The Glasflügel H-201 Standard Libelle is an early composite Standard Class single-seat sailplane produced by Glasflügel from 1967. The H-201 Standard Libelle was a follow-on Standard Class sailplane to the successful H-301 Libelle Open Class glider, it was similar to the H-301, with modifications to meet the Standard Class requirements. The prototype made its first flight with a total of 601 being built; the type soon made its mark in contest flying. The Libelle and Standard Libelle were popular and influential designs, their light wings and easy rigging set a new benchmark. Their handling is easy except that they are quite sensitive to sideslipping and have ineffective air brakes that make short landings tricky for inexperienced pilots; the Standard Libelle was superseded by the Hornet. The Standard Libelle is of similar glassfibre construction to the H-301 Libelle; the changes required consisted of removing the flaps and tail braking parachute, fitting a fixed, instead of retractable and raising the height of the canopy.
A new Wortmann wing section was featured and terminal velocity dive brakes were fitted. With a change in the Standard Class rules, the H-201B of 1969 introduced a retractable gear and a water ballast system as an option, with one 25-litre bag per wing located before the spar, with valve and dumping orifice on the fuselage underside. Other improvements in the B variant were larger upper surface dive brakes, a larger stabilizer for better low-speed handling, PVC foam sandwich core for the wing to increase durability and profile accuracy, increased gross weight and higher operating speeds; the canopy is unique in that it has a catch that enables the front to be raised by 25mm in flight to provide a blast of ventilating air instead of the more conventional small sliding panel used for this purpose. The connections for airbrakes and elevator are automatic; the aileron connections are manually connected. Glasflügel 202 Glasflügel 203 Glasflügel 204 Glasflügel 205 Club Libelle with a high-wing, T-tail and fixed undercarriage intended for rental and club use.
General characteristics Crew: One pilot Capacity: 50 kg water ballast Length: 6.19 m Wingspan: 15.00 m Height: 1.25 m Wing area: 9.8 m2 Aspect ratio: 23 Empty weight: ca. 185 kg Gross weight: 350 kg Performance Maximum speed: 250 km/h Maximum glide ratio: ca. 38 Rate of sink: 0.57 m/s Armament Rolladen-Schneider LS1 Schempp-Hirth Standard Cirrus Schleicher ASW 15 Related lists List of gliders Thomas F, Fundamentals of Sailplane Design, College Park Press, 1999 Simons M, Segelflugzeuge 1965-2000, Eqip, 2004 Sailplane Directory
Fiberglass or fibreglass is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may be flattened into a sheet, or woven into a fabric; the plastic matrix may be a thermoset polymer matrix—most based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin, or vinylester—or a thermoplastic. Cheaper and more flexible than carbon fiber, it is stronger than many metals by weight, can be molded into complex shapes. Applications include aircraft, automobiles, bath tubs and enclosures, swimming pools, hot tubs, septic tanks, water tanks, pipes, orthopedic casts and external door skins. GRP covers are widely used in the water-treatment industry to help control odors. Other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic, glass-fiber reinforced plastic or GFK; because glass fiber itself is sometimes referred to as "fiberglass", the composite is called "fiberglass reinforced plastic". This article will adopt the convention that "fiberglass" refers to the complete glass fiber reinforced composite material, rather than only to the glass fiber within it.
Glass fibers have been produced for centuries, but the earliest patent was awarded to the Prussian inventor Hermann Hammesfahr in the U. S. in 1880. Mass production of glass strands was accidentally discovered in 1932 when Games Slayter, a researcher at Owens-Illinois, directed a jet of compressed air at a stream of molten glass and produced fibers. A patent for this method of producing glass wool was first applied for in 1933. Owens joined with the Corning company in 1935 and the method was adapted by Owens Corning to produce its patented "Fiberglas" in 1936. Fiberglas was a glass wool with fibers entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator at high temperatures. A suitable resin for combining the fiberglass with a plastic to produce a composite material was developed in 1936 by du Pont; the first ancestor of modern polyester resins is Cyanamid's resin of 1942. Peroxide curing systems were used by then. With the combination of fiberglass and resin the gas content of the material was replaced by plastic.
This reduced the insulation properties to values typical of the plastic, but now for the first time the composite showed great strength and promise as a structural and building material. Confusingly, many glass fiber composites continued to be called "fiberglass" and the name was used for the low-density glass wool product containing gas instead of plastic. Ray Greene of Owens Corning is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used. In 1939 Russia was reported to have constructed a passenger boat of plastic materials, the United States a fuselage and wings of an aircraft; the first car to have a fiber-glass body was a 1946 prototype of the Stout Scarab, but the model did not enter production. Unlike glass fibers used for insulation, for the final structure to be strong, the fiber's surfaces must be entirely free of defects, as this permits the fibers to reach gigapascal tensile strengths. If a bulk piece of glass were defect-free, it would be as strong as glass fibers.
The process of manufacturing fiberglass is called pultrusion. The manufacturing process for glass fibers suitable for reinforcement uses large furnaces to melt the silica sand, kaolin clay, colemanite and other minerals until a liquid forms, it is extruded through bushings, which are bundles of small orifices. These filaments are sized with a chemical solution; the individual filaments are now bundled in large numbers to provide a roving. The diameter of the filaments, the number of filaments in the roving, determine its weight expressed in one of two measurement systems: yield, or yards per pound. Examples of standard yields are 450yield, 675yield. Tex, or grams per km. Examples of standard tex are 1100tex, 2200tex; these rovings are either used directly in a composite application such as pultrusion, filament winding, gun roving, or in an intermediary step, to manufacture fabrics such as chopped strand mat, woven fabrics, knit fabrics or uni-directional fabrics. Chopped strand mat or CSM is a form of reinforcement used in fiberglass.
It consists of glass fibers held together by a binder. It is processed using the hand lay-up technique, where sheets of material are placed on a mold and brushed with resin; because the binder dissolves in resin, the material conforms to different shapes when wetted out. After the resin cures, the hardened product finished. Using chopped strand mat gives a fiberglass with isotropic in-plane material properties. A coating or primer is applied to the roving to: help protect the glass filaments for processing and manipulation. Ensure proper bonding to the resin matrix, thus allowing for transfer of shear loads from the glass fiber
Flaps are a kind of high-lift device used to increase the lift of an aircraft wing at a given airspeed. Flaps are mounted on the wing trailing edges of a fixed-wing aircraft. Flaps are used for extra lift on takeoff. Flaps cause an increase in drag in mid-flight, so they are retracted when not needed. Extending the wing flaps increases the camber or curvature of the wing, raising the maximum lift coefficient or the upper limit to the lift a wing can generate; this allows the aircraft to generate the required lift at a lower speed, reducing the stalling speed of the aircraft, therefore the minimum speed at which the aircraft will safely maintain flight. The increase in camber increases the wing drag, which can be beneficial during approach and landing, because it slows the aircraft. In some aircraft configurations, a useful side effect of flap deployment is a decrease in aircraft pitch angle, which lowers the nose thereby improving the pilot's view of the runway over the nose of the aircraft during landing.
In other configurations, depending on the type of flap and the location of the wing, flaps can cause the nose to rise, obscuring the pilot's view of the runway. There are many different designs of flaps used, with the specific choice depending on the size and complexity of the aircraft on which they are to be used, as well as the era in which the aircraft was designed. Plain flaps, slotted flaps, Fowler flaps are the most common. Krueger flaps are used on many jet airliners; the Fowler, Fairey-Youngman and Gouge types of flap increase the wing area in addition to changing the camber. The larger lifting surface reduces wing loading, hence further reducing the stalling speed; some flaps are fitted elsewhere. Leading-edge flaps form the wing leading edge and when deployed they rotate down to increase the wing camber; the de Havilland DH.88 Comet racer had flaps running beneath the fuselage and forward of the wing trailing edge. Many of the Waco Custom Cabin series biplanes have the flaps at mid-chord on the underside of the top wing.
The general airplane lift equation demonstrates these relationships: L = 1 2 ρ V 2 S C L where: L is the amount of Lift produced, ρ is the air density, V is the true airspeed of the airplane or the Velocity of the airplane, relative to the air S is the area of the wing C L is the lift coefficient, determined by the shape of the airfoil used and the angle at which the wing meets the air. Here, it can be seen that increasing the area and lift coefficient allow a similar amount of lift to be generated at a lower airspeed. Extending the flaps increases the drag coefficient of the aircraft. Therefore, for any given weight and airspeed, flaps increase the drag force. Flaps increase the drag coefficient of an aircraft due to higher induced drag caused by the distorted spanwise lift distribution on the wing with flaps extended; some flaps increase the wing area and, for any given speed, this increases the parasitic drag component of total drag. Depending on the aircraft type, flaps may be extended for takeoff.
When used during takeoff, flaps trade runway distance for climb rate: using flaps reduces ground roll but reduces the climb rate. The amount of flap used on takeoff is specific to each type of aircraft, the manufacturer will suggest limits and may indicate the reduction in climb rate to be expected; the Cessna 172S Pilot Operating Handbook recommends 10° of flaps on takeoff when the ground is rough or soft. Flaps may be extended for landing to give the aircraft a lower stall speed so the approach to landing can be flown more which allows the aircraft to land in a shorter distance; the higher lift and drag associated with extended flaps allows a steeper and slower approach to the landing site, but imposes handling difficulties in aircraft with low wing loading. Winds across the line of flight, known as crosswinds, cause the windward side of the aircraft to generate more lift and drag, causing the aircraft to roll and pitch off its intended flight path, as a result many light aircraft land with reduced flap settings in crosswinds.
Furthermore, once the aircraft is on the ground, the flaps may decrease the effectiveness of the brakes since the wing is still generating lift and preventing the entire weight of the aircraft from resting on the tires, thus increasing stopping distance in wet or icy conditions. The pilot will raise the flaps as soon as possible to prevent this from occurring; some gliders not only use flaps when landing, but in flight to optimize the camber of the wing for the chosen speed. While thermalling, flaps may be extended to reduce the stall speed so that the glider can be flown more and thereby reduce the rate of sink, which lets the glider use the rising air of the thermal more efficiently, to turn in a smaller circle to make best use of the core of the thermal. At higher speeds a negative flap setting is used to reduce the nose-down pitching moment; this reduces the balancing load required on the horizontal stabilizer, which in turn reduces the trim drag associated with keeping the glider in longitudinal trim.
Negative flap may be used during the initial stage of an aerotow launch and at the end of the landing run in order to maintain better control by the ailerons. Like gliders, some fighters such as the
The Glasflügel 303 Mosquito is a composite 15 metre Class single-seat sailplane manufactured by Glasflügel between 1976 and 1980. Designed for the 15 metre racing class, the Mosquito replaced the Libelle in Glasflügel's production line, it married the Standard Class Hornet fuselage with a new flapped wing employing the ubiquitous FX 67-K-150 airfoil. The wing featured innovative interconnected trailing edge dive brakes-variable camber flaps; the glider had automatic connection for all controls: ailerons, air brakes and water ballast. The maiden flight of the Mosquito took place in 1976, it is by all accounts a nice-handling and pleasing aircraft, but a little less performing than the contemporaneous Rolladen-Schneider LS3 and ASW 20. Therefore, the Mosquito did not do well in top level competition, neither did it find the large commercial success of the Libelle; the Mosquito was superseded in 1980 by the Glasflügel 304. The 303 Mosquito is referred to as the H303 or H-303; this is incorrect, as the H designates gliders designed for Glasflügel by the Hütter brothers..
US Southwest Soaring Museum General characteristics Crew: One pilot Capacity: 125 kg water ballast Length: 6.40 m Wingspan: 15.00 m Height: 1.40 m Wing area: 9.86 m2 Aspect ratio: 22.8 Empty weight: 242 kg Gross weight: 450 kg Performance Maximum speed: 250 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 39 Rate of sink: 0.5 m/s Armament Aircraft of comparable role and era Schempp-Hirth Mini-Nimbus Related lists List of gliders Thomas F, Fundamentals of Sailplane Design, College Park Press, 1999 Simons M, Segelflugzeuge 1965-2000, Eqip, 2004 Johnson R, A Flight Test Evaluation of the Mosquito, August 1979 Sailplane Directory
Soaring Society of America
The Soaring Society of America was founded at the instigation of Warren E. Eaton to promote the sport of soaring in the USA and internationally; the first meeting was held in New York City in the McGraw-Hill building on February 20, 1932. Its first objective was to hold a national soaring competition every year, but other roles were adopted. In 1954, the Society created the Soaring Hall of Fame. Today the SSA, with a nationwide membership of over 10,000, is headquartered in New Mexico, it is a 501 charity organization. The SSA is led by the 17 members on its board of directors and its executive committee, ten of whom are regionally elected by the general membership and serve for three years; the other seven at-large directors are elected annually by the other directors. In addition to the executive meetings of the board, full SSA Board meetings are held twice a year and are open to the general membership. A support staff administers the daily business of the society from the headquarters offices.
The main responsibilities of the SSA are: Flight training and safety Technological research and development Services to members, such as organising SSA conventions and verifying badge claims Sponsorship and monitoring of competitions Promoting the sport and contact with the media Representing members' interests at meetings with Federal agencies in matters such as airspace Publishing Soaring magazine Richard C. du Pont Memorial Trophy Soaring Society of America Soaring Hall of Fame at the National Soaring Museum Soaring Safety Foundation
Start + Flug H-101
The H-101 Salto is an aerobatic glider of glass composite construction, developed in Germany in the 1970s. Based on the Standard Libelle H-201, it was designed by Ursula Hänle, widow of Eugen Hänle, former Director of Glasflügel, it was first produced by Start + Flug GmbH Saulgau. The H-101 differs from the Libelle in having a V-tail, showing its ancestry to the V-tailed Hütter H-30 GFK. Four flush-fitting air brakes were fitted to the trailing edges of the wings, replacing the more conventionally sited air brakes of the Standard Libelle; the Salto's air brakes are hinged at their midpoints so that half the surface projects above the wing and half below. The Salto prototype first flew on 6 March 1970, 67 had been delivered by early 1977, when production at Start + Flug GmbH Saulgau ceased. Five more Saltos were built from 1993 to 1996 by the German company "LTB Frank & Waldenberger", bringing total output of Salto gliders to 72; the Salto was again made available in the late 1980s by Doktor Fiberglas, set up by Ursula Hänle at Westerburg in West Germany as the Hänle H 101 Salto, available in utility and aerobatic versions, with the Utility version available with either short or long-span wings.
Data from Jane's World Sailplanes & Motor Gliders,General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 5.7 m Wingspan: 13.3 m'A' version15.5 m'U' versionHeight: 0.88 m Wing area: 8.58 m2 A version9.1 m2'U' versionAspect ratio: 20.6'A' version15.5 m'U' versionEmpty weight: 182 kg'A' version187 kg'U' versionMax takeoff weight: 280 kg'A' version310 kg'U' versionPerformance Stall speed: 70 km/h'A' version62 km/h'U' versionNever exceed speed: 280 km/h'A' version250 km/h'U' version 160 km/h on aero-tow 130 km/h on winch launchg limits: +7 -4.9'A' version Maximum glide ratio: 34.5'A' version at 94 km/h 37'U' version at 94 km/h Rate of sink: 0.6 m/s'A' version at 72 km/h at 250 kg 0.55 m/s'U' version at 72 km/h at 250 kg Wing loading: 32.6 kg/m2'A' version36.1 kg/m²'U' version 13.3 m wings 34 kg/m²'U' version 15.5 m wings Aircraft of comparable role and era Celair GA-1 Celstar Pilatus PC-11 AF SZD-59 Acro Related lists List of gliders Simons, Martin. Sailplanes 1965-2000. Königswinter: EQIP Werbung und Verlag G.m.b.
H. ISBN 978-3-9808838-1-8. Woollard, Mike; the Handbook of Glider Aerobatics. Shrewsbury: Airlife Pub. ISBN 978-1840371109. "EASA. SAS. A.028". Easa.europa.eu. Retrieved 19 January 2015. Http://www.frankundwaldenberger.de/index.php?firmengeschichte http://www.easa.europa.eu/ws_prod/c/doc/SAS/A.028/EASA. SAS. A.028_Haenle_H101_Salto_issue01.pdf
The Glasflügel H-401 "Kestrel" is a glider, developed in 1968 for the open class. It has a wingspan of 17 metres, it is named after the kestrel bird. The Kestrel can be seen as the prototype of today's 18 meter class. 129 Kestrel gliders were built by Glasflügel between 1968 and 1975. The British company Slingsby built the Kestrel under license as the T59 and T59B; the T59B was developed for the 1970 World Gliding Championships. On 18 May 2005, Gordon Boettger flew 2061 km in his Kestrel in lee waves along the Sierra Nevada in the USA. General characteristics Crew: One pilot Length: 6.72 m Wingspan: 17.00 m Wing area: 11.6 m2 Aspect ratio: 25 Empty weight: 260 kg Gross weight: 400 kg Performance Maximum speed: 250 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 43:1Armament Related development Slingsby KestrelAircraft of comparable role and era Schempp-Hirth Nimbus 2 SZD-38 Jantar 1 Related lists List of gliders Flight Manual Die Entwicklung der Kunststoffsegelflugzeuge, Dietmar Geistmann, Motorbuchverlag, ISBN 3-87943-483-2 Sailplane Directory