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Glaciated Allegheny Plateau

The Glaciated Allegheny Plateau is that portion of the Allegheny Plateau that lies within the area covered by the last glaciation. As a result, this area of the Allegheny Plateau has lower relief and gentler slopes than the rugged Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. In general, the glaciated lies to the north and west of the unglaciated, forms an arc in northeastern to southeastern Ohio lying between the glacial till plains and the Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau; the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau extends into a belt of southern New York State and the central Susquehanna River basin. A small area of the Allegheny Plateau was glaciated during the Wisconsin Stage, the late Illinoian Stage, Pre-Illinoian B and G glaciations of the Pre-Illinoian Stage; this area – only a few hundred square kilometers owing to the blockage the steep relief of the mountains provides at the edge of the ice sheet – contains only old drift now buried by long periods of soil development. The major cities on the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau are Youngstown.

Fleeger, G. nd, Glacial geology of Pennsylvania Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Pennsylvania. Sevon, W. D. and D. D. Braun, 1997, Glacial Deposits of Pennsylvania. PDF version, 660 KB Map no. 59. Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Pennsylvania. Sevon, W. D. G. M. Fleeger, V. C. Shepps, 1999, Pennsylvania and the Ice Age. PDF version, 3.9 MB Educational Series no. 6. Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Pennsylvania. Shepps, V. C. G. W. White, J. B. Droste, R. F. Sitler, 1959, Glacial Geology of Northwestern Pennsylvania. Bulletin no. G32. Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Pennsylvania

80th Academy Awards

The 80th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, honored the best films of 2007 and took place on February 24, 2008, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles beginning at 5:30 p.m. PST / 8:30 p.m. EST. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories; the ceremony was televised in the United States by ABC, produced by Gil Cates and directed by Louis J, Horvitz. Actor Jon Stewart hosted the show for the second time, having presided over the 78th ceremony held in 2006. Two weeks earlier in a gala at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California held on February 9, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Jessica Alba. No Country for Old Men won the most awards of the ceremony with four including Best Picture. Other winners included The Bourne Ultimatum with three awards, La Vie en Rose and There Will Be Blood with two awards, Atonement, The Counterfeiters, Elizabeth: The Golden Age, The Golden Compass, Michael Clayton, The Mozart of Pickpockets, Peter & the Wolf, Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street, Taxi to the Dark Side with one.

The telecast garnered 31 million viewers, making it the least watched Oscar broadcast since 1974, when Nielsen began keeping records of viewership. The nominations were announced on January 22, 2008, at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California by Sid Ganis, president of the Academy, actress Kathy Bates. No Country for Old Men and There Will Be Blood tied for the most nominations with eight each; the winners were announced during the award ceremony of February 24, 2008. Best Director winners Joel and Ethan Coen became the second pair of directors to win the award for the same film. Jerome Robbins and Robert Wise first accomplished this feat for co-directing 1961's West Side Story; this was the second time in Oscar history that none of the four acting winners was American. Daniel Day-Lewis became the eighth person to win Best Actor twice. Best Actress winner Marion Cotillard was the fifth person to win for a non-English speaking performance and the second person to do so in the aforementioned category, after Sophia Loren who won for 1961's Two Women.

Cate Blanchett became the eleventh performer to receive double acting nominations in the same year. By virtue of her nomination for her role as the title character in Elizabeth: The Golden Age, she was the first actress and fifth performer overall to be nominated for portraying the same character in two different films. At age 82, Best Supporting Actor nominee Hal Holbrook was the oldest male acting nominee in Oscar history. Robert F. Boyle became the oldest recipient of the Academy Honorary award at the age of 98. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, indicated with a double dagger. Robert F. Boyle — In recognition of one of cinema's great careers in art direction; the following individuals performed musical numbers. In September 2007, the Academy hired Gil Cates to oversee production of the telecast for a record 14th time. Ganis explained his decision to hire Cates as producer stating, "He's so creative and inventive, so enormously passionate about the Oscars. All of that will again translate into a night that people can't wait to experience."

Cates selected actor and talk-show host Jon Stewart as host of the 2008 ceremony. "Jon was a terrific host for the 78th Awards," Cates said about Stewart in a press release. "He is smart, funny, loves movies and is a great guy. What else could one ask for?"Furthermore, the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike affected the telecast and its surrounding events. Over a month after the labor dispute began, the striking Writers Guild of America denied a waiver requested by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in connection with film clips and excerpts from previous award ceremonies to be shown at the 2008 awards; the material could have been used, as the denial only affected the conditions under which the clips are shown. The 60th ceremony held in 1988 occurred 37 days after that year's writers strike began. At the time, material was completed in anticipation for the strike, actors were in full attendance of the ceremony. In anticipation that the strike would continue through Oscar night, AMPAS developed a Plan B show that would not have included actors accepting their awards.

It would have included the musical numbers, but would have relied on historic film clips, emphasizing the 80th anniversary of the awards. However, both the WGA and Alliance of Motion Picture and Television Producers reached an agreement ending the strike on February 12, 2008, the ceremony proceeded under its normal format. Continuing a trend in recent years, the field of major nominees favored independent, low-budget films over blockbusters; the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees when the Oscars were announced was $217 million. None of the five Best Picture nominees was among the top ten releases in box office during the nominations; when the nominations were announced on January 22, Juno was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $87.1 million in domestic box office receipts. The film was followed by No Country for Old Men, Michael Clayton and There Will Be Blood. Out of the top 50 grossing movies of the year, 29 nominations went to 12 films on the list. Only Ratatouille

Metropolis Bridge

The Metropolis Bridge is a railroad bridge which spans the Ohio River at Metropolis, Illinois. Built for the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, construction began in 1914 under the direction of engineer Ralph Modjeski; the bridge consists of the following: Deck plate-girder approach spans One riveted, 9-panel Parker through truss Five pin-connected, Pennsylvania through trusses One pin-connected, 8-panel Pratt deck truss Deck plate-girder approach spansTotal length of the bridge is 6,424 feet. The largest span stretches 708 feet, remains the longest pin-connected simple through truss span in the world. Cost of the bridge when built was $4,000,000. Not long after completion in 1917, ownership of the bridge was passed on to the Paducah and Illinois Railroad, a newly formed railroad jointly owned by the Chicago and Quincy Railroad and Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway. In 1925, the Illinois Central Railroad purchased a 1/3 share of the Paducah and Illinois Railroad, assumed operations and maintenance, as the bridge served as an important link in their newly completed Edgewood-Fulton Cutoff route.

As of 2013, the bridge is still owned by the Paducah and Illinois Railroad, with operations managed by the Canadian National Railway and bridge maintenance/inspection managed by BNSF Railway, where it continues to see heavy use. Cook, Richard J.. The Beauty of Railroad Bridges in North America -- Now. Golden West Books, California. ISBN 0-87095-097-5. Historic Bridges of the United States

Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalaya

Image Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalaya is a central university located in Wardha, India. The university came into existence through an Act of Parliament which received the assent of the President on 8 January 1997; the purpose of the act was to establish and incorporate a teaching university for the promotion and development of Hindi language and literature, through teaching and research, with a view to enabling Hindi to achieve greater functional efficiency and recognition as a major international language. Ordinance No 45/2017 Doctor Of Philosophy Ordinance No 56/2017 Master Of Philosophy ) पुस्तक-वार्ता बहुवचन Hindi Language Discourse Writing Official website

Reductive dehalogenation of halo ketones

In organic chemistry, α-halo ketones can be reduced with loss of the halogen atom to form enolates. The α-halo ketones are prepared from ketones by various ketone halogenation reactions, the products are reactive intermediates that can be used for a variety of other chemical reactions; the reduction of α-halo ketones generates a variety of product structures that may exhibit unique substitution patterns and reactivity. For instance, reduction of α,α'-dihalo ketones leads to 2-oxyallyl metal complexes, which participate in and cycloaddition reactions as the 2π component. 2-Oxyallyl metal intermediates may intercept nucleophiles in a process that involves umpolung at the α carbon. In addition, because reduction of monohalo ketones produces enolates in a site-specific fashion, reactions associated with enolates may be carried out using halo ketone substrates under reductive conditions. Many reducing agents used in this type of reaction are commercially available. A few require preparation and immediate use, including zinc–copper couple and zinc/silver couples.

And organocuprates Monohalo ketones are reduced by both one-electron and two-electron reducing agents to afford the parent ketones, derivatives functionalized with electrophiles, or products of dimerization. The mechanism of reduction itself depends on the nature of the reducing agent. One-electron reducing agents, such as d6 or d1 transition metal complexes donate a single electron to the halo ketone. Fragmentation of the resulting radical anion yields an organic halide anion. Donation of a second electron from a second equivalent of reducing agent leads to the formation of a metal enolate in which the oxidation state of the reducing agent has increased by one. Two-electron reducing agents, the most prominent of, zinc metal, undergo direct oxidative addition to monohalo ketones to afford metal enolates in which the oxidation state of the metal has increased by two. Subsequent disproportionation with unreacted halo ketone sometimes leads to the formation of two equivalents of enol radical, which may subsequently dimerize.

Treatment of enolates derived from either one- or two-electron reducing agents with an electrophile affords α-functionalized ketones as the final product. Similar to monohalo ketones, geminal dihalo ketones form metal enolates upon exposure to one- or two-electron reducing agents. In the presence of a protic solvent, reduction stops at this stage to afford the monohalo ketone. However, in the absence of a trapping electrophile or protic solvent, loss of the remaining halide from the enolate intermediate affords α-keto carbenes or carbenoids, which undergo C-H insertion reactions. Initial reduction of α,α'-dihalo ketones leads to metal enolate intermediates. Loss of the remaining halide generates 2-oxyallyl metal complexes, which undergo and cycloaddition reactions in the presence of dienes or olefins. Isomerization of 2-oxyallyl metal complexes to cyclopropanone and allene oxide forms is rapid and reversible. Reductions of α-halo ketones may afford the parent ketones reduced halo ketones, or products arising from interception of intermediates along the reduction pathway with nucleophiles or electrophiles.

The products obtained depend on both the reducing agent and the substitution pattern of the halo ketone. Monohalo ketones may be reduced to the corresponding parent ketone with lithium metal, followed by protonation of the enolate. Other useful reducing agents for this transformation include lithium dialkylcuprates and molybdenum hexacarbonyl-alumina. Alkylation of enolates generated through the reduction of monohalo ketones is limited to the most reactive alkyl halides. However, reduction in the presence of an aldehyde leads to reductive aldol products, analogous to the Reformatsky reaction of haloesters. Zinc dust may be used alone. Reductive dimerization may result from the combination of two intermediate α-acyl radicals or nucleophilic attack of a metal enolate on unreacted halo ketone. Although complex reaction mixtures result, selective dimerization is possible in some cases. In the example below, the product distribution is solvent dependent Depending on the conditions employed, geminal dihalo ketones may be reduced to the parent ketone, monohalo ketone, or functionalized monohalo ketone with organocuprates.

Warming functionalized α-halo ketones produced under these conditions from −40 °C to room temperature leads to the corresponding α,β-unsaturated ketone. Organocuprates may be employed for the reduction of α,α'-dihalo ketones to alkylated ketones. In the absence of an electrophile the monoalkyl ketone is isolated in good yield; the 2-oxyallyl metal intermediates generated during reductions of α,α'-dihalo ketones with iron complexes participate in and cycloaddition reactions to form cycloheptenones and cyclopentanones, respectively. During cycloaddition reactions, the substituent on the alkene may eliminate to provide cyclopentenones from alkenes in one pot; the scope of cycloadditions is broad—the reaction may be used to form cycloheptenones, as well as bridged or fused polycyclic products. Reduction may be carried out in the presence of the 4π component cycloadditions of pyrroles may be used to establish the bicyclic skeleton of tropane alkaloids. For instance, a synthesis of scopine uses the cycloaddition of N-methoxycarbony


Traditionally, an ashram is a spiritual hermitage or a monastery in Indian religions. The term ashram comes from the Sanskrit root śram-. According to S. S. Chandra, the term means "a step in the journey of life". In contrast, according to George Weckman, the term ashram connotes a place where one strives towards a goal in a disciplined manner; such a goal could be ascetic, yogic or any other. An ashram would traditionally, but not in contemporary times, be located far from human habitation, in forests or mountainous regions, amidst refreshing natural surroundings conducive to spiritual instruction and meditation; the residents of an ashram performed spiritual and physical exercises, such as the various forms of yoga. Other sacrifices and penances, such as yajnas, were performed. Many ashrams served as gurukulas, residential schools for children under the guru-shishya tradition. Sometimes, the goal of a pilgrimage to the ashram was not tranquility, but instruction in some art warfare. In the Ramayana, the princes of ancient Ayodhya and Lakshmana, go to Vishvamitra's ashram to protect his yajnas from being defiled by emissary-demons of Ravana.

After they prove their mettle, the princes receive martial instruction from the sage in the use of divine weapons. In the Mahabharata, Krishna, in his youth, goes to the ashram of Sandipani to gain knowledge of both intellectual and spiritual matters. Boarding schools in the tribal areas of Maharashtra and elsewhere in India, are called ashram shala or ashram schools. One such school is the Lok Biradari Prakalp Ashram Shala. A number of ashrams have been established outside India; these ashrams are connected to Indian lineages, focus on imparting Yoga-related teachings in residential retreats, are headed by spiritual teachers. The dictionary definition of Yogada Ashram at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of Rishikesh at Wiktionary