British royal family
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of, or is not a member of the British royal family; those who at the time are entitled to the style His or Her Royal Highness, any styled His or Her Majesty, are considered members, including those so styled before the beginning of the current monarch's reign. By this criterion, a list of the current royal family will include the monarch, the children and male-line grandchildren of the monarch and previous monarchs, the children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, all their current or widowed spouses; some members of the royal family have official residences named as the places from which announcements are made in the Court Circular about official engagements they have carried out. The state duties and staff of some members of the royal family are funded from a parliamentary annuity, the amount of, refunded by the Queen to the Treasury. Since 1917, when King George V changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, members of the royal family have belonged, either by birth or by marriage, to the House of Windsor.
Senior titled members of the royal family do not use a surname, although since 1960 Mountbatten-Windsor, incorporating Prince Philip's adopted surname of Mountbatten, has been prescribed as a surname for Elizabeth II's direct descendants who do not have royal styles and titles, it has sometimes been used when required for those who do have such titles. The royal family are regarded as British cultural icons, with young adults from abroad naming the family among a group of people that they most associated with UK culture. On 30 November 1917, King George V issued letters patent defining the styles and titles of members of the royal family; the KING has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, bearing date the 30th ultimo, to define the styles and titles to be borne henceforth by members of the royal family. It is declared by the Letters Patent that the children of any Sovereign of the United Kingdom and the children of the sons of any such Sovereign and the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales shall have and at all times hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names or with their other titles of honour.
In 1996, Queen Elizabeth II modified these letters patent, this Notice appeared in the London Gazette: The QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 21st August 1996, to declare that a former wife of a son of a Sovereign of these Realms, of a son of a son of a Sovereign and of the eldest living son of the eldest son of The Prince of Wales shall not be entitled to hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness. On 31 December 2012, letters patent were issued to extend a title and a style borne by members of the royal family to additional persons to be born, this Notice appeared in the London Gazette: The QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 31 December 2012 to declare that all the children of the eldest son of The Prince of Wales should have and enjoy the style and attribute of Royal Highness with the titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their Christian names or with such other titles of honour.
Members and relatives of the British royal family represented the monarch in various places throughout the British Empire, sometimes for extended periods as viceroys, or for specific ceremonies or events. Today, they perform ceremonial and social duties throughout the United Kingdom and abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom. Aside from the monarch, their only constitutional role in the affairs of government is to serve, if eligible and when appointed by letters patent, as a Counsellor of State, two or more of whom exercise the authority of the Crown if the monarch is indisposed or abroad. In the other countries of the Commonwealth royalty do not serve as Counsellors of State, although they may perform ceremonial and social duties on behalf of individual states or the organisation; the Queen, her consort, her children and grandchildren, as well as all former sovereigns' children and grandchildren, hold places in the first sections of the official orders of precedence in England and Wales and Northern Ireland.
Wives of the said enjoy their husbands' precedence, husbands of princesses are unofficially but habitually placed with their wives as well. However, the Queen changed the private order of precedence in the royal family in favour of Princesses Anne and Alexandra, who henceforth take private precedence over the Duchess of Cornwall, otherwise the realm's highest ranking woman after the Queen herself, she did not alter the relative precedence of other born-princesses, such as the daughters of her younger sons. As of 2019, members of the royal family are: The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge (the Queen's gra
Bernicia was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now southeastern Scotland and North East England. The Anglian territory of Bernicia was equivalent to the modern English counties of Northumberland and Durham, the Scottish counties of Berwickshire and East Lothian, stretching from the Forth to the Tees. In the early 7th century, it merged with its southern neighbour, Deira, to form the kingdom of Northumbria and its borders subsequently expanded considerably. Bernicia occurs in Old Welsh poetry as Bryneich or Brynaich and in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, as Berneich or Birneich; this was most the name of the native Brittonic kingdom, whose name was adopted by the Anglian settlers who rendered it in Old English as Bernice or Beornice. The counter hypothesis suggesting these names represent a Brythonic adaption of an earlier English form is considered less probable. Local linguistic evidence suggests continued political activity in the area before the arrival of the Angles.
Important Anglian centres in Bernicia bear names of British origin, or are known by British names elsewhere: Bamburgh is called Din Guaire in the Historia Brittonum. Analysis of a potential derivation has not produced a consensus; the most cited etymology gives the meaning as "Land of the Mountain Passes" or "Land of the Gaps". An earlier derivation from the tribal name of the Brigantes has been dismissed as linguistically unsound. In 1997 John T. Koch suggested the conflation of a probable primary form *Bernech with the native form *Brïγent for the old civitas Brigantum as a result of Anglian expansion in that territory during the 7th century; the Brythonic kingdom of the area was formed from what had once been the southern lands of the Votadini as part of the division of a supposed'great northern realm' of Coel Hen in c. AD 420; this northern realm is referred to by Welsh scholars as Yr Hen Ogledd or "The Old North". The kingdom may have been ruled from the site that became the English Bamburgh, which features in Welsh sources as Din Guardi.
Near this high-status residence lay the island of Lindisfarne, which became the seat of the Bernician bishops. It is unknown when the Angles conquered the whole region, but around 604 is likely. There are several Old Welsh pedigrees of princely "Men of the North" that may represent the kings of the British kingdom in the area, which may have been called Bryneich. John Morris surmised that the line of a certain Morcant Bulc referred to these monarchs, chiefly because he identified this man as the murderer of Urien Rheged who was, at the time, besieging Lindisfarne; some of the Angles of Bernicia may have been employed as mercenaries along Hadrian's Wall during the late Roman period. Others are thought to have migrated north from Deira in the early 6th century; the first Anglian king in the historical record is Ida, said to have obtained the throne and the kingdom about 547. His sons spent many years fighting a united force from the surrounding Brythonic kingdoms until their alliance collapsed into civil war.
Ida's grandson, Æthelfrith, united Deira with his own kingdom by force around the year 604. He ruled the two kingdoms until he was defeated and killed by Rædwald of East Anglia around the year 616. Edwin became king; the early part of Edwin's reign was spent finishing off the remaining resistance coming from the Brythonic exiles of the old British kingdom, operating out of Gododdin. After he had defeated the remaining Brythonic population of the area, he was drawn towards a similar subjugation of Elmet, which drew him into direct conflict with Wales proper. Following the disastrous Battle of Hatfield Chase on 12 October 633, in which Edwin was defeated and killed by Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd and Penda of Mercia, Northumbria was divided back into Bernicia and Deira. Bernicia was briefly ruled by Eanfrith, son of Æthelfrith, but after about a year he went to Cadwallon to sue for peace and was killed. Eanfrith's brother Oswald raised an army and defeated Cadwallon at the Battle of Heavenfield in 634.
After this victory, Oswald appears to have been recognised by both Bernicians and Deirans as king of a properly united Northumbria. The kings of Bernicia were thereafter supreme in that kingdom, although Deira had its own sub-kings at times during the reigns of Oswiu and his son Ecgfrith. Ida son of Eoppa Glappa Ida's brother Adda son of Ida Æthelric son of Ida Theodric son of Ida Frithuwald Adda's son Hussa Adda's son Æthelfrith, son of Æthelric Under Deiran rule 616–633) Eanfrith of Bernicia son of Æthelfrith Under Oswald son of Æthelfrith, Bernicia was united with Deira to form Northumbria from 634 onward until the Viking invasion of the 9th Century. Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum. Jackson, Kenneth H.. Language and History in Early Britain. Edinburgh University Press. Jackson, Kenneth H.. The Gododdin: The Oldest Scottish poem. Edinburgh: Edinburg
Edwin of Northumbria
Edwin known as Eadwine or Æduinus, was the King of Deira and Bernicia – which became known as Northumbria – from about 616 until his death. He converted to Christianity and was baptised in 627. Edwin seems to have had two siblings, his sister Acha was married to king of neighbouring Bernicia. An otherwise unknown sibling fathered Hereric, who in turn fathered Abbess Hilda of Whitby and Hereswith, wife to Æthelric, the brother of king Anna of East Anglia; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reported. The exact identity of Æthelric is uncertain, he may have been a brother of Ælle, an elder brother of Edwin, an otherwise unknown Deiran noble, or the father of Æthelfrith. Æthelfrith himself appears to have been king of "Northumbria"—both Deira and Bernicia—by no than 604. During the reign of Æthelfrith, Edwin was an exile; the location of his early exile as a child is not known, but late traditions, reported by Reginald of Durham and Geoffrey of Monmouth, place Edwin in the kingdom of Gwynedd, fostered by king Cadfan ap Iago, so allowing biblical parallels to be drawn from the struggle between Edwin and his supposed foster-brother Cadwallon.
By the 610s he was in Mercia under the protection of king Cearl, whose daughter Cwenburg he married. By around 616, Edwin was in East Anglia under the protection of king Raedwald. Bede reports that Æthelfrith tried to have Raedwald murder his unwanted rival, that Raedwald intended to do so until his wife persuaded him otherwise with Divine prompting. Æthelfrith faced Raedwald in battle by the River Idle in 616, Æthelfrith was defeated. Raedwald's son Raegenhere may have been killed at this battle, but the exact date or manner of Raedwald's death are not known, he died between the years 616–627, the efficacy of Edwin’s kingship ostensibly depended on his fealty to Raedwald. Edwin was installed as king of Northumbria confirming Raedwald as bretwalda: Æthelfrith's sons went into exile in Irish Dál Riata and Pictland; that Edwin was able to take power not only in his native Deira but in Bernicia may have been due to his support from Raedwald, to whom he may have remained subject during the early part of his reign.
Edwin's reign marks an interruption of the otherwise consistent domination of Northumbria by the Bernicians and has been seen as "contrary to the prevailing tendency". With the death of Æthelfrith, of the powerful Æthelberht of Kent the same year and his client Edwin were well placed to dominate England, indeed Raedwald did so until his death a decade later. Edwin expelled Ceretic from the minor British kingdom of Elmet in either 616 or 626. Elmet had been subject to Mercia and to Edwin; the larger kingdom of Lindsey appears to have been taken over c. 625, after the death of king Raedwald. Edwin and Eadbald of Kent were allies at this time, Edwin arranged to marry Eadbald's sister Æthelburg. Bede notes that Eadbald would agree to marry his sister to Edwin only if he converted to Christianity; the marriage of Eadbald's Merovingian mother Bertha had resulted in the conversion of Kent and Æthelburg's would do the same in Northumbria. Edwin's expansion to the west may have begun early in his reign.
There is firm evidence of a war waged in the early 620s between Edwin and Fiachnae mac Báetáin of the Dál nAraidi, king of the Ulaid in Ireland. A lost poem is known to have existed recounting Fiachnae's campaigns against the Saxons, the Irish annals report the siege, or the storming, of Bamburgh in Bernicia in 623–624; this should be placed in the context of Edwin's designs on the Isle of Man, a target of Ulaid ambitions. Fiachnae's death in 626, at the hands of his namesake, Fiachnae mac Demmáin of the Dál Fiatach, the second Fiachnae's death a year in battle against the Dál Riata eased the way for Edwin's conquests in the Irish sea province; the routine of kingship in Edwin's time involved regular annual, wars with neighbours to obtain tribute and slaves. By Edwin's death, it is that these annual wars, unreported in the main, had extended the Northumbrian kingdoms from the Humber and the Mersey north to the Southern Uplands and the Cheviots; the royal household moved from one royal vill to the next, consuming the food renders given in tribute and the produce of the royal estates, dispensing justice, ensuring that royal authority remained visible throughout the land.
The royal sites in Edwin's time included Yeavering in Bernicia, where traces of a timber amphitheatre have been found. This "Roman" feature makes Bede's claim that Edwin was preceded by a standard-bearer carrying a "tufa" appear to be more than antiquarian curiosity, although whether the model for this practice was Roman or Frankish is unknown. Other royal sites included Campodunum in Elmet, Sancton in Deira, Goodmanham, the site where the pagan high priest Coifi destroyed the idols according to Bede. Edwin's realm included the former Roman cities of York and Carlisle, both appear to have been of some importance in the 7th century, although it is not clear whether urban life continued in this period; the account of Edwin's conversion offered by Bede turns on two events. The first, during Edwin's exile, tells; the second, following his marriage to Æthelburg, was the attempted assassination at York, at Easter 626, by an agent of Cwichelm of Wessex. Edwin's decision to allow the baptism of his daughter Eanfled and his su
Oswald of Northumbria
Oswald was King of Northumbria from 634 until his death, is venerated as a saint, of whom there was a particular cult in the Middle Ages. Oswald came to rule after spending a period in exile. After defeating the British ruler Cadwallon ap Cadfan, Oswald brought the two Northumbrian kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira once again under a single ruler, promoted the spread of Christianity in Northumbria, he was given a positive assessment by the historian Bede, writing a little less than a century after Oswald's death, who regarded Oswald as a saintly king. After eight years of rule, in which he was the most powerful ruler in Britain, Oswald was killed in the Battle of Maserfield. Oswald's father Æthelfrith was a successful Bernician ruler who, after some years in power in Bernicia became king of Deira, thus was the first to rule both of the kingdoms which would come to be considered the constituent kingdoms of Northumbria, it would, however, be anachronistic to refer to a "Northumbrian" people or identity at this early stage, when the Bernicians and the Deirans were still distinct peoples.
Oswald's mother, Acha of Deira, was a member of the Deiran royal line whom Æthelfrith married as part of his acquisition of Deira or consolidation of power there. Oswald was born in or around the year 604, since Bede says that he was killed at the age of 38 in 642; this defeat meant that an exiled member of the Deiran royal line, became king of Northumbria, Oswald and his brothers fled to the north. Oswald thus spent the remainder of his youth in the Scottish kingdom of Dál Riata in northern Britain, where he was converted to Christianity, he may have fought in Ireland during this period of exile. It has been considered that Oswald is one of the three Saxon princes mentioned in the Irish poem Togail Bruidne Dá Derga, being named as'Osalt' in that work. After Cadwallon ap Cadfan, the king of Gwynedd, in alliance with the pagan Penda of Mercia, killed Edwin of Deira in battle at Hatfield Chase in 633, Northumbria was split between its constituent kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira. Oswald's brother Eanfrith became king of Bernicia, but he was killed by Cadwallon in 634 after attempting to negotiate peace.
Subsequently, Oswald, at the head of a small army, met Cadwallon in battle at Heavenfield, near Hexham. Before the battle, Oswald had a wooden cross, he prayed and asked his army to join in. Adomnán in his Life of Saint Columba offers a longer account, which Abbot Ségéne had heard from Oswald himself. Oswald, he says, had a vision of Columba the night before the battle, in which he was toldBe strong and act manfully. Behold, I will be with thee; this coming night go out from your camp into battle, for the Lord has granted me that at this time your foes shall be put to flight and Cadwallon your enemy shall be delivered into your hands and you shall return victorious after battle and reign happily. Oswald described his vision to his council and all agreed that they would be baptised and accept Christianity after the battle. In the battle that followed, the British were routed despite their superior numbers. Following the victory at Heavenfield, Oswald reunited Northumbria and re-established the Bernician supremacy, interrupted by Edwin.
Bede says that Oswald held imperium for the eight years of his rule, was the most powerful king in Britain. In the 9th-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle he is referred to as a Bretwalda. Adomnán describes Oswald as "ordained by God as Emperor of all Britain". Oswald seems to have been recognized as overlord, although the extent of his authority is uncertain. Bede makes the claim that Oswald "brought under his dominion all the nations and provinces of Britain", which, as Bede notes, was divided by language between the English, Britons and Picts. An Irish source, the Annals of Tigernach, records that the Anglo-Saxons banded together against Oswald early in his reign; the Mercians, who participated in Edwin's defeat in 633, seem to have presented an obstacle to Oswald's authority south of the Humber, although it has been thought that Oswald dominated Mercia to some degree after Heavenfield. It may have been to appease Oswald that Penda had Eadfrith, a captured son of Edwin, although it is possible that Penda had his own motives for the killing.
Oswald controlled the Kingdom of Lindsey, given the evidence of a story told by Bede regarding the moving of Oswald's bones to a monastery there