British Rail Class 380
The Class 380 Desiro is a type of electric multiple-unit train that operates on the national railway network in Scotland. The Siemens "Desiro UK" family includes units of Classes 185, 350, 360, 444 and 450. Class 380 trains now operate alongside Class 385 units on the electrified line from Glasgow Queen Street to Cumbernauld, Falkirk Grahamston and Edinburgh; the trains operate Abellio ScotRail services in the Ayrshire and Inverclyde region of Scotland and had been intended for the cancelled Glasgow Airport Rail Link. The construction was awarded to Siemens and announced by Transport Scotland on 11 July 2008. A total of 38 sets were ordered. Stations along the Ayrshire Coast Line and Inverclyde Line underwent platform extension works to allow the use of the longer trains; the trains were specified to have full access for disabled people and to have streamlined end corridor connections. On the unveiling of the first completed vehicle, it was announced that the fleet would be divided into two sub-groups, with the three-car units Class 380/0 and the four-car as Class 380/1.
In September 2010, commissioning of the fleet was suspended by ScotRail due to technical issues with the trains. The reliability issues and extended commissioning period resulted in an reduced service on parts of the ScotRail network, including the newly re-opened Airdrie-Bathgate line; the fleet is based at Glasgow Shields Road TMD. Introduction of the fleet resulted in the cascading of the Class 334 "Juniper" and Class 318 fleet which operated the Ayrshire Coast Line and Inverclyde Line; the North Berwick Line operations was a Class 322 fleet replacement. The Class 334 "Juniper" stock were cascaded onto the North Clyde Line to Edinburgh Waverley, the Class 318s were cascaded onto the Argyle Line, Class 322 cascaded onto the Wakefield Line with Northern Rail; as of 2019, The Class 380 operates trains between Glasgow Central and Ayr, Ardrossan, Wemyess Bay and Cathcart Circle, In addition they operate trains between Edinburgh and Glasgow Queen Street via Falkirk Grahamston, North Berwick and Dunbar.
They can operate to Stirling and Alloa if required. The fleet was introduced into public service on 8 December 2010 with 380111 operated the 16:26 from Paisley Gilmour Street to Ayr, followed on 9 December 2010 by 380102 and 380001 which worked the 15:30 Glasgow Central to Ayr service; the North Berwick Line has been using these trains since 2011. From 21 November 2012, the Class 380 has operated the Paisley Canal Line. Electrification of the section of line from Corkerhill to Paisley Canal, to a plan devised by a ScotRail and Network Rail alliance, began in July 2012 and was completed in November 2012; the electrification works were undertaken during night time and weekend possessions, resulting in the route closing after 8pm Monday to Thursday, all day on Saturdays, for an eight-day period in October, with work starting on 29 September 2012 and intending to be completed by 8 November 2012. Class 314 and Class 380 "Desiro" electric multiple units supplemented the existing Class 156 "Super Sprinter" diesel multiple units from energisation of the wires in November 2012.
From the timetable change in December 2012, the Class 156 "Super Sprinter" were moved to other routes. Following the December 2014 timetable change, with the electrification of the Whifflet Line, services to Lanark were re-routed into Glasgow Central High Level. Alongside the usual Class 318 and Class 320 units, the Class 380 has been used on the route; the Class 380 operates some services on the electrified line between Glasgow Queen Street and Edinburgh Waverley via Falkirk. As of December 2017, the units have started operating on the line over a year late. Class 380 formations and arrival dates on scot-rail.co.uk
RMS Queen Mary
The RMS Queen Mary is a retired British ocean liner that sailed on the North Atlantic Ocean from 1936 to 1967 for the Cunard Line – known as Cunard-White Star Line when the vessel entered service. She was the flagship of the Cunard and White Star Lines, built by John Brown & Company in Clydebank, Queen Mary, along with RMS Queen Elizabeth, were built as part of Cunard's planned two-ship weekly express service between Southampton and New York; the two ships were a British response to the express superliners built by German and French companies in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Queen Mary was the flagship of the Cunard Line from May 1936 until October 1946 when she was replaced in that role by Queen Elizabeth. Queen Mary won the Blue Riband that August. With the outbreak of the Second World War, she was converted into a troopship and ferried Allied soldiers during the war. Following the war, Queen Mary was refitted for passenger service and along with Queen Elizabeth commenced the two-ship transatlantic passenger service for which the two ships were built.
The two ships dominated the transatlantic passenger transportation market until the dawn of the jet age in the late 1950s. By the mid-1960s, Queen Mary was ageing and, though still among the most popular transatlantic liners, was operating at a loss. After several years of decreased profits for Cunard Line, Queen Mary was retired from service in 1967, she left Southampton for the last time on 31 October 1967 and sailed to the port of Long Beach, United States, where she remains permanently moored. Much of the machinery, including one of the two engine rooms, three of the four propellers, all of the boilers, were removed; the ship serves as a tourist attraction featuring a museum and a hotel. The ship is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the National Trust for Historic Preservation has accepted the Queen Mary as part of the Historic Hotels of America. With Germany launching Bremen and Europa into service, Britain did not want to be left behind in the shipbuilding race. White Star Line began construction on their 80,000-ton Oceanic in 1928, while Cunard planned a 75,000-ton unnamed ship of their own.
Construction on the ship known only as "Hull Number 534", began in December 1930 on the River Clyde by the John Brown & Company shipyard at Clydebank in Scotland. Work was halted in December 1931 due to the Great Depression and Cunard applied to the British Government for a loan to complete 534; the loan was granted, with enough money to complete the unfinished ship, to build a running mate, with the intention to provide the weekly service to New York with just two ships. One condition of the loan was that Cunard would merge with the White Star Line, Cunard's chief British rival at the time and, forced by the depression to cancel construction of its Oceanic. Both lines agreed and the merger was completed on 10 May 1934. Work on Queen Mary resumed and she was launched on 26 September 1934. Completion took 3 1⁄2 years and cost 3.5 million pounds sterling. Much of the ship's interior was constructed by the Bromsgrove Guild. Prior to the ship's launch, the River Clyde had to be deepened to cope with her size, this being undertaken by the engineer D. Alan Stevenson.
The ship was named after Mary of Teck, consort of King George V. Until her launch, the name was kept a guarded secret. Legend has it that Cunard intended to name the ship Victoria, in keeping with company tradition of giving its ships names ending in "ia", but when company representatives asked the king's permission to name the ocean liner after Britain's "greatest queen", he said his wife, Mary of Teck, would be delighted, and so, the legend goes, the delegation had of course no other choice but to report that No. 534 would be called Queen Mary. This story was denied by company officials, traditionally the names of sovereigns have only been used for capital ships of the Royal Navy; some support for the story was provided by Washington Post editor Felix Morley, who sailed as a guest of the Cunard Line on Queen Mary's 1936 maiden voyage. In his 1979 autobiography, For the Record, Morley wrote that he was placed at table with Sir Percy Bates, chairman of the Cunard Line. Bates told him the story of the naming of the ship "on condition you won't print it during my lifetime."
The name Queen Mary could have been decided upon as a compromise between Cunard and the White Star Line, as both lines had traditions of using names either ending in "ic" with White Star and "ia" with Cunard. The name had been given to the Clyde turbine steamer TS Queen Mary, so Cunard made an arrangement with its owners and this older ship was renamed Queen Mary II. Queen Mary was fitted with 24 Yarrow boilers in four boiler rooms and four Parsons turbines in two engine rooms; the boilers delivered 400 pounds per square inch steam at 700 °F which provided a maximum of 212,000 shp to four propellers, each turning at 200 RPM. Queen Mary achieved 32.84 knots on her acceptance trials in early 1936. In 1934 the new liner was launched by Queen Mary as RMS Queen Mary. On her way down the slipway, Queen Mary was slowed by eighteen drag chains, which checked the liner's progress into the River Clyde, a portion of, widened to accommodate the launch; when she sailed on her maiden voyage from Southampton on 27 May 1936, she was commanded by Sir Edgar T. Britten, the master designate for Cunard White Star whilst the ship was under construction at the John Brown shipyar
The Hillman Imp is a small economy car made by the Rootes Group and its successor Chrysler Europe from 1963 until 1976. Revealed on 3 May 1963, after much advance publicity, it was the first British mass-produced car with the engine block and cylinder head cast in aluminium. Being a direct competitor to the BMC's Mini, it used a space-saving rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout to allow as much luggage and passenger capacity as possible in both the rear and the front of the car, it used. In addition to its aluminium engine, it was the first mass-produced British car to have an engine in the back and the first car to use a diaphragm spring clutch; the baulk-ring synchromesh unit for the transaxle compensated for the speeds of gear and shaft before engagement, which the Mini had suffered from during its early production years. It incorporated many design features which were uncommon in cars until the late 1970s such as a folding rear bench seat, automatic choke and gauges for temperature and oil pressure.
This unorthodox small/light car was designed for the Rootes Group by Tim Fry. It was manufactured at the purpose-built Linwood plant in Scotland. Along with the Hillman marque was a series of variations including an estate car, a van and a coupé; the Imp gained a reputation as a successful rally car when Rosemary Smith won the Tulip Rally in 1965. This led the Rootes Group to produce a special rally conversion of the Imp under both the Hillman and Singer marques known as the Imp Rallye. In 1966, after winning the Coupe des Dames, Smith was disqualified under a controversial ruling regarding the headlamps of her Imp; the Imp was successful in touring car racing when Bill McGovern won the British Saloon Car Championship in 1970, 1971 and 1972. It was considered by some to be advanced for the time, with its various innovative features and technical advantages over other cars, but reliability problems harmed its reputation, which led to the Rootes Group being taken over by Chrysler Europe in 1967.
The Imp continued in production until 1976. Known internally at Rootes as the "Apex" project, the Imp was to be the group's first post-Second World War small car, its main rival on the home market was the BMC Mini, which preceded the Imp by four years. The Hillman Imp was announced on 2 May 1963 when HRH Duke of Edinburgh was invited to open the factory in Linwood. After the opening, he drove a silver Imp to Glasgow Airport. One of the first Imps produced is on display at the Glasgow Museum of Transport. Another early example from 1963 is at the National Motor Museum, Beaulieu with the registration 1400 SC. Before and after its announcement, the Imp garnered significant attention from the motoring press. In 1962 the Small Car & Mini Owner magazine published an article titled "Enter the AJAX!" Making notability of the all-aluminium water-cooled rear engine. The same year, The Express published an article titled "It's the new'baby'", calling it "the first baby car built by the Rootes Group". In June 1963, the Motor Sport magazine commented on the press' reaction to the Imp who favoured the Imp in terms of its engine and competitive price.
The name'Imp' was the name of an engine produced by Ailsa Craig Ltd. In 1962 the company was acquired by Warsop Fram Group, all of Ailsa Craig Ltd's assets were up for sale; the Warsop Fram Group traded the Imp name to the Rootes Group in exchange for a new Humber Super Snipe motor car. The namesake was to emphasize its small-size, to help it sell as the obvious competitor for the Mini; the water-cooled four cylinder power unit was based on the Coventry Climax FWMA fire pump engine featuring an all-aluminium alloy over-head cam, combined with a full-syncromesh aluminium transaxle. This combination was advanced at the time. Sir Alec Issigonis, designer of the BMC's Mini, had described the fitting of syncromesh on all forward gears as "impossible". Besides the engine's unique design, it was canted at a 45° angle to keep the center of gravity low and optimise road-holding; as reported in tests such as The Practical Car and Driver, rear-engined cars suffer from oversteer handling characteristics to some extent, to counteract this as much as possible, the Imp has a semi-trailing arm independent rear suspension system.
This costly and sophisticated solution, atypical for small-car design at the time, was insisted upon by its designers after testing at length a Chevrolet Corvair with swing axles. To attain balanced handling, the Imp uses swing axle geometry at the front, but this led to too much understeer and the camber was reduced by lowering the pivot points. Increasing in popularity in the UK, Mark I sales in 1963 estimated 33,000 and increased to 50,142 in 1964; however the Imp had decreased in sales in 1965 to 42,663. Reliability problems due to poor cooling of the rear engine, had soon surfaced, the public image of the car was becoming negative; this was worrying for the Rootes Group who were trying to compete with the Mini when its production had totalled 1,190,000 during the 1960s. The Mark I was appeared in two models. In October 1964, a luxury edition was introduced known as the Singer Chamois. From the initial problems that surrounded the Mark I, the Rootes Group envisioned to re-introduce the Imp with significant changes both mechanically and cosmetically.
The Mk I Imps had a pneumatic throttle lin
The Hillman Avenger is a rear-wheel drive small family car manufactured by the former Rootes division of Chrysler Europe from 1970–1978, badged from 1976 onward as the Chrysler Avenger. Between 1979 and 1981 it was badged as the Talbot Avenger; the Avenger was marketed in North America as the Plymouth Cricket. The Avenger was produced at Rootes' plant in Ryton-on-Dunsmore, at the company's Linwood facility near Glasgow, Scotland. Introduced in February 1970, the Avenger was significant as it was the first and last car to be developed by Rootes after the Chrysler takeover in 1967. Stylistically, the Avenger was undoubtedly much in tune with its time, it was similar in appearance to the larger Ford Cortina#TC Mark III, launched in 1970. However, from an engineering perspective it was rather conventional, using a 4-cylinder all-iron overhead valve engine in 1250 or 1500 capacities driving a coil spring suspended live axle at the rear wheels. Unlike any previous Rootes design, there were no "badge-engineered" Humber or Singer versions in the UK market.
The Avenger was highly praised by the press for its good handling characteristics and good overall competence on the road and it was considered a better car to drive than contemporaries like the Morris Marina. The Avenger was available as a four-door saloon in DL, Super and GL trim levels; the DL and Super could be had with either the 1250 or 1500 cc engines, but the GL was only available with the 1500 cc engine. Since the DL was the basic model in the range, it featured little more than rubber mats and a simple dashboard with a strip-style speedometer; the Super was a bit better equipped, featuring carpets, twin horns and reversing lights, though the dashboard was carried over from the DL. The top-spec GL model featured four round headlights, internal bonnet release, two-speed wipers, brushed nylon seat trim, reclining front seats, a round-dial dashboard with extra instrumentation. Not only was the Avenger's styling new, but so were the engine and transmission units, which were not at all like those used in the larger "Arrow" series Hunter.
Another novelty for the Avenger was the use of a plastic radiator grille, a first in Britain and at 4 ft 6 in wide claimed as the largest mass-produced plastics component used at this time by the European motor industry. The Avenger was a steady seller in the 1970s, in competition with the Ford Vauxhall Viva. Chrysler was attempting to make the Avenger to be a "world car", took the ambitious step of marketing the Avenger as the Plymouth Cricket in the U. S. Complaints of rust, plus the general unpopularity of smaller cars on the American market, saw it withdrawn from that market after only two years. In October 1970, the Avenger GT was added to the range, it had four-speed manual or three-speed automatic transmission. The GT featured twin round headlights, go-faster stripes along the sides of the doors and "dustbin lid" wheel covers, which were similar to those found on the various Datsuns and Toyotas of the 1970s; the basic fleet Avenger was added to the range in February 1972. It was offered with either 1500 cc engines.
The fleet Avenger was basic: it did not have a sun visor for the front passenger, the heater blower had just a single speed. In October 1972, the Avenger GT was replaced by the Avenger GLS, which came with a vinyl roof and Rostyle sports wheels. In March 1972, the five-door estate versions were introduced, in DL and Super forms and the same specifications as the saloon versions. However,'heavy-duty springing' was fitted and the estate had a maximum load capacity of 1,040 lb, compared to 840 lb for the saloon; the two-door saloon models were added in March 1973, with all engine and trim options of the existing four-door range. Styling of the two-door was similar to the four-door; the car was extensively marketed in continental Europe, first as a Sunbeam. It was without the Avenger name in France, where it was known as the Sunbeam 1250 and 1500; some northern European markets received the car as the Sunbeam Avenger. Both engine sizes were upgraded in October 1973; the 1250 became the 1300, while the 1500 became the 1600 with nearly all the same previous trim levels except for the basic fleet Avenger, discontinued at this point.
The GL and GT trim levels were now offered with the 1300 engine and two-door saloon body. In North America, a rebadged variant of the Avenger was marketed as the Plymouth Cricket through Plymouth dealers as a captive import in 4-door saloon and 5-door estate variants, it had 9.5" front 8" rear drums. Brochures included a cartoon cricket trying to capitalize on the popularity of the VW Beetle. A Chrysler Plymouth press release dated 30 June 1970 said the Cricket would be presented to the automotive press in November 1970; the first shipment of 280 Crickets from the UK arrived in the U. S. on 20 November 1970. Another press release issued on 23 February 1972 stated that the "station wagon" version would début in early spring of 1972; the 1500
Regal Cinemas known as Regal Entertainment Group, is an American movie theater chain headquartered in Knoxville, Tennessee. Regal operates the second-largest theater circuit in the United States, with over 7,307 screens in 564 theaters as of June 2016; the three main theatre brands operated by Regal Entertainment Group are Regal Cinemas, Edwards Theatres, United Artists Theatres. These chains retain their exterior signage, but most indoor branding uses the Regal Entertainment Group name and logo. Where applicable, the REG logo is used alongside the three individual brands. Most new cinema construction uses the Regal Cinemas name, although Regal has built new Edwards locations in California and Idaho. Regal has acquired several smaller chains since this merger. On December 5, 2017, it was announced that the UK theater chain Cineworld would acquire Regal for $3.6 billion. On February 27, 2018, the acquisition of Regal by Cineworld was completed, making it the second largest global cinema exhibitor behind AMC.
Regal Cinemas was established in 1989 in Knoxville, with Mike Campbell as CEO. Regal began opening larger cinemas in suburban areas. Many of these contained a more upscale look than typical theaters of the time. Regal Cinemas embarked on an aggressive expansion throughout the decade, swallowing up smaller chains as well as building new, more modern multiplexes, its largest acquisition during this original period was the 1998 combination of it and Act III Theatres, although it had acquired some smaller chains as well in the mid-1990s, including the original Cobb Theatres, RC Theatres, Cleveland-based National Theatre Corp. By 2001, Regal was overextended like many other cinema chains, went into Chapter 11 bankruptcy, it became the namesake for the theater chain in which it would be merged into with the Edwards and United Artists chains. The chain's famous "Regal Roller Coaster" policy trailer, shown before every movie shown from the early 1990s to the fall of 2004, was revived in 2010 and the current version was made in 2015, animated by The Tombras Group.
United Artists Theatres has its roots in the movie studio of the same name founded by Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin, D. W. Griffith, but has always been separate from it. Joseph Schenck was brought in to become UA's president in 1924. Over time, the chain became separate from the studio and by the 1970s was part of a larger company, United Artists Communications. United Artists Theatres was purchased in the late 1940s by the Naify Brothers, who owned theatres in the San Francisco Bay Area, their company up to this time was called Golden State Theatres. About this time they acquired the San Francisco Theatres owned by Samuel H Levin; these theatres were the Balboa, Coliseum, Vogue Metro, the Harding, Coronet, opened in 1949. In 1988 UA bought the Philadelphia-based Sameric chain of about 30 locations in PA, NJ, DE; the UA Theatres main office was in San Francisco until 1988 when it was sold to TCI. Thereafter, it was relocated to Englewood, CO. UAC was an early pioneer in cable television, aggressively bought smaller regional systems.
By the end of the 1980s, John Malone's Tele-Communications, Inc. was majority owner. On February 19, 1992, TCI sold the theatre chain in a leveraged buyout led by Merrill Lynch Capital Partners Inc and UA management. Edwards Theatres was a family-owned chain in California, started in 1930 by William James Edwards Jr, it became one of California's best-known and most popular theater chains, by Edwards' death in 1997, operated about 90 locations with 560 screens. Edwards Theatres had its headquarters in California, his son, W. James Edwards III, became president and announced an ambitious expansion plan that would nearly double the company's screen count; the expansion plan gave Edwards a crushing debt load, in 2000 it filed for bankruptcy. When all three chains went into bankruptcy, investor Philip Anschutz bought substantial investments in all three companies, becoming majority owner. In March 2002, Anschutz announced plans to consolidate all three of his theatre holdings under a new parent company, Regal Entertainment Group.
Regal's Mike Campbell and UA's Kurt Hall were named co-CEOs, with Campbell overseeing the theatre operations from Regal Cinemas' headquarters in Knoxville, Kurt Hall heading up a new subsidiary, Regal CineMedia, from the UA offices in Centennial, Colorado. The Edwards corporate offices were closed. Regal and United Artists had attempted using a similar method. Investment firms Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and Hicks, Tate & Furst announced plans to acquire Regal merge it with UA and Act III, with the new company using the Regal Cinemas name. UA dropped out of the merger, but the merger between Regal and Act III went through; as Regal consolidated the three chains, CineMedia began work on a new digital distribution system to provide a new "preshow", replacing the slides and film advertisements with digital content. NBC and Turner Broadcasting were among the first to sign on to provide content for the venture, the preshow, dubbed "The 2wenty", debuted in February 2003; the new distribution system was meant to be used for special events such as concerts.
Regal CineMedia merged with AMC Theatr
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
Glasgow Harbour is an urban regeneration scheme at Partick in the West End of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. After many years of dereliction caused by the decline of shipbuilding and the migration of Glasgow's docks to the Firth of Clyde, since the mid-1980s the banks of the River Clyde at Glasgow have become a focus for property developers. Mirroring the Docklands scheme in London, the old docks, sites of old granaries and shipyards in Glasgow are being redeveloped into up-market residential apartments, office complexes and leisure facilities; the earliest developments were the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre at the former Queen's Dock in 1985, the Glasgow Garden Festival at the former Prince's Dock in 1988, which demonstrated the potential of the riverside area as a catalyst for urban regeneration. Through the 1990s, riverside apartment buildings began to appear at Lancefield Quay on the North bank and the former General Terminus Quay on the South bank, the Norman Foster-designed Clyde Auditorium was opened at the SECC in 1997.
The former Garden Festival site is now home to the Glasgow Science Centre including Glasgow Tower. There has been further development at this site, with new headquarters for BBC Scotland and Scottish Television at Pacific Quay forming the cornerstone of a new "media village". Phase 1 of the Glasgow Harbour Project, by the Clyde Port Authority at the former Meadowside Granary, Yorkhill Quay and confluence of the River Kelvin in Partick, has consisted of high rise residential accommodation and the construction of a riverside walkway; the wider area now includes the Riverside Museum adjacent to the mouth of the River Kelvin, there are plans for large-scale commercial developments at the site. In September 2006, the Clyde Arc road bridge opened to traffic, enhancing access to the South Bank at the SECC, while the existing Clydeside Expressway dual carriageway connects the Harbour area to Glasgow city centre and the Clyde Tunnel. Transport links will be a key feature of Glasgow Harbour in the future, with a pre-light rail metro system planned, to be called Clyde Fastlink, which will link the area to the city centre areas, with possible interchanges to the Subway.
An intermittent ferry service operates between Govan on the south bank. Clyde Waterfront Regeneration Housing in Glasgow List of tallest buildings and structures in Glasgow Media related to Glasgow harbour at Wikimedia Commons Official website