The Glaser-Dirks DG-100 of 1974 is the first sailplane manufactured by Glaser-Dirks, developed from the Akaflieg Darmstadt D-38, the Standard class sailplane was designed by Wilhelm Dirks. The first model had an all-flying tailplane, with anti-balance tabs along the entire trailing edges, a two-piece canopy, built of GFRP /foam sandwich materials and resin impregnated rovings for high strength parts. Successive developments included the DG-100G, DG-101 and DG-101G. Most models are available with water ballast bags in the wings; the DG-101 and DG-101G had improvements such as a single-piece front-hinged canopy, improved crash resistant cockpit and a conventional tailplane. There was a club version of this sailplane with fixed landing gear. All models featured top-surface-only air brakes; some models were manufactured by the Elan company in Slovenia and can be identified by the word "ELAN" on the fuselage and rudder. The serial number of these gliders is prefixed with "E". Although these gliders were designed in the 1970s, they are still popular in the Club class and remain competitive in Sports class contests.
The wing's control surface hookups are non-automatic and utilize L'Hotellier fittings, which must be secured by a secondary means such as a safety pin, safety wire, Uerling Sleeve or Wedekind Sleeve. The Glaser-Dirks Company declared bankruptcy, after which the newly organized company DG Flugzeugbau GmbH assumed responsibility for servicing the gliders. Akaflieg Darmstadt D-38 The prototype designed and built at Darmstadt University of Technology. DG-100 The initial production version developed by Wilhelm Dirks. DG-100G Later production with a conventional tailplane and elevator in place of the all-flying tailplane. DG-100 Club / Club DG An unballasted, fixed gear version with a gross weight of 385 kg / 849 lb.. DG-101 The DG-101 introduced a one-piece full length canopy that opened forwards, but retaining the all-flying tail. DG-101G Ultimate production version with the one-piece canopy and the conventional tailplane with elevator. Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982–83. General characteristics Crew: One pilot Capacity: 100 kg water ballast Length: 7.00 m Wingspan: 15.00 m Height: 1.4 m Wing area: 11.0 m2 Aspect ratio: 20.5:1 Empty weight: 230 kg Gross weight: 418 kg Performance Maximum speed: 260 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 39:1 Rate of sink: 0.59 m/s Armament Related lists List of gliders Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982–83.
London: Jane's Yearbooks, 1982. ISBN 0-7106-0748-2 Akaflieg Darmstadt website DG-Flugzeugbau DG-100 Technical Notes Johnson R, An Flight Test Evaluation of the DG-101G, May 1985 Sailplane Directory Images of DG-101G ELAN
The Schempp-Hirth Discus is a Standard Class glider designed by Schempp-Hirth. It was produced in Germany between 1984 and 1995 but has continued in production in the Czech Republic, it replaced the Standard Cirrus. It was designed by Klaus Holighaus; the Discus was the first production sailplane to have a distinctive swept-back leading edge. This is now common in contemporary sailplanes. Studies had long shown that the ideal wing for minimizing induced drag should be an elliptic planform. To keep production costs down, a triple-trapezoidal approximation of this shape was adopted for the Discus; the wing section was new. Winglets were only available towards the end of the production run, though many have been retro-fitted; the fuselage and tail were adapted from the Schempp-Hirth Ventus. A version with a narrow fuselage is called the Discus'a' and the wider fuselage version is called the'b'; the fuselage is made of glass-reinforced plastic around a steel tube frame. The wings and tail surfaces are fiberglass with the exception of the main wing spar, made of carbon fiber.
There is a 6.5 l water ballast tank in the fin for trimming purposes when the main wing mounted ballast tanks are in use for a maximum wing-loading of 50 kg/m2 The Discus dominated standard class sailplane racing throughout the 1980s, winning six World Gliding Championships in a row from 1985-1995. The best measured glide ratio is 42.5:1. Though it is considered a high performance sailplane, its handling is well within the capabilities of inexperienced pilots. With no bad manners, powerful airbrakes and a low landing speed, the Discus is popular with clubs. Discuses are easy gliders to assemble, having light wings, automatic control hookups and a single pin securing the wings. Over 850 Discuses had been built by 2004 and it remains in production today despite the introduction of its successor, the Schempp-Hirth Discus-2. About 12 per year are built under license by Schempp-Hirth Vyroba in the Czech Republic as the Discus CS; some models are fitted with small sustaining engines and are designated Discus T. Discus a Short fuselage and narrow cockpit optimized for smaller pilots, utilising the fuselage and tail of the Ventus a.
Discus b Standard production model utilizing the fuselage and tail of the Ventus b. Discus bT Discus b with a retractable sustainer motor Discus bM Motor-glider with retractable engine Discus CS Continued production in the Czech Republic Discus K Aerobatic version first flown on 18 November 1987; this was, due to disappointing performance in aerobatic converted back to a standard version. Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988-89General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 6.68 m Discus a: 6.35 m Wingspan: 15 m Discus K: 13.7 m Height: 1.27 m Wing area: 10.58 m2 Aspect ratio: 21.3 Empty weight: 233 kg Discus a: 228 kg Max takeoff weight: 525 kg Water ballast: 180 L Performance Stall speed: 66 km/h Never exceed speed: 250 km/h in smooth air200 km/h in rough air 180 km/h on aero-tow 150 km/h on winch launch Discus K: 270 km/h g limits: +5.3 - 2.65Discus K:+7 -5Maximum glide ratio: 42.2:1 at 100 km/h Discus K: 38Rate of sink: 0.59 m/s at 78 km/h Discus K: <0.7 m/s Wing loading: 49.62 kg/m2 Aircraft of comparable role and era Schleicher ASW 24 PZL Bielsko SZD-55 Related lists List of gliders Simons, Martin.
Sailplanes 1965-2000. Königswinter: EQIP Werbung und Verlag G.m.b. H. ISBN 978-3-9808838-1-8. Schempp-Hirth Website A Flight Test Evaluation of the Discus Sailplane, by R. H. Johnson, published in Soaring Magazine, February 1986 British Gliding Association, Discus datasheet Specifications of Schempp-Hirth Discus
The Glaser-Dirks DG-600 is a glider manufactured by Glaser-Dirks as a successor to the DG-202 and DG-400 series of gliders where carbon fiber reinforced plastics was used. The DG-600 fuselage is based on the fuselage of the DG-400 but with a more slender tailboom which incorporates a tailfin ballast tank with a capacity of 7 liters; the design of the canopy and the instrument panel is the same as on other DG gliders. The control surfaces incorporate flaperons which serve as both ailerons; the wing has a newly designed thinner airfoil and higher aspect ratio than previous types of DG gliders. This gives a higher performance but at a cost of worse slow-speed characteristics, making it less suitable for gliding competitions with frequent gaggles in thermals; the same problem is noticeable on LS-7 and ASW-24 gliders, where improved performance was to be achieved with thinner airfoils. The negative effects of this design are most pronounced on 15-meter wingspan without winglets; these characteristics caused the relative unpopularity of this glider and only 114 aircraft were produced.
Versions with 17 and 18 m wingspan offer much better low-speed handling. DG-600/15 original version with 15 m wingspan DG-600/17 version with 17 m wingspan DG-600M with Rotax 275 engine, capable of self launching DG-600/18 DG-600M DG-600/18M Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988-89General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 6.83 m Wingspan: 15 m Height: 1.35 m Wing area: 10.95 m2 Aspect ratio: 20.55 Airfoil: root. Performance Stall speed: 64 km/h Never exceed speed: 270 km/h in smooth air200 km/h in rough air 200 km/h on aero-tow 150 km/h on winch launchg limits: +5.8 -3.8 Maximum glide ratio: 46 Rate of sink: 0.56 m/s Wing loading: 47.94 kg/m2 maxNOTE: The following data represent versions of DG-600 List of gliders DG-600 Article at Scale Soaring UK DG Flugzeugbau GmbH
DG Flugzeugbau GmbH is a manufacturer of sailplanes and other composite parts based in Bruchsal near Karlsruhe, Germany. The business was founded in 1973 by Gerhard Glaser and Wilhelm Dirks as Glaser-Dirks Flugzeugbau GmbH. In 2018 the company received an order to build "a large number" of the Volocopter 2X design under contract to Volocopter; the Glaser-Dirks company produced the following gliders: DG-100 DG-200 DG-300 DG-400 DG-500 DG-600 LS10 DG Flugzeugbau produces: DG-808C DG-1001 Rolladen-Schneider LS8c-neo, Official website
Fiberglass or fibreglass is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may be flattened into a sheet, or woven into a fabric; the plastic matrix may be a thermoset polymer matrix—most based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin, or vinylester—or a thermoplastic. Cheaper and more flexible than carbon fiber, it is stronger than many metals by weight, can be molded into complex shapes. Applications include aircraft, automobiles, bath tubs and enclosures, swimming pools, hot tubs, septic tanks, water tanks, pipes, orthopedic casts and external door skins. GRP covers are widely used in the water-treatment industry to help control odors. Other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic, glass-fiber reinforced plastic or GFK; because glass fiber itself is sometimes referred to as "fiberglass", the composite is called "fiberglass reinforced plastic". This article will adopt the convention that "fiberglass" refers to the complete glass fiber reinforced composite material, rather than only to the glass fiber within it.
Glass fibers have been produced for centuries, but the earliest patent was awarded to the Prussian inventor Hermann Hammesfahr in the U. S. in 1880. Mass production of glass strands was accidentally discovered in 1932 when Games Slayter, a researcher at Owens-Illinois, directed a jet of compressed air at a stream of molten glass and produced fibers. A patent for this method of producing glass wool was first applied for in 1933. Owens joined with the Corning company in 1935 and the method was adapted by Owens Corning to produce its patented "Fiberglas" in 1936. Fiberglas was a glass wool with fibers entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator at high temperatures. A suitable resin for combining the fiberglass with a plastic to produce a composite material was developed in 1936 by du Pont; the first ancestor of modern polyester resins is Cyanamid's resin of 1942. Peroxide curing systems were used by then. With the combination of fiberglass and resin the gas content of the material was replaced by plastic.
This reduced the insulation properties to values typical of the plastic, but now for the first time the composite showed great strength and promise as a structural and building material. Confusingly, many glass fiber composites continued to be called "fiberglass" and the name was used for the low-density glass wool product containing gas instead of plastic. Ray Greene of Owens Corning is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used. In 1939 Russia was reported to have constructed a passenger boat of plastic materials, the United States a fuselage and wings of an aircraft; the first car to have a fiber-glass body was a 1946 prototype of the Stout Scarab, but the model did not enter production. Unlike glass fibers used for insulation, for the final structure to be strong, the fiber's surfaces must be entirely free of defects, as this permits the fibers to reach gigapascal tensile strengths. If a bulk piece of glass were defect-free, it would be as strong as glass fibers.
The process of manufacturing fiberglass is called pultrusion. The manufacturing process for glass fibers suitable for reinforcement uses large furnaces to melt the silica sand, kaolin clay, colemanite and other minerals until a liquid forms, it is extruded through bushings, which are bundles of small orifices. These filaments are sized with a chemical solution; the individual filaments are now bundled in large numbers to provide a roving. The diameter of the filaments, the number of filaments in the roving, determine its weight expressed in one of two measurement systems: yield, or yards per pound. Examples of standard yields are 450yield, 675yield. Tex, or grams per km. Examples of standard tex are 1100tex, 2200tex; these rovings are either used directly in a composite application such as pultrusion, filament winding, gun roving, or in an intermediary step, to manufacture fabrics such as chopped strand mat, woven fabrics, knit fabrics or uni-directional fabrics. Chopped strand mat or CSM is a form of reinforcement used in fiberglass.
It consists of glass fibers held together by a binder. It is processed using the hand lay-up technique, where sheets of material are placed on a mold and brushed with resin; because the binder dissolves in resin, the material conforms to different shapes when wetted out. After the resin cures, the hardened product finished. Using chopped strand mat gives a fiberglass with isotropic in-plane material properties. A coating or primer is applied to the roving to: help protect the glass filaments for processing and manipulation. Ensure proper bonding to the resin matrix, thus allowing for transfer of shear loads from the glass fiber
DG Flugzeugbau DG-1000
The DG Flugzeugbau DG-1000 is a glider of the Two Seater Class built by DG Flugzeugbau. It first flew in July 2000 at Speyer in Germany. There are four models, with 18- and 20-metre wings of HQK-51 profile; the 1001 replaced the DG-505 in production. With an 18-metre span it is certified for aerobatics; the retractable engine is mounted on a pylon aft of the double cockpit. There is a reduction gear between the two-blade carbon-fibre composite propeller; the propeller is produced by the DG factory. In 2011, the DG-1000 was selected by the USAF as a replacement for the Blanik TG-10, it will serve as a basic soaring trainer for cadets at the United States Air Force Academy. It serves as the primary competition platform for the USAF Academy Aerobatic Demonstration Team, its USAF designation is TG-16A. DG-1000S Standard 20 metre span version DG-1000S 18/20 Model Flown either as an 18 metre or 20 metre glider DG-1000S Club Only 18 metre span, fixed undercarriage and no capacity for water ballast DG-1001 Refined version with electric landing gear retraction DG-1000T/DG-1001T 18 or 20 metre span with a 2-stroke piston engine Akaflieg Karlsruhe DG-1000J Turbine The DG-1000T with a turbojet engine installation DG-1001M 20 metre self-launching version with SOLO 2-stroke TG-16A USAF designation.
Used to train cadets in soaring at the United States Air Force Academy. Replaces the Blanik TG-10. AustraliaRoyal Australian Air Force Australian Air Force Cadets - 8 IndonesiaIndonesian Air Force - 3 United StatesUnited States Air Force Academy 94th Flying Training Squadron General characteristics Crew: Two Capacity: 160 kg of water ballast Length: 8.57 m Wingspan: 20.00 m Height: 1.83 m Wing area: 17.5 m2 Aspect ratio: 22.8 Empty weight: 461 kg Gross weight: 750 kg Powerplant: 1 × Solo 2350C two-cylinder-two-stroke-engine, 22 kW Performance Maximum speed: 270 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 46.5 Rate of climb: 1.3 m/s Rate of sink: 0.5 m/s Armament DG-Flugzeugbau website Specification DG-1000 The New Two Seater from DG Flugzeugbau