. Several causes have been proposed: cyclical lows in solar radiation, heightened volcanic activity, changes in the ocean circulation, variations in Earth's orbit and axial tilt, inherent variability in global climate, decreases in the human population.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report of 2001 described the areas affected: Evidence from mountain glaciers does suggest increased glaciation in a number of spread regions outside Europe prior to the twentieth century, including Alaska, New Zealand and Patagonia. However, the timing of maximum glacial advances in these regions differs suggesting that they may represent independent regional climate changes, not a globally-synchronous increased glaciation, thus current evidence does not support globally synchronous periods of anomalous cold or warmth over this interval, the conventional terms of "Little Ice Age" and "Medieval Warm Period" appear to have limited utility in describing trends in hemispheric or global mean temperature changes in past centuries.... Hemispherically, the "Little Ice Age" can only be considered as a modest cooling of the Northern Hemisphere during this period of less than 1°C relative to late twentieth century levels; the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of 2007 discusses more recent research, giving particular attention to the Medieval Warm Period.
When viewed together, the available reconstructions indicate greater variability in centennial time scale trends over the last 1 kyr than was apparent in the TAR.... The result is a picture of cool conditions in the seventeenth and early nineteenth centuries and warmth in the eleventh and early fifteenth centuries, but the warmest conditions are apparent in the twentieth century. Given that the confidence levels surrounding all of the reconstructions are wide all reconstructions are encompassed within the uncertainty indicated in the TAR; the major differences between the various proxy reconstructions relate to the magnitude of past cool excursions, principally during the twelfth to fourteenth and nineteenth centuries. There is no consensus regarding the time when the Little Ice Age began, but a series of events before the known climatic minima has been referenced. In the 13th century, pack ice began advancing southwards in the North Atlantic, as did glaciers in Greenland. Anecdotal evidence suggests expanding glaciers worldwide.
Based on radiocarbon dating of 150 samples of dead plant material with roots intact, collected from beneath ice caps on Baffin Island and Iceland, Miller et al. state that cold summers and ice growth began abruptly between 1275 and 1300, followed by "a substantial intensification" from 1430 to 1455. In contrast, a climate reconstruction based on glacial length shows no great variation from 1600 to 1850 but strong retreat thereafter. Therefore, any of several dates ranging over 400 years may indicate the beginning of the Little Ice Age: 1250 for when Atlantic pack ice began to grow; the Little Ice Age ended in the latter half of the 19th century or early in the 20th century. The Little Ice Age brought colder winters to parts of North America. Farms and villages in the Swiss Alps were destroyed by encroaching glaciers during the mid-17th century. Canals and rivers in Great Britain and the Netherlands were frozen enough to support ice skating and winter festivals; the first River Thames frost fair was in 1608 and the last in 1814.
Freezing of the Golden Horn and the southern section of the Bosphorus took place in 1622. In 1658, a Swedish army marched across the Great Belt to Denmark to attack Copenhagen; the winter of 1794–1795 was harsh: the French invasion army under Pichegru was able to march on the frozen rivers of the Netherlands, the Dutch fleet was locked in the ice in Den Helder harbour. Sea ice surrounding Iceland extended for miles in every direction; the population of Iceland fell by half, but that may have been caused by skeletal fluorosis after the eruption of Laki in 1783. Iceland suffered failures of cereal crops and people moved away from a grain-based diet; the Norse colonies in Greenland starved and vanished by the early 15th century, as crops failed and livestock could
An ice field is a large area of interconnected glaciers found in a mountainous region. They are found in the colder climates and higher altitudes of the world where there is sufficient precipitation for them to form; the higher peaks of the underlying mountain rock that protrude through the icefields are known as nunataks. Ice fields are smaller than ice caps and ice sheets; the topography of ice fields is determined by the shape of the surrounding landforms, while ice caps have their own forms overriding underlying shapes. Ice fields are formed by a large accumulation of snow which, through years of compression and freezing, turns into ice. Due to ice’s susceptibility to gravity, ice fields form over large areas that are basins or atop plateaus, thus allowing a continuum of ice to form over the landscape uninterrupted by glacial channels. Glaciers form on the edges of ice fields, serving as gravity-propelled drains off the ice field, in turn replenished by snowfall. While an ice cap is not constrained by topography, an ice field is.
An ice field is distinguishable from an ice cap because it does not have a dome-like form. There are several ice fields in the Himalayas and Altay Mountains. One unexpected ice field is located in Yolyn Am, a mountain valley located in the northern end of the Gobi Desert. There are no ice fields in Australia. New Zealand has Garden of Eden ice field Garden of Allah ice field Olivine Ice PlateauReference: The only large ice fields in mainland Europe are in Norway. There are several dozen small ice fields in the Alps and tiny remnants of permanent ice in Sweden, the Apennines, the Pyrenees and the Balkans. Since the disappearance of the last remaining ice field in Andalucía, with the disappearance of the Corral del Veleta glacier in 1913, the southernmost surviving permanent ice field in continental Europe is Snezhnika in Bulgaria. Beyond the mainland of continental Europe, there are substantial ice fields in Iceland and Franz-Josef Land and smaller surviving ice fields on Jan Mayen and Novaya Zemlya.
One of the more celebrated North American ice fields is the Columbia Icefield located in the Rocky Mountains between Jasper and Banff, Alberta. Easy access by road contributes to the status of this ice field as one of the most visited in North America, although it is a comparatively small ice field within the huge and ice-free American cordillera. A large number of expansive ice fields lie in the Coast Mountains, Alaska Range, Chugach Mountains of Alaska, British Columbia, the Yukon Territory; the 6,500 km² Stikine Icecap and the 2,500 km² Juneau Icefield both straddle the British Columbian-Alaskan border. Farther north, the Kluane Icecap — which feeds the immense Malaspina and Hubbard Glaciers as well as the Bagley Icefield — sits upon the British Columbia-Yukon Territory-Alaska border and surrounds most of the Saint Elias Mountains as well as both Mount Saint Elias and Mount Logan. There are large ice fields located in the Kenai Peninsula-Chugach Mountains area, such as the Sargent Icefield and the Harding Icefield.
Throughout the Alaska Range there large icefields which are unnamed. In South America, there are two main ice fields, Campo de Hielo Norte, in Chile, Campo de Hielo Sur, shared by Chile and Argentina. There is a small ice field on the western portion of Tierra del Fuego proper. List of glaciers and icefields Ice sheet Glacier Nunatak
A glacier terminus, toe, or snout, is the end of a glacier at any given point in time. Although glaciers seem motionless to the observer, in reality glaciers are in endless motion and the glacier terminus is always either advancing or retreating; the location of the terminus is directly related to glacier mass balance, based on the amount of snowfall which occurs in the accumulation zone of a glacier, as compared to the amount, melted in the ablation zone. The position of a glacier terminus is impacted by localized or regional temperature change over time. Tracking the change in location of a glacier terminus is a method of monitoring a glacier's movement; the end of the glacier terminus is measured from a fixed position in neighboring bedrock periodically over time. The difference in location of a glacier terminus as measured from this fixed position at different time intervals provides a record of the glacier's change. A similar way of tracking glacier change is comparing photographs of the glacier's position at different times.
The form of a glacier terminus is determined by many factors. If the glacier is retreating, it is mildly sloping in form because a melting glacier tends to assume this shape, but there are many conditions that alter this typical shape, including the presence of thermal fields and various stresses that cause cracking and melting feedback resulting in glacial calving and other diverse forms. The photograph above shows the glacial lakes formed by the retreating glacial termini on the surface of the debris-covered glaciers over the last several decades in the Bhutan-Himalaya region. Terminal moraine Boulder Glacier Mendenhall Glacier Perito Moreno Glacier Types of Glaciers Iceland Glacier Recession 1973 to 2000, Glacier Terminus contrast emphasized Terminus Behavior of Juneau Icefield Glaciers, 1948-2005