Henley Royal Regatta
Henley Royal Regatta is a rowing event held annually on the River Thames by the town of Henley-on-Thames, England. It was established on 26 March 1839, it differs from the three other regattas rowed over the same course, Henley Women's Regatta, Henley Masters Regatta and Henley Town and Visitors' Regatta, each of, an separate event. The regatta lasts for five days ending on the first weekend in July. Races are head-to-head knock out competitions, raced over a course of 1 mile 550 yards; the regatta attracts international crews to race. The most prestigious event at the regatta is the Grand Challenge Cup for Men's Eights, awarded since the regatta was first staged; as the regatta pre-dates any national or international rowing organisation, it has its own rules and organisation, although it is recognised by both British Rowing and FISA. The regatta is organised by a self-electing body of Stewards, who are former rowers themselves. Pierre de Coubertin modelled elements of the organisation of the International Olympic Committee on the Henley Stewards.
The regatta is regarded as part of the English social season. As with other events in the season, certain enclosures at the regatta have strict dress codes; the Stewards’ Enclosure has a strict dress code of lounge suits for men. Entries for the regatta close at 6:00 pm sixteen days before the Regatta. In order to encourage a high quality of racing, create a manageable race timetable and to ensure that most crews race only once a day, each event has a limited number of places. Qualifying races are held on the Friday before the regatta; the regatta's Committee of Management decides at its absolute discretion which crews are obliged to qualify. The qualifying races take the form of a timed processional race up the regatta course, with the fastest crews qualifying. Times are released for non-qualifying crews only; this does not stop an enthusiastic band of unofficial timers with synchronised watches working out how fast their first round opposition might be. If it is apparent that there are a number of outstanding crews in an event, they may be'selected' by the Stewards, to prevent them from meeting too early in the competition.
The regatta insists that selection is not the same as seeding, the main difference being that there is no'rank order' as is the case in, for example, a tennis tournament. The draw is a public event that takes place in the Henley town hall at 3 pm on the Saturday before the regatta. For each event the names of all selected crews are placed on pieces of paper which are drawn at random from the Grand Challenge Cup; these crews are placed on pre-determined positions on the draw chart, as far apart as possible. The remaining qualifying crews are drawn from the cup, filling in from the top of the draw chart downwards, until all places have been filled; each event in the regatta takes the form of a knockout competition, with each race consisting of two crews racing side by side up the Henley course. The course is marked out by two lines of booms, which are placed along the river to form a straight course 2,112 metres long; the course is wide enough to allow two crews to race down with a few metres between them.
As such it is not uncommon for inexperienced steersmen or coxswains to crash into the booms costing their crew the race. The race begins at the downstream end of Temple Island, where the crews attach to a pair of pontoons; the race umpire will call out the names of the two crews and start them when they are both straight and ready. Each crew is assigned to row on either the'Bucks' or'Berks' side of the race course; the coxswains or steersmen are expected to keep their crew on the allocated side of the course at all times during the race, else they risk disqualification. The only exception is when a crew leads by a sizeable margin and is not deemed by the umpire to be impeding the trailing crew. There are several progress markers along the course. Intermediate times are recorded at two of them – "the Barrier" and "Fawley", in addition to the time to the finish; the regatta has official commentary, announced at these points along the course. The commentary is renowned for being unemotional and factual, with the commentator only allowed to announce the rate of striking, which crew is leading, the distance between the crews, the progress marker which the crews are passing.
Henley Royal Regatta has always been raced over a distance of ‘about one mile and 550 yards’ from Temple Island upstream towards Henley Bridge. However, four distinct courses have been used over the regatta's history, with smaller changes being made incrementally. Changes to the course have all been aimed at improving the prospects for safe racing; this ran from a point just upstream of Temple Island. At the first regatta in 1839, the finish line was Henley Bridge itself, but it was quickly realised that this had inherent problems. From 1840 onward the finish was moved downstream slightly. A grandstand was erected for their guests outside the Red Lion. Other spectators could watch from the adjacent roadway while those with carriages surveyed the scene from a vantage p
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
Glasgow Green is a park in the east end of Glasgow, Scotland, on the north bank of the River Clyde. Established in the 15th century, it is the oldest park in the city. In 1450, King James II granted the land to the people of Glasgow; the Green was quite different from what it is today, being an uneven swampy area composed of a number of "greens", including the High and Low Greens, the Calton Green and the Gallowgate Green. The park served a number of purposes in its first few centuries; the city's first steamie, called The Washhouse, opened on the banks of the Camlachie Burn in 1732. An area of land, known as Fleshers' Haugh was purchased in 1792 by the city from Patrick Bell of Cowcaddens, extending the park to the east. A number of projects have been proposed through its history; the steamship owner Henry Bell proposed building a canal from the Broomielaw to Glasgow Green with a quay terminal at the Green. Large coal deposits were discovered under the Green, after borings performed in 1821 and 1822.
Although the City's Superintendent of Work recommended mining, the town council voted against it. However in 1858, when the city was looking to offset the cost of purchasing land for parks in other areas of the city, the council approved a plan to mine the Green. However, before the plan could be implemented, it met with large scale public opposition and was dropped, only for it to be resurrected in 1869 and 1888, each time failing to result in any mining. From 25 December 1745 to 3 January 1746, Bonnie Prince Charlie's army camped in the owned Flesher's Haugh, while Charlie demanded that the city equip his army with fresh clothing and footwear. In 1765, James Watt, while wandering aimlessly across the Green, conceived the idea of the separate condenser for the steam engine; this invention is credited by some with starting the Industrial Revolution. To alleviate economic depression in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, the Town Council of Glasgow employed 324 jobless workers to remodel Glasgow Green.
The Radical movement for parliamentary reform grew, in 1816 some 40,000 people attended a meeting on the Green to support demands for more representative government and an end to the Corn Laws which kept food prices high. In the spring of 1820 the Green was one of the meeting places for conspirators in what became the "Radical War", with strikers carrying out military drill on the Green before their brief rebellion was crushed. James Wilson was convicted of treason for being a leader of the insurrection, hanged and beheaded on Glasgow Green in front of a crowd of some 20,000 people. In 1817 and 1826, efforts were made to improve the layout of the park. Culverts were built over the Calmachie and Molendinar Burns and the park was levelled out and drained; when the Reform Act of 1832 passed in Parliament, increasing the electorate from 4,329 to 65,000, a large demonstration of over 70,000 people was held on the Green with a procession lead around the park by a Bridgeton band. The Chartism movement that grew in response to the Reform Act resulted in what is known as the Chartist Riot of 1848.
William Ewart Gladstone's Reform Act of 1867, which increased the electorate to 230,606, brought further meetings to the Green. The park was used as a meeting place by the women's suffragette movement from the early 1870s to the late 1910s. In April 1872, the women's suffragette society, that had formed only two years before, held a large open air meeting in the park. Two of Scotland's oldest sporting clubs, Clydesdale Amateur Rowing Club and Glasgow University Rowing Club, are situated on the banks of the River Clyde at Glasgow Green. Clydesdale ARC moved from the south side of the river to Glasgow Green in 1901. In 1872, a group of members from this club formed a team to play football against Callander F. C. on Flesher's Haugh. C.. Glasgow Green railway station was opened on the Glasgow Central Railway in 1895, it was temporarily closed during World War I, permanently closed in 1953. During World War I, the anti-war movement held mass demonstrations on the Green. In September 1914, John Maclean held his first anti-war rally under Nelson's monument.
The Military Service Act of 1916, led to a rally on the Green, which resulted in 12 months imprisonment for the three lead speakers under the DORA. On 29 June 1916, David Lloyd George was invited to receive the Freedom of the City, which led to mass protests on the Green. In May 1917, workers marched through Glasgow to the Green in support of Russia's February Revolution. Another result of World War I was increased migration to the city of munitions workers; the resulting rent increases led to protests on the Green in 1920. Over the years there have been many live music events on Glasgow Green. Michael Jackson performed there on 18 August 1992 during his Dangerous World Tour in front of 65,000 people, his only live show in Scotland; the Stone Roses played what is regarded one of their best shows on the Green in 1990. The band returned on 15 June 2013 for another gig on the Green, following their recent reformation and world tour; the Green was host to Download Festival Scotland in 2004, a live music festival featuring Metallica, Linkin Park and Slipknot.
It hosted Radio 1's Big Weekend in May 2014, which featured some of the biggest acts in the world performing to over 50
University of Glasgow Memorial Gates
The Memorial Gates at the University of Glasgow were erected in 1952 as a celebration of the University's quincentenary, or five hundredth anniversary. They form a portal through the University Avenue side of the perimeter fence around the University's original site on Gilmorehill, they stand before the Hunter memorial and Hunterian Museum, on the other side of the John McIntyre Building from the Main Gate. The large gates in the centre are locked, although the small pedestrian gates to the left and right are opened during the day; the gates bear the names of thirty distinguished figures associated with the University. The gates are protected as a category B listed building; the Memorial Gates were erected in 1952 to commemorate the University's quincentenary, in 1951. They were presented to the University by the General Council, the body of graduates of the University, on 18 June 1952, they are attached to older gatepiers. The Memorial Gates were designed by architect A Graham Henderson; the installation is formed of two large central gates, suitable for admitting vehicles, held up by large stone gateposts, with a smaller pedestrian gate on either side.
The gates are set back from the main fence and connected to it by curved walls of the same stone as the gateposts. The central gates bear the names of thirty distinguished figures associated with the University, with a figure of the University Mace running between the two gates; the gateposts are topped by a lion and unicorn, the dates 1451 and 1951, on the right and left while the two pedestrian gates have two each of the heraldic emblems of the University's former nations at their top. The curved wall on one side bears the University's motto, Veritas, while the other bears the inscription, Almae Matri Alumni Pietatis Causa, indicating the gates represent the devotion of the alumni to their alma mater; the Memorial Gates bear the names of the following people connected with the University: Bute: John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute, a benefactor of the University after whom the Bute Hall is named Hunter: William Hunter, physician who bequeathed to the University what became the Hunterian Museum Macewan: Sir William Macewen, surgeon Cullen: William Cullen, physician Gillespie: Patrick Gillespie, Covenanter Dewar: Donald Dewar, First Minister of Scotland* Caird: John Caird, theologian Millar: John Millar, philosopher Stair: James Dalrymple, 1st Viscount of Stair, Lord President of the Court of Session Morton: James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, Regent of Scotland, political benefactor Kelvin: William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, physicist Watt: James Watt, inventor of the steam engine Maxwell: Sir John Maxwell of Nether Pollok, Lord Justice Clerk Boyd: Zachary Boyd, benefactor James II, King of Scotland when the University was founded Lister: Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, pioneer of sterile surgery Adam Smith, father of modern economics, author of The Wealth of Nations Baillie: Robert Baillie, Covenanter Melville: Andrew Melville, Protestant reformer Turnbull: William Turnbull, Bishop of Glasgow, founder of the University Bradley: A. C.
Bradley, literary critic Campbell: Thomas Campbell, poet Montrose: James Graham, 1st Duke of Montrose, benefactor Hamilton: James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton, Sheriff of Lanarkshire Lushington: Edmund Law Lushington, classical scholar Reid: Thomas Reid, philosopher Burnet: Gilbert Burnet, historian Smith: John Smith, leader of the Labour Party* Elder: Isabella Elder, benefactor of women's education, provided North Park House as the home for Queen Margaret College Foulis: Robert Foulis, Printer to the University, founder of former Academy of Fine Arts*During the University's 550th anniversary celebrations in 2001, the names of Donald Dewar and John Smith were installed on the Memorial Gates to mark their contribution to Scottish politics in the late 20th century. University of Glasgow:: Story:: The Memorial Gates A large image of the Memorial Gates
2011 Hetherington House Occupation
The 2011 occupation of Hetherington House at University of Glasgow, Scotland, was a student and community occupation. It commenced 1 February 2011, ending 31 August 2011, becoming one of the longest-running student occupations in the context of the wider movement of student protests in the UK in 2010, early 2011, 2011 United Kingdom anti-austerity protests; the occupation was referred to by the occupants as the'Free Hetherington'. Its purpose was to protest against cuts to higher education within Glasgow University and nationwide; the occupation hosted an active schedule of talks and discussion sessions. It triggered debate about the legitimacy of protest action versus consultation with University management. One manifestation of this was a debate hosted by the University Dialectic Society on the utility of the occupation's approach; the University implemented some of its proposed cuts, though its plans were scaled back in some areas, although this was not directly related to the protest. The occupation ended peacefully at noon on 31 August 2011, after an agreement between the occupation and University management.
Hetherington House, at 13 University Gardens, was acquired by the University in 1956. The building was used as a place for postgraduate students and staff to meet, is believed to have been the first University Research Club of its kind established in the UK; the building was named after Hector Hetherington, principal of the University between 1936 and 1961. Its final incarnation was as the Hetherington Research Club, which additionally permitted mature student membership alongside staff and postgraduates; the Hetherington Research Club ceased operating in February 2010 due to financial problems. The University stated that they were unwilling to continue supporting the club after the Student Finance Sub-Committee rejected two proposed business plans on the grounds that they lacked financial viability; the building was unused until the occupation commenced on 1 February 2011, but was scheduled to be redeveloped by the University. The occupation maintained a schedule of film screenings, talks and performances since the start of February.
The occupation met 3 times each week to discuss future direction. Several notable figures visited and supported the occupation including Green Party politicians Patrick Harvie and Martha Wardrop, singer-songwriter Billy Bragg, singer-songwriter David Rovics, Scottish Makar Liz Lochhead, writer A. L. Kennedy comedian Mark Steel, Scottish poet Tom Leonard, comedian Josie Long, comedian Jeremy Hardy, writer Louise Welsh, writer Owen Jones and film and television director Ken Loach; the occupation faced criticism from groups and individuals on campus including both of the University's Student Unions, the Glasgow University Union and Queen Margaret Union, the Students' Representative Council. Some members of the SRC issued, but withdrew, an emergency motion calling for disciplinary action against the occupiers. Chris Sibbald, President of the GUU, claimed that "They are undermining all the hard work we have been doing and the majority of students believe the students in the Hetherington are a distraction and are costing us time and money."On 12 February 2011, a group of individuals associated with the occupation'kettled' Aaron Porter, the President of the National Union of Students while he was at the University, claiming that they were doing so to criticise his refusal to condemn police kettling tactics.
The QMU and the GUU subsequently issued a statement condemning the behaviour and apparent lack of accountability in the organisation, citing the Aaron Porter incident as an example of this. On 6 March 2011 several students clashed with the occupiers; the group, including several who were members of the GUU Board of Management, were accused by the activists of removing banners, stripping naked and activating a fire alarm. The GUU distanced itself, saying that anyone, involved was not acting as a representative of the Union. One student attempted to film an occupation meeting. In a subsequent interview with Subcity Radio, the student claimed that occupation members pushed him to the floor trying to take the camera from him when he refused to cease filming, he said. On 22 March 2011, the University made the decision to ask the occupiers to voluntarily leave; when the occupiers refused and informed supporters, crowds started to gather outside Hetherington House and Strathclyde Police were called by University security to assist.
When students were forcibly removed from the premises, the remaining occupiers agreed to leave. In response to the eviction, a subsequent protest on the same day occupied the Senate and management suite of the University. After negotiations, the University offered occupiers the option of returning to Hetherington House, an offer which they accepted; the decision made by the police to forcibly remove some students from the premises during the eviction attracted criticism, after some involved were injured. Around 100 members of staff/students criticised the eviction; some academics at the University called for an independent inquiry into the eviction and the immediate resignation of the University's senior management group. Tommy Gore, President of the SRC, condemned the police presence on campus. Strathclyde Police have described calls that the police presence was disproportionate as "ridiculous". Patrick Harvie, Member of the Scottish Parliament condemned the actions of the University and Strathclyde Police, Scottish Green Party Councillor Martha Wardrop said the police's role "served to inflame a volatile situation".
In response to the criticism, the University launched an independent inq
University rowing (UK)
University rowing in the United Kingdom began when it was introduced to Oxford in the late 18th century. The first known race at a university took place at Oxford in 1815 between Brasenose and Jesus and the first inter-university boat race, between Oxford and Cambridge, was rowed on 10 June 1829. Today, many universities have a boat club and at some collegiate universities—Oxford, Cambridge and London—each college has its own club as well as a main university club. In contrast to the Oxford/Cambridge/Durham colleges, London colleges are members of British Universities and Colleges Sport in their own right, thus compete in inter-university competitions. In Scotland, the rowing clubs of Glasgow University and Edinburgh University initiated an annual race in 1877, making this competition the second oldest in the United Kingdom. Competitive university rowing in Northern Ireland began in the 1930s with the formation of Queen's University Belfast Boat Club in 1931, whose first inter-varsity races were a triangular tournament against Glasgow and UCD in 1934–35 and who entered the Wylie Cup from 1937 to 1938.
A 2016 article identified six university clubs which "dominate rowing among higher education institutions": Oxford Brookes, Imperial College, Newcastle and Reading. With the exception of Reading, these are all designated by British Rowing as High Performance Programmes, a scheme that involves Edinburgh as well as three non-university clubs. Most universities compete in the British Universities and Colleges Sport Championships with a number of events over the year. For non-indoor events, boats are separated into Championship and Beginner. On 16 June 2008, BUSA merged to form "BUCS" -- British Universities and Colleges Sport. Events from 2008/09 onwards therefore come under the BUCS banner, rather than BUSA, e.g. BUCS Regatta rather than BUSA regatta. BUCS events contribute "BUCS Points" towards the BUCS championship. Since 2011–12, a breakdown of points by sport has been available; the highest ranked universities in rowing since have been: The Small Boats Head is held in October. The event was introduced in 2006 and first held on the Trent in Nottingham, small boats having competed in the BUSA Championship Head.
The 2007 event, held in December, saw 4s included in the Small Boats Head and Durham compete for the first time, dominating the medal table. In 2008 the event was again held in October but moved to the Witham in Boston, where it now runs in conjunction with the GB Rowing Team 1st Senior/U23 Assessment; the 2012 head saw Durham's dominance broken as, with only the double sculls racing, Imperial topped the medal table with a single gold, a silver and a bronze. Imperial won again the following year, with only the single sculls racing. Note that as the Small Boats Head is an autumn event, the 4s and 8s Head and Regatta from the same BUCS season are held on the following year, e.g. the 2015 Small Boats Head is part of the 2015–16 BUCS season along with the 2016 4s and 8s Head and the 2016 Regatta. BUCS Rowing and British Rowing have managed an annual autumn indoor rowing series at a number of universities and other centres across the UK since 2010, when it started with 11 centres and ran from late November to mid December.
In 2016, thirteen centres hosted events from late October to the end of November. This is a 5 kilometres head race, run in February or March since 2003; the event grew becoming the largest university heads race in the world by 2007, despite the small boats being split into a separate head after the 2006 event. It was held on the River Trent in Nottingham until 2009, when the decision was made to move the event to the River Nene in Peterborough, to split the competition into 2 separate days, with Beginners racing over a shorter 3 kilometres course on one day, Seniors racing on the longer course on the other. However, due to inclement weather, the event was cancelled; the event was again held in Peterborough in 2010, 2011 and 2012, was due to be held there in 2013. However, due to flooding, the event was moved to Boston that year, with Newcastle topping the medal table; the 2014 event was cancelled due to bad weather, It was held in Boston again in 2015, with racing on Saturday only for the intermediate and championship crews.
Newcastle topped the medal table and won the men's Victor Ludorum while Durham, who were second in the medal table, took the women's Victor Ludorum and the overall Victor Ludorum. In 2015, BUCS sought a new host for a three-year period; the event subsequently moved to the Tyne, hosted by Tyne United Rowing Club, Tyne Amateur Rowing Club and Newcastle University Boat Club in 2016. Newcastle won both the overall and men's Victor Ludorum, with Edinburgh winning the women's Victor Ludorm; the first day of the 2017 event on the Tyne, had to be cancelled due to poor weather, but the second day went ahead, with London topping the medal table and taking the Victor Ludorum. The 2018 event saw separate men's and women's Victor Ludorum awards, with London taking the women's peruse and Newcastle taking the men's. From 2019, the event will be held for three years on the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal, hosted by the University of Bristol, Hartpury University Centre and Gloucester Rowing Club. A 2 km regatta held over the May Day weekend.
Points for the Victor Ludor
The River Clyde is a river that flows into the Firth of Clyde in Scotland. It is the eighth-longest river in the United Kingdom, the second-longest in Scotland. Traveling through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire. To the Romans, it was Clota, in the early medieval Cumbric language, it was known as Clud or Clut, was central to the Kingdom of Strathclyde; the Clyde is formed by the confluence of the Daer Water and the Potrail Water. The Southern Upland Way crosses both streams before they meet at Watermeetings to form the River Clyde proper. At this point, the Clyde is only 10 km from Tweed's Well, the source of the River Tweed, is near Annanhead Hill, the source of the River Annan. From there, it meanders northeastward before turning to the west, its flood plain used for many major roads in the area, until it reaches the town of Lanark. On the banks of the Clyde, the industrialists David Dale and Robert Owen built their mills and the model settlement of New Lanark.
The mills harness the power of the Falls of Clyde, the most spectacular of, Cora Linn. A hydroelectric power station still generates electricity here, although the mills are now a museum and World Heritage Site. Between the towns of Motherwell and Hamilton, the course of the river has been altered to create an artificial loch within Strathclyde Park. Part of the original course can still be seen, lies between the island and the east shore of the loch; the river flows through Blantyre and Bothwell, where the ruined Bothwell Castle stands on a defensible promontory. Past Uddingston and into the southeast of Glasgow, the river begins to widen, meandering a course through Cambuslang and Dalmarnock. Flowing past Glasgow Green, the river is artificially straightened and widened through the centre, although the new Clyde Arc now hinders access to the traditional Broomielaw dockland area, seagoing ships can still come upriver as far as Finnieston, where the PS Waverley docks. From there, it flows past the shipbuilding heartlands, through Govan, Whiteinch and Clydebank, all of which housed major shipyards, of which only two remain.
The river flows out west of Glasgow, past Renfrew, under the Erskine Bridge past Dumbarton on the north shore to the sandbank at Ardmore Point between Cardross and Helensburgh. Opposite, on the south shore, the river continues past the last Lower Clyde shipyard at Port Glasgow to Greenock, where it reaches the Tail of the Bank as the river merges into the Firth of Clyde. A significant issue of oxygen depletion in the water column has occurred at the mouth of the River Clyde; the valley of the Clyde was the focus for the G-BASE project from the British Geological Survey in the summer of 2010. The success of the Clyde at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution was driven by the location of Glasgow, being a port facing the Americas. Tobacco and cotton trade began the drive in the early 18th century. However, the shallow Clyde was not navigable for the largest ocean-going ships, so cargo had to be transferred at Greenock or Port Glasgow to smaller ships to sail upstream into Glasgow itself. In 1768, John Golborne advised the narrowing of the river and the increasing of the scour by the construction of rubble jetties and the dredging of sandbanks and shoals.
A particular problem was the division of the river into two shallow channels by the Dumbuck shoal near Dumbarton. After James Watt's report on this in 1769, a jetty was constructed at Longhaugh Point to block off the southern channel; this being insufficient, a training wall called the Lang Dyke was built in 1773 on the Dumbuck shoal to stop water flowing over into the southern channel. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, hundreds of jetties were built out from the banks between Dumbuck and the Broomielaw quay in Glasgow itself. In some cases, this resulted in an immediate deepening as the constrained water flow washed away the river bottom. In the mid-19th century, engineers took on a much greater dredging of the Clyde, removing millions of cubic feet of silt to deepen and widen the channel; the major stumbling block in the project was a massive geological intrusion known as Elderslie Rock. As a result, the work was not completed until the 1880s. At this time, the Clyde became an important source of inspiration for artists, such as John Atkinson Grimshaw and James Kay, willing to depict the new industrial era and the modern world.
The completion of the dredging was well-timed. Shipbuilding replaced trade as the major activity on the river, shipbuilding companies were establishing themselves on the river. Soon, the Clyde gained a reputation for being the best location for shipbuilding in the British Empire, grew to become the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre. Clydebuilt became an industry benchmark of quality, the river's shipyards were given contracts for prestigious ocean-going liners, as well as warships, including the Queen Mary and the Queen Elizabeth 2 in years, all built in the town of Clydebank. From the founding of the Scott family's shipyard at Greenock in 1712 to the present day, over 25,000 ships have been built on the River Clyde and its Firth and on the tributary River Kelvin and River Cart together with boatyards at Maryhill and Kirkintilloch on the Forth & Clyde Canal and Blackhill on the Monkland Canal. In the same time, an estimated over 300 firms have engaged in shipbuilding on Clydeside