Transport in Glasgow
The city of Glasgow, Scotland has a transport system encompassing air, road, an underground rail line. Prior to 1962, the city was served by trams. Glasgow has two international airports and served by a seaplane terminal: Glasgow Airport known as Abbotsinch, is the closest of the two international airports and handles the majority of Glasgow's air traffic; this includes shuttle flights to and from London and the rest of the UK, continental flights to and from various cities in Europe, transatlantic links to New York, Cancún, several Canadian cities in addition to Dubai. Glasgow Prestwick International Airport is located 29 miles south west of the city in South Ayrshire and caters for charter flights, low-cost airlines, freight traffic. Glasgow Seaplane Terminal, located on the River Clyde, by Glasgow Science Centre in the city centre. There are two small airfields in the nearby towns of Cumbernauld, Strathaven, near East Kilbride; the city has two main line railway stations. Queen Street Station, located on George Square which connects Glasgow to the North of Scotland, Edinburgh.
Glasgow Central station, located on Gordon Street is the northern terminus of the West Coast Main Line, connects Glasgow with the South, is the rail gateway to England and the rest of the United Kingdom. Regular Virgin Trains West Coast express train services run from Central to London Euston while CrossCountry services operate via the East Coast Main Line and Birmingham to destinations as far south as Penzance. There were two additional mainline stations serving the city at one stage. One, St Enoch station, was sited at St Enoch Square not far from Central Station and parallel to the existing underground station of the same name, whilst the second, Buchanan Street station was located at the northern end of Buchanan Street just north of where the Royal Concert Hall stands near to Queen Street Station; these two stations were removed in the 1960s as a result of the Beeching Axe. The St Enoch Shopping Centre was built on the site of St Enoch Station in the 1980s and Buchanan House and part of the Glasgow Caledonian University campus now stand on the site of Buchanan Street Station.
Plans were devised in the post-war period to redevelop Glasgow as a whole. As part of the resulting "Bruce Report", it was proposed that Queen Street Station be demolished and replaced as a bus station and garage. Under this scheme only the low level Queen Street Station would be kept, as part of the suburban rail system, a new purpose built Glasgow North Station would be constructed on the site of Buchanan Street station; this plan was never followed through, Queen Street operates to this day, although Buchanan Street station closed in the 1960s. The chosen site for the Glasgow North Station is now occupied by the Buchanan bus station, the Buchanan Galleries shopping centre, the Royal Concert Hall and the Glasgow Passport Office. Glasgow and District Transport Plans from 1951 show the layout of the proposed station, available on: Hipkiss' Scanned Old Maps; the Bruce Report recommended the demolition of both Glasgow Central and St Enoch Stations and replacing them with a Glasgow South Station, but again this was never followed up.
There is a suburban above-ground rail system run by Abellio ScotRail to the specification and requirements of SPT, who provide rolling stock in the SPT livery of Carmine and Cream. It is centred on Central Station for the City south of the Clyde, the Ayrshire coast, ferry ports on the Clyde. Queen Street Station is for links with Edinburgh and the east coast of Scotland and west to and north to the Highlands on the famous West Highland Line; the North Clyde Line runs from Helensburgh and Balloch in the west to Edinburgh, passing through Queen Street Station. The rail based urban and suburban systems are run by Strathclyde Partnership for Transport. SPT is formed and financed out of the twelve unitary authorities in the Greater Glasgow area including Glasgow City Council, it has responsibility for the Subway, certain ferries and buses. SPT runs the largest suburban rail network outside London, incorporates 186 railway stations, 59 of them within Glasgow. There are links to East Kilbride, Coatbridge, Bathgate, Hamilton, Newton Mearns, Bishopton, Port Glasgow, Gourock & Wemyss Bay.
Milngavie, Largs, Cumbernauld, Dumbarton and Clydebank. Locals have long pressed for a link which will join the two halves of the urban railway network together, making possible through journeys via the central area without having to disembark at either Central or Queen Street and traverse the city centre by foot or road; the Glasgow Crossrail initiative has been on the drawing board for many years, but still awaits funding from central government, despite the favourable outcomes of a feasibility study carried out in 2003. Plans to connect Glasgow to London by a 270 mph Transrapid have emerged in June 2005. However, this proposal has now been shelved in favour of the proposed High Speed Two scheme from London to Birmingham, which may be extended to Glasgow. There are plans to connect Glasgow city with Glasgow International Airport, via a new rail link which it has been estimated will bring around 700 new jobs to the Paisley area; the Act of Parliament authorising construction of the link was passed by the Scottish Parliament on 29 November 2006 and received Royal Assent on 15 January 2007.
It was expected that the link would be in operation by 2013 but it has been cancelled by the Scottish Parliament as a cost-cutting measure. The city is the focal p
Glasgow Prestwick Airport
Glasgow Prestwick Airport is an international airport serving the west of Scotland, situated 1 nautical mile northeast of the town of Prestwick in South Ayrshire and 32 mi from the city centre of Glasgow. It is the less busy of the two airports serving the area, with the busier being Glasgow Airport, situated within the Greater Glasgow conurbation itself. Glasgow Prestwick is Scotland's fifth-busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic, after Edinburgh Airport, Glasgow Airport, Aberdeen Airport and Inverness Airport, although it is the largest in terms of land area. Passenger traffic peaked at 2.4 million in 2007 following a decade of rapid growth, driven in part by the boom in Low-cost carriers Ryanair which uses the airport as an operating base. In recent years, passenger traffic has declined; the airport began life around 1934 as a training airfield. A hangar, a control tower were constructed by the end of 1935; the airport's original owner was David Fowler McIntyre the owner of Scottish Aviation, with backing from the Duke of Hamilton.
MacIntyre and Hamilton had become, in 1933, the first aviators to fly over Mount Everest. Passenger facilities were added in 1938; these were used. The October 1946 USAAF diagram shows 6,600 ft runway 14/32 with 4,500 ft runway 8/26 crossing just west of its midpoint. In 1958, runway 13/31 was 7,000 ft long. A parallel taxiway, link road and an all-new terminal building were opened by the Queen Mother in 1964; the extension of Runway 13/31 caused considerable disruption to road users, for the main road from Monkton into Prestwick now crossed the tarmac of the runway. This was controlled by a "level crossing" system. In November 2013, the main runway was re-designated from 13/31 to 12/30 due to the magnetic north pole having drifted so much that the airport's runway needed to be re-numbered. In 1945, regular transatlantic commercial flights began between New York, it was the only Scottish airport allowed to operate a transatlantic link under the Bermuda and Bermuda II bilateral air transport agreements between the US and the UK, selected for the benign weather conditions on the Ayrshire coast.
Due to a geographical anomaly, Prestwick has a much lower incidence of fog than any other airport in the United Kingdom, has the reputation of being "Britain's only fog-free airport". For this reason it is used as a diversionary airport when weather conditions close aviation hubs elsewhere in the United Kingdom. Heavy snowfall in the severe winters of 2009 and 2010–2011 resulted in large numbers of intercontinental flights bound for London Heathrow and elsewhere being diverted to Prestwick; this may be one reason Prestwick managed to avoid total closure when it appeared that BAA were running down its operations. It was partly a political decision to silence those that questioned why Glasgow needed two airports when Glasgow Corporation had invested money building Glasgow International Airport. After British Airways had ceased regular passenger operations in 1983, BA continued to intermittently use Prestwick as a site for pilot training for training Concorde pilots. Concorde became a semi-regular visitor to the airport.
Prestwick still sees regular circuit training taking both military & commercial. The circuit aircraft are Boeing 757, Boeing 737 and the A320 Family. Military aircraft include the KC-10 Extender on fuel stops and the KDC10. Prestwick was the first airport in Scotland at which the Boeing 787 Dreamliner landed. In the Second World War the RAF controlled trans-Atlantic flights from Prestwick; the United States Air Force Military Air Transport Service 1631st Air Base Squadron opened a base in 1952 on the site of the original airport using former Royal Air Force facilities, in 1953 expanded to the Monkton side of the airport. The USAF base closed in 1966. Proposed plans had been drawn up prewar for the postwar years which were ambitious in the austere postwar years. Among the various proposals was a 4-mile long main runway, an integral freight yard and railway station, a semi-enclosed mooring for flying boats and other amphibious aircraft. However, the runway was never lengthened to that degree, the decline in seaplane and flying boat operations meant that the latter proposal was never enacted.
It is telling however, that many years since those proposals were made, Glasgow Prestwick Airport does have its own railway station, something that neither Glasgow International nor Edinburgh Airports have. Until February 2016 part of the Prestwick site was occupied by the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm with RNAS Prestwick known by the Royal Navy as HMS Gannet, where a detachment of 3 Sea Kings provided a search and rescue role, covering one of the largest SAR areas of the UK including Ben Nevis, the Lakes, Northern Ireland and 200 NM past the Irish coast. Additionally, Gannet SAR provided a medical evacuation service to the Scottish island communities. Personnel at the base numbered 11 ratings, 28 civil servants and 50 civilian staff; the crews featured as part of the popular Channel 5 documentary series Highland Emergency. 2009 saw the unit break a new record as they were tasked to 447 call-outs, 20% of the UK's total military SAR call outs for 2009 and making them, for the second year in succes
Glasgow city centre
Glasgow city centre is the central business district of Glasgow, Scotland. Is bounded by Saltmarket, High Street and Castle Street to the east and Clyde Street to the south and Newton Street to the west; the northern boundary follows Cathedral Street, North Hanover Street, Dobbie's Loan and Pheonix Road. Glasgow City Centre is composed of the areas of Garnethill, Blythswood Hill and Merchant City as well as parts of Cowcaddens, Townhead and Calton; the city centre is based on a grid system of streets, similar to that of Barcelona or American cities, on the north bank of the River Clyde. The heart of the city is George Square, site of many of Glasgow's public statues and the elaborate Victorian Glasgow City Chambers, headquarters of Glasgow City Council. To the south and west are the shopping precincts of Argyle Street, Sauchiehall Street and Buchanan Street, the latter featuring more upmarket retailers and winner of the Academy of Urbanism'Great Street Award' 2008; the main shopping centres are Buchanan Galleries and the St. Enoch Centre, with the up-market Princes Square and the Italian Centre specialising in designer labels.
The London-based department store Selfridges has purchased a potential development site in the city and another upmarket retail chain Harvey Nichols is thought to be planning a store in the city, further strengthening Glasgow's retail portfolio, which forms the United Kingdom's second largest and most economically important retail sector after Central London. The city centre is home to most of Glasgow's main cultural venues: The Theatre Royal (home of Scottish Opera and Scottish Ballet, The Pavilion, The King's Theatre, Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, Glasgow Film Theatre, Gallery of Modern Art, Mitchell Library, the Centre for Contemporary Arts, McLellan Galleries and The Lighthouse Museum of Architecture and the City; the world's tallest cinema, the eighteen-screen Cineworld, is situated on Renfrew Street. The city centre is home to four of Glasgow's higher education institutions: The University of Strathclyde, The Royal Conservatoire of Scotland, Glasgow School of Art and Glasgow Caledonian University.
To the east is the commercial and residential district of Merchant City. The Merchant City was the residential district of the wealthy city merchants in the 18th and early 19th centuries the Tobacco Lords from whom many of the streets take their name; as the Industrial Revolution and the wealth it brought to the city resulted in the expansion of Glasgow's central area westward, the original medieval centre was left behind. Glasgow Cross, situated at the junction of High Street, Gallowgate and Saltmarket was the original centre of the city, symbolised by its Mercat cross. Glasgow Cross encompasses the Tolbooth Clock Tower. Moving northward up High Street towards Rottenrow and Townhead lies the 15th century Glasgow Cathedral and the Provand's Lordship. Due to growing industrial pollution levels in the mid to late 19th century, the area fell out of favour with residents. From the late 1980s onwards, the Merchant City has been rejuvenated with luxury city centre apartments and warehouse conversions.
This regeneration has supported an increasing number of restaurants. The area is home to a number of high end boutique style shops and some of Glasgow's most upmarket stores; the Merchant City is the centre of Glasgow's growing'cultural quarter', based on King Street, the Saltmarket and Trongate, at the heart of the annual Merchant City Festival. The area has supported a huge growth in art galleries, the origins of which can be found in the late 80s when it attracted artist-led organisations that could afford the cheap rents required to operate in vacant manufacturing or retail spaces; the artistic and cultural potential of the Merchant City as a'cultural quarter' was harnessed by independent arts organisations and Glasgow City Council, the recent development of Trongate 103, which houses galleries, artist studios and production spaces, is considered a major outcome of the continued partnership between both. The area contains a number of theatres and concert venues, including the Tron Theatre, the Old Fruitmarket, the Trades Hall, St Andrew's in the Square, Merchant Square, the City Halls.
A large part of Glasgow's LGBT scene is located within the Merchant City. This includes many clubs, along with a couple of saunas; the city council defined the area known as Merchant City as far west as Buchanan Street, marking these boundaries with new stylised metal signage. To the western edge of the city centre, occupying the areas of [ and the southern edges of Blythswood Hill, lies Glasgow's financial district, known as the International Financial Services District, although irreverently nicknamed by the contemporary press as the "square kilometre" or "Wall Street on Clyde". Since the late 1980s the construction of many modern office blocks and high rise developments have paved the way for the IFSD to become one of the UKs largest financial quarters. With a reputation as an established financial services centre, coupled with comprehensive support services, Glasgow continues to attract and grow new business. Of the 10 largest general insurance companies in the UK, 8 have a base or head office in Glasgow - including Direct Line, Esure, AXA and Norwich Union.
Key banking sector companies have relocated some of their services to commercial property in Glasgow - Resolution, JPMorgan Chase, Abbey, HBOS, Barclays Wealth, Tesco Personal Finance, Morgan Stanley, Lloyds TSB, Clydesdale Bank, BNP Paribas, HSBC and
Glasgow City Chambers
The City Chambers or Municipal Buildings in Glasgow, has functioned as the headquarters of Glasgow City Council since 1996, of preceding forms of municipal government in the city since 1889, located on the eastern side of the city's George Square. An eminent example of Victorian civic architecture, the building was constructed between 1882 and 1888 to a competition winning design by Scottish architect William Young a native of Paisley. Inaugurated in August 1888 by Queen Victoria, the first council meeting was held within the chambers in October 1889; the building had an area of 5,016 square metres. In 1923, an extension to the east side of the building in John Street was opened and in 1984 Exchange House in George Street was completed, increasing the size of the City Chambers complex to some 14,000 square metres; the need for a new city chambers had been apparent since the 18th century, with the old Tolbooth at Glasgow Cross becoming insufficient for the purposes of civic government in a growing town with greater political responsibilities.
In 1814, the Tolbooth was sold – with the exception of the steeple, which still remains – and the council chambers moved to Jail Square in the Saltmarket, near Glasgow Green. Subsequent moves were made to Ingram Street. In the early 1880s, City Architect John Carrick was asked to identify a suitable site for a purpose built City Council Chambers. Carrick identified the east side of George Square, bought; the new City Chambers housed Glasgow Town Council from 1888 to 1895, when it was replaced by Glasgow Corporation. It remained the Corporation's headquarters until it was replaced by Glasgow District Council under the wider Strathclyde Regional Council in May 1975; the City Chambers has been the headquarters of Glasgow City Council since April 1996, when it replaced the District Council with the abolition of the Strathclyde Region. The building is in the Beaux arts style, an interpretation of Renaissance Classicism incorporating Italianate styles with a vast range of ornate decoration, used to express the wealth and industrial export-led economic prosperity of the Second City of the Empire.
The exterior sculpture, by James Alexander Ewing, included the central Jubilee Pediment as its centrepiece. Although intended to feature a figure symbolising Glasgow'with the Clyde at her feet sending her manufactures to all the world', the Pediment was redesigned to celebrate Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee, it depicts Victoria enthroned, surrounded by emblematic figures of Scotland, England and Wales, alongside the colonies of the British Empire. Ewing designed the apex sculptures of Truth and Honour, the statues of The Four Seasons on the Chamber's tower; the central apex figure of Truth is popularly known as Glasgow's Statue of Liberty, because of its close resemblance to the posed, but much larger, statue in New York harbour. The entrance hall of the Chambers displays a mosaic of the city's coat of arms on the floor; the arms reflect legends about Glasgow's patron saint, Saint Mungo, include four emblems – the bird, tree and fish – as remembered in the following verse: Here's the Bird that never flew Here's the Tree that never grew Here's the Bell that never rang Here's the Fish that never swamAn abstract tapestry hanging in the hall is intended to represent Glasgow's past and present.
Pillars of marble and granite give way to staircases of Carrara marble and alabaster, a ceiling decorated in gold leaf is topped by a stained glass dome. The Councillor's Corridor, containing councillors' mailboxes and decorated in Italian faience, leads to the Committee Rooms, where formal business committees meet, a library; the corridor leads into the Council Chamber. This is. There are seats for each of the 85 councillors, situated in a Hemicycle, all facing the Lord Provost, their Depute, the chief executive, who are seated behind the mace. A public gallery looks down on the proceedings, a small press gallery is located at the side; the Lord Provost's main office is decorated in the same Venetian style as the rest of the building. Famous visitors, including the British Royal family have signed the visitor book here; the municipal mace is kept in an ante-room leading to the Lord Provost's office. Part of the ritual of the Council's proceedings is that the mace is carried by the Council Officer when leading the Lord Provost into the Council Chamber to chair full council meetings.
The mace is made from gold-plated silver, was presented to the council in 1912. Adjacent to the Council Chamber, there are three rooms used for civic functions and large meetings: the Satinwood Salon, Octagonal Room, the Mahogany Salon; these rooms are decorated in woods as their names imply, house a selection of paintings. The banquet hall has witnessed many different types of events, from formal civil ones to record launches, fashion shows, children's Christmas parties and private functions. Nelson Mandela received his Freedom of the City here in 1993; the hall is 33.5 m long by 14.6 m 15.8 m high. The carpet comes in three sections which are rotated to prevent wear; the carpet design reflects the ornate pattern of the roof. Huge Glasgow School murals decorate the walls, depicting the granting of the city's charter, its history and culture, the four main Scottish rivers; the hall's electric chandeliers, or "electroliers", were designed in 1885. The daily tours of the Chambers conclude on the Upper Gallery on the third floor, which lets one see the detail on the dome visible from the other floors, as well as portraits of former Lord Provosts.
History of Glasgow
This article deals with the history of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. See Timeline of Glasgow history; the present site of Glasgow has been settled since prehistoric times. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. After the Romans left Caledonia, the settlement was part of the extensive Kingdom of Strathclyde, with its capital at Dumbarton 15 mi downstream, which merged in the 9th century with other regions to create the united Kingdom of Scotland; the origins of Glasgow as an established city derive from its medieval position as Scotland's second largest bishopric. Glasgow increased in importance during the 10th and 11th centuries as the site of this bishopric, reorganised by King David I of Scotland and John, Bishop of Glasgow. There had been an earlier religious site established by Saint Mungo in the 6th century.
The bishopric became one of the largest and wealthiest in the Kingdom of Scotland, bringing wealth and status to the town. Between 1175 and 1178 this position was strengthened further when Bishop Jocelin obtained for the episcopal settlement the status of Burgh from King William I of Scotland, allowing the settlement to expand with the benefits of trading monopolies and other legal guarantees. Sometime between 1189 and 1195 this status was supplemented by an annual fair, which survives as the Glasgow Fair. By the 12th century Glasgow had been granted the status of what can now be called a city and the cathedral was the seat of the Bishops and the Archbishops of Glasgow. While there may have been wooden buildings on the site, the first stone cathedral was consecrated in about 1136 and replaced by a bigger one, consecrated in 1197. In the 15th century a private chapel was made to St Machan in the north nave to devolve to the congregation at the death of the founder. Extensions and alterations to the cathedral buildings have continued since.
The most recent addition was the Millennium Window unveiled on 3 June 1999. After the Reformation in 1560, the Catholic rituals ended and the Catholic statues and symbols were removed or painted over; the large Cathedral served three different Presbyterian parishes simultaneously. The choir was used by the Inner High parish; the nave was used by the Outer High parish. The crypt was used by Laigh parish. In 1451 the University of Glasgow was founded by Papal Bull and established in religious buildings in the precincts of Glasgow Cathedral. By the start of the 16th century, Glasgow had become an important religious and academic city and by the 17th century the university had moved from the cathedral precincts to its own building in the High Street. After 1870 the university attained international stature; the University's teaching quality was assessed in 2009 to be among the top 10 in Britain, along with its reputation as a "research powerhouse." By the 16th century, the city's trades and craftsmen had begun to wield significant influence the Incorporation of Tailors, which in 1604 was the largest guild in Glasgow.
With the discovery of the New World and the trade routes it opened up, Glasgow was ideally placed to become an important trading centre with the Clyde providing access to the city and the rest of Scotland for merchant shipping. Its path to success was not to be easy, however: in 1651, the English Navigation Acts were passed, making it illegal for non-English ships to trade with English colonies. Non-English ships were banned from carrying goods from outside Europe to England or its colonies. Scotland's first attempt at transatlantic trade had failed in 1629, when the Anglo-French Wars led to the loss of Scotland's fledgling colony of Nova Scotia. A second attempt at a Scottish colony, the Darien scheme, ended in disaster, bankrupting the country in 1700, they were not deterred, continuing small-scale smuggling with English colonies until the Act of Union in 1707. Access to the Atlantic Ocean allowed the import of goods such as American tobacco and cotton, Caribbean sugar, which were traded throughout the United Kingdom and Europe.
These imports flourished after 1707. By 1760, Glasgow had outstripped London as the main port for tobacco in the United Kingdom; the American War of Independence put an end to most American trade, leading to financial ruin for some. Glasgow's transformation from a provincial town to an international business hub was based on its control of the 18th-century tobacco trade with America; the trade was interrupted by the American Revolutionary War, never recovered to a fourth of its old trade. The tobacco merchants grew rich. Merchants turned their attention to textile manufacture; the trade made a group of Tobacco Lords wealthy. The merchants constructed spectacular buildings and monuments that can still be seen today, reinvested their money in industrial development to help Glasgow grow further; as the city's wealth increased, its centre expanded westwards as the lush Victorian architecture of what is now known as the Merchant City area began to spring up. New public buildings such a
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p