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Glasgow Fair

The Glasgow Fair is a holiday held during the second half of July in Glasgow, Scotland.'The Fair' is the oldest of similar holidays and dates to the 12th century. The fair's earliest incarnation occurred in 1190, when Bishop Jocelin obtained permission from King William the Lion to hold the festivities; until the 1960s, most local businesses and factories closed on'Fair Friday' to allow workers and their families to attend spending their time in the Firth of Clyde or Ayrshire coast. This practice was known as going "doon the watter"; the Glasgow Fair was held within the boundaries of Glasgow Cathedral. In its earliest incarnations, the fair focused on economic practicalities such as the sale of horses and cattle. In the modern era, the fair has become known for its amusements, with circus and theatre shows as centerpieces; the Glasgow Fair has been a nexus for traveling showmen, who congregate in order to take advantage of the large audiences. This provided the fair with a diverse roster of performances.

The 1912 fair, for example, featured a traditional penny gaff as well as short melodramas. The Glasgow Fair served to introduce attendees to changes in industry and commerce; the 1912 fair presented a scenic railway that took visitors on a simulated ride through Japan and back to Scotland. Starting in the 1900s, the Glasgow Fair focused on introducing attendees to global events. In 1917, the following advertisement was printed in a local publication on: No longer need we envy the privileged few who visit the battlefields of France and Belgium. A visit to Green’s Carnival at Whitevale, Gallowgate permits us for the small sum of twopence to go over one of the world’s most historic salients. Wounded soldiers who have taken part in the fighting in and around Ypres have conceived the idea of constructing a full sized reproduction of the Trenches, with Dug-outs, Trench Hospitals, Dressing Stations. Officers and men’s sleeping quarters, telegraph stations, ruined farmhouses and their devastated interiors.

We are further permitted to examine the trench mortars and the ‘plum puddings’ the Huns so dislike. Barbed wire entanglements and gun -carriage wheels give realistic touches to the ridges, sand-bags by the million form embankments and defences on the most modern plans; this visit is as instructive. Private George Wilson, Edinburgh’s Newsboy V. C and others who have helped make history by their bravery will act as guides and explain the ins and outs of Trench life to visitors; the Carnival at Whitevale has long been one of Glasgow’s holiday attractions and this year it will prove a veritable mecca for those in need of recreation and amusement. The fair continues to be held annually, though attendance decreased and a large portion of the fair was relocated to Vinegarhill. Marwick, J. D. ed.. "IV: Charter of the king's peace to all frequenting Glasgow fair". Charters and Documents Relating to the City of Glasgow 1175–1649 Part 2. Glasgow: Scottish Burgh Records Society. P. 7. Retrieved 15 November 2018 – via British History Online

Winter Garden at Exposition Hall

The Winter Garden at Exposition Hall was a multi-purpose facility, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was designed by Joseph Stillburg, it stood on the current site of Point State Park. The facility consisted of three buildings: Main Hall, Music Hall and Machinery Hall; the Exposition was supposed to be a place for social gatherings where ideas and goods could be exchanged. In 1885, Western Pennsylvania Exposition Society called the Pittsburgh Exposition Society, was organized. During this era international expositions and county fairs and municipal expositions were common. In fact, the Exposition Society was an outgrowth of an association that conducted the earlier expositions on the city's North Shore, on the spot where Exposition Park, the home of the Pittsburgh Pirates until 1909, stood; the society was a non-profit-sharing organization, having been established by public-spirited citizens for the benefit of the community. The Pittsburgh Exposition, were determined to have a venue that offered the feel of a county fair with the mystique of a World's Fair.

A year after the society formed, the Pittsburgh City Council approved the purchase of land at the city's Point, along the shore of the Allegheny River. Exposition lifetime memberships and popular subscriptions raised nearly $1 million to complete the facility's construction; the city granted the organization a 50-year lease. The first exposition took place in September 1889 and was open to both Pittsburgh and out-of-state residents; the facility had a daily average attendance of 10,000 during the fall months. Victor Herbert and John Philip Sousa both played at the Exposition. Meanwhile, fashion shows from New York and Paris attracted high-society women, while free samples of balloons and dairy products captured the attention of ordinary citizens. A roller coaster, Ferris wheel and merry-go-round helped lure the children of western Pennsylvania to the facility; the complex had 100,000 square feet of exhibit space, an art gallery and the Music Hall that held 5,500 patrons. People traveled from great distances to join the locals.

Over the years, the annual exhibitions were the most successful in the country. However, disaster struck the Exposition in 1901, when the complex was destroyed by a fire on St. Patrick's Day; the fire was caused by wind-blown embers from a nearby stable fire. The blaze engulfed the great Main Hall, leaving Machinery Hall the only surviving building on the six-acre site. Most of the Exposition was rebuilt at a cost of $600,000 and included new versions of Machinery Hall, the Main Hall and the Music Hall; the new Main Hall was constructed of steel and massive brick walls. The Main Hall's heavy doors were adorned with cut white stone and the interior was decorated and illuminated by 1,500 incandescent lights under a vaulted and girdered ceiling. However, by 1910, other cities, holding expositions dropped out of the field, but the Pittsburgh Exposition Society held on. While during the last decade, public interest in such affairs was declining, the society secured large attendance every year by increasing the facility's musical attractions by booking the greatest orchestras and bands of the country.

The last exposition was held in the fall of 1916. On that occasion, the receipts fell off from the average of about $30,000, the returns did not pay the expenses of the season. Over the next two years, hosting an exposition was deemed impossible, due to World War I and a polio epidemic. Around 1914, public interest in ice skating was growing in Pittsburgh and that interest served as the focus for converting the Main Hall into the Winter Garden. Hockey was a growing sport in Pittsburgh and had been played at the Duquesne Gardens, located in the city's Oakland neighborhood; however ice time at the Gardens was scarce. In 1915, chiller pipes and concrete were added to the floor of the Main Hall to create an impressive ice surface; the Winter Garden used the latest technology to produce dry ice. The refrigeration plant was located in Machinery Hall 500 feet away and circulated a brine solution through 125,000 feet of pipe below the ice surface; the ice-making system used the latestest technology and pumped an ice-making solution at a rate of 15,000 gallons every minute to produce a minus 30 temperature on the floor.

In 1915, Arthur Sixsmith became the manager of the Winter Garden's hockey team. The team was based at the Winter Garden. However, the team only lasted one season, before disbanding in 1916. Meanwhile, Roy Schooley, the manager of the Duquesne Gardens, began putting together his "Duquesne Garden hockey team". A feud soon began between the two clubs; the Duquesne and Winter Garden teams each played out-of-town opponents on the same night, in direct competition of one another. Many of the other teams that used the Winter Garden were members of the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League, which included teams such as the Pittsburgh Keystones, Pittsburgh Duquesne and Pittsburgh Lyceum used the Winter Garden for matches. Soon after one of Pittsburgh's earliest women's league formed at the Winter Garden; the size of the playing surface used for the Exposition's hockey games was 300 feet x 140 feet and was bigger than today's international size rinks. By comparison, today's National Hockey League rinks measure 200 feet x 85 feet.

The increased size wore down

List of Jacksonville Jaguars records

This page details the team and NFL records for the Jacksonville Jaguars American football team. Passing Attempts: 606, Blake Bortles Completions: 355, Blake Bortles Completion Percentage: 64.5%, David Garrard Yards: 4,428, Blake Bortles Rating: 102.2, David Garrard Touchdowns: 35, Blake Bortles Interceptions: 20, Mark Brunell Least Interceptions: 3, David Garrard Rushing Attempts: 345, Fred Taylor Yards: 1,606, Maurice Jones-Drew Average Yards per Attempt: 5.7, Maurice Jones-Drew Touchdowns: 15, Maurice Jones-Drew Receiving Receptions: 116, Jimmy Smith Receiving Yards: 1,636, Jimmy Smith Receiving Touchdowns: 14, Allen Robinson Kicking Field Goals: 31, Mike Hollis Field Goal Percentage: 92.3% Mike Hollis, Josh Scobee Longest Field Goal: 59 yards, Josh Scobee Kick/Punt returning Longest Kick Return: 100 yards, Maurice Jones-Drew Longest Punt Return: 85 yards, Reggie Barlow Kick Return Touchdowns: 1, Jimmy Smith, Reggie Barlow, Alvis Whitted, Elvis Joseph, Derrick Wimbush, Maurice Jones-Drew Punt Return Touchdowns: 1, Reggie Barlow, Bobby Shaw, Mike Thomas, Rashad Greene, Jaydon Mickens Passing Attempts: 3,616, Mark Brunell Completions: 2,184, Mark Brunell Yards: 25,698, Mark Brunell Touchdowns: 144, Mark Brunell Interceptions: 86, Mark Brunell Rating: 85.8, David Garrard Rushing Attempts: 2,428, Fred Taylor Yards: 11,271, Fred Taylor Touchdowns: 68, Maurice Jones-Drew Receiving Receptions: 862, Jimmy Smith Yards: 12,287, Jimmy Smith Touchdowns: 67, Jimmy Smith Defense Sacks: 55, Tony Brackens Interceptions: 30, Rashean Mathis Interception Touchdowns: 3, Rashean Mathis Fumble Touchdown Returns: 2, Aaron Beasley Kicking Field Goal Attempts: 291, Josh Scobee Field Goals Made: 235, Josh Scobee Kick/Punt returning Kick Return Touchdowns: 2, Maurice Jones-Drew Punt Return Touchdowns: 2, Reggie Barlow First Win: vs. Houston Oilers 10/1/95 First Touchdown: Steve Beuerlein to Randy Jordan, vs.

Cincinnati Bengals 9/10/95 First Passing/Receiving Touchdown: Steve Beuerlein to Randy Jordan, vs. Cincinnati Bengals 9/10/95 First Rushing Touchdown: Mark Brunell, vs. Cincinnati Bengals 9/10/95 First Fumble Returned for a Touchdown: Chris Hudson vs. Tennessee Oilers 11/2/97 First Interception Returned for a Touchdown: Mickey Washington, vs. Cleveland Browns 10/22/95 First Kick Return for a Touchdown: Jimmy Smith, vs. Denver Broncos 12/3/95 First Punt Return for a Touchdown: Reggie Barlow, vs. New England Patriots 12/7/97 First 3,000 yard passer in a season: Mark Brunell, 1996 First 1,000 yard rusher in a season: Fred Taylor, 1998 First 1,000 yard receiver in a season: Jimmy Smith, Keenan McCardell, 1996

Politics of California

The recent and current politics of the U. S. state of California are complex and involve a number of entrenched interests.. The Big Five is an informal institution of the legislative leadership role in California's government, consisting of the governor, the Assembly speaker, the Assembly minority leader, the Senate president pro tempore, the Senate minority leader. Members of the Big Five meet in private to discuss bills pending in the legislature; because the party caucus leaders in California's legislature control the party's legislative campaign funds, the leaders wield tremendous power over their caucus members. They are thus able to exert some influence in their caucus's votes in Big Five meetings. Only the Democratic Party and Republican Party have representation in the State Legislature. However, for a brief period around the turn of the 21st century, one member of the Green Party was a member of the State Assembly, representing the eastern San Francisco Bay Area. California uses the plurality voting system in its elections, but some municipalities such as San Francisco and Berkeley have opted to use a system of preferential voting used in Australia and Ireland, more popularly known in the United States as instant-runoff voting or ranked choice voting.

Local elections in California at the county and city level are non-partisan and political party affiliations are not included on local election ballots. The first presidential election the state participated in was 1852 in which it was carried by Democrat Franklin Pierce. From the Civil War onward, California was a reliably Republican stronghold for decades. Beginning with the 1932 election, the state shifted into the Democrat camp. Franklin Roosevelt carried all but one county in the state in 1932, in 1936 all counties. Roosevelt's third and fourth presidential elections saw; the 1952 election saw California shift back to a red state as Dwight Eisenhower carried all but three counties. Aside from 1964, California was a reliably Republican state in every presidential election until 1992, when it was carried by Bill Clinton; the state has voted Democrat in every presidential election since usually by lopsided margins. Voting patterns since 1992 have remained consistent, with Democratic presidential candidates carrying the coastal counties and Republicans the inland counties.

At the state level, California has had more mixed voting tendencies. Six of the state's first seven governors were Democrats. From 1899 to 1939 all governors were Republican, but since that time the governorship has switched parties regularly; the two major political parties in California that have representation in the State Legislature and U. S. Congress are the Republican Party. There are four other parties that qualify for official ballot status: the American Independent Party, Green Party, Libertarian Party, Peace and Freedom Party. Of the 19,696,371 California voters registered for the November 6, 2018, general election: 43.5% were Democrats 24.0% were Republicans 5.0% were affiliated with other political parties 27.5% were unaffiliated voters Many of California's governmental agencies and programs have been established in the Constitution of California. Additionally, the state constitution establishes mandatory funding levels for some agencies and institutions; this issue came to the forefront when Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and the California Legislature attempted to cut spending to close the state's multibillion-dollar budget deficits during the 2000s.

Affected agencies with support from special interest groups pressed the California Supreme Court to order the restoration of funding to a number of agencies and programs, cut. There have been several events, many dubbed "constitutional crises" by their opponents, over the last thirty-two years including: the passage of term limits for the California legislature and elected constitutional officers, hotly argued statewide, debated in the Supreme Court of California. A failure to pass a budget until three months after the constitutional deadline. Northern California's inland areas and the Central Valley are Republican areas. Parts of Southern California, such as Orange County and Riverside County were Republican Bastions, however they have continued to trend Democratic in recent decades, with all five congressional districts flipping Democrat in 2018. Coastal California, including such areas as the Bay Area, Los Angeles, San Diego and Sacramento areas are Democratic areas; as most of the population is in Southern California and the San Francisco Bay Area, California as a whole tends to be liberal.

California was a Republican stronghold in presidential elections from 1952 until 1992. During this period, the Republicans won California in every election except the election of 1964. In these years, the GOP nominated Californians as presidential candidates: Richard Nixon in 1960 and 1972, Ronald Reagan in 1980 and 1984. Since how

Lucius Valerius Catullus Messalinus

Lucius Valerius Catullus Messalinus was a Roman senator during the Flavian dynasty, is best known as the most hated and ruthless delator or informer of his age. He was feared all the more due to his blindness. Bartolomeo Borghesi supposed Messalinus was the son of Statilia Messalina, third wife of Nero, but by a previous marriage. However, as Ronald Syme pointed out, that "would make her older than Otho, bring her close in age to Valeria Messalina." So in his stemma of the descendants of Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus, Syme makes Statilia and Catullus Messalinus sister and brother. However, Rutledge identifies the parents of Messalinus as Valerius Catullus and Statilia Messalina, it is unclear how he is related to the suffect consul of AD 31, Sextus Tedius Valerius Catullus, the only other consular Valerius Catullus. Messalinus was twice consul; the first time was as consul ordinarius in AD 73, when he was the colleague of the emperor Domitian. The second time was as consul suffectus with Quintus Julius Cordinus Gaius Rutilius Gallicus for the nundinium of March-April 85.

That Messalinus held the consulate twice despite his blindness is a unique achievement: Richard Talbert notes that blindness would disqualify a man from membership in the Senate, let alone deprive him of seeking further office. Talbert cites the jurist Ulpian's opinion on this, as well as Dio Cassius' statement that in 13 BC Augustus would not consider anyone, disabled for the Senate. Messalinus must have proven his worth to Domitian for the emperor to make these exceptions; the names of none of the targets of his accusations or prosecutions have come down to us. Until August 93, Messalinus did not make any accusations in the Senate, instead playing a role behind the scenes in the consilium of the emperor Domitian. Nonetheless, he is not known to have held any other official posts. Messalinus had died by AD 97, the date of a dinner party hosted by emperor Nerva, the successor of Domitian, where he asked, "If he had gone on living, what do you think would have become of him?"


Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillus species and some Penicillium species P. verrucosum. Ochratoxin A is the most prevalent and relevant fungal toxin of this group, while ochratoxins B and C are of lesser importance. Ochratoxin A is known to occur in commodities such as cereals, dried fruit, red wine, it is a human carcinogen and is of special interest as it can be accumulated in the meat of animals. Thus and meat products can be contaminated with this toxin. Exposure to ochratoxins through diet can cause acute toxicity in mammalian kidneys, it has been suggested that carriers of alleles associated with phenylketonuria may have been protected from spontaneous abortion caused by ochratoxin exposure, providing a heterozygous advantage for the alleles despite the possibility of severe mental retardation in the rarer instance of inheritance from both parents. Extensive information about mycotoxins and animal feed