Plainville is a town in Hartford County, United States. The population was 17,716 at the 2010 census. Plainville first was inhabited by Europeans around 1650. By the 1660s the land was incorporated as land for nearby Farmington. In the year 1869, it separated from Farmington due to the distance of the town center and the growth of Plainville downtown due to the installation of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad and the Hartford and Fishkill Railroad. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 25.3 square kilometres, of which 9.7 square miles is land and 0.077 square mile (0.2 km2, or 0.72%, is water. The east side of the town is bordered by two prominent peaks of the Metacomet Ridge: Pinnacle Rock and Bradley Mountain; the 51-mile Metacomet Trail traverses those peaks. As of the census of 2000, there were 17,328 people, 7,385 households, 4,645 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,776.0 people per square mile. There were 7,707 housing units at an average density of 789.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 93.52% White, 2.25% African American, 0.17% Native American, 1.67% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.19% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.57% of the population. There were 7,385 households out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.1% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.93. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 24.8% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $48,136, the median income for a family was $60,586.
Males had a median income of $41,541 versus $31,281 for females. The per capita income for the town was $23,257. About 4.2% of families and 5.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.2% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over. Companies and organizations headquartered in Plainville include Carling Technologies, Connecticut Tool & Manufacturing, GE Industrial Solutions, Gems Sensors & Controls, Manafort Brothers, CWPM, Mott Corporation, Tilcon Connecticut, Wheeler Clinic The Town of Plainville is one of the only municipalities to own its own airport, Robertson Field. Plainville holds an annual Hot Air Balloon Festival at the end of August at Norton Park, gathering many of the townspeople together for fun-filled nights of games and fireworks; the event is sponsored by the Plainville Fire Company. However, wanting to improve the soccer fields with an irrigation system at Norton Park, the Plainville Town Council was planning to discontinue the Balloon Festival due to the fire trucks parking on the soccer fields.
However, this did not pass, the festival continues to operate annually. Plainville has been something of a minor transportation hub. In the nineteenth century, Plainville was served by the Farmington Canal, it sits on the intersection of two rail lines, one running north from New Haven and the other running east-west between Waterbury and Berlin. Plainville is the home of Robertson Field, the oldest private airport in Connecticut. Plainville is run by a Town Manager/Town Council form of government. Robert Lee is the current town manager; the Town Council comprises seven members elected every two years. The Municipal Center is located at 1 Central Square near the center of town. Plainville has three elementary schools: Louis Toffolon School, Frank T. Wheeler School, Linden Street School. There is one middle school, the Middle School of Plainville, which serves grades 6 to 8; the middle school adopts the same mascot and colors as the town high school. Plainville High School is the only town high school.
The school mascot is the Blue Devil, the colors are blue and white, same as nearby Central Connecticut State University. The baseball team has a rich tradition, with another state title won in 2012. John Bello and former CEO of SoBe Beverages. Anthony Fantano, Internet's Busiest Music Nerd/YouTube personality "The Needle Drop" Niko Koutouvides, Former NFL Linebacker John Harper Trumbull was an American politician who served as the 70th Governor of Connecticut. Re-elected twice. Town of Plainville official website Plainville Community Schools
East Granby, Connecticut
East Granby is a town in Hartford County, United States. The population was 5,148 at the 2010 census. Original inhabitants of the current East Granby area were Native American peoples, including the Algonquin/Poquonock, the Massaco, the Agawam; the East Granby area was first settled by Europeans in 1664, one of the four Congregational parishes in Simsbury. The Turkey Hills Ecclesiastical Society in 1786 became a section of Granby, in 1858 was incorporated as the Town of East Granby; the first incorporated copper mine in America resided in. The mine became Old Newgate Prison, a Revolutionary War jail and the first state prison in the United States. Farming was the mainstay of the town for much of its history; the early twentieth century saw local farmers specializing in dairy tobacco. East Granby experienced a housing boom that resulted in a rise in population; the town celebrated its 150th anniversary with a three-day festival on June 7, 8, 9, 2008. East Granby is in the Farmington valley, with the Farmington River passing along the southern border of the town.
The Metacomet Ridge, a mountainous trap rock ridgeline that stretches from Long Island Sound to nearly the Vermont border, runs through the center of the town, cutting off Salisbury Plain to the east, which used to lie under the ancient, glacial Lake Hitchcock. High points on the Metacomet Ridge in East Granby include Peak Mountain; the 51-mile Metacomet Trail traverses the ridge. As of the census of 2014, there were 2,129 households; the population density was 289 people per square mile. There were 2,186 housing units; the racial makeup of the town was 86.7% White, 5.28% African American, 0% Native American, 5.66% Asian, 2.35% from other races or multi-race residents. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.9% of the population. The town the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 4.85% from 18 to 24, 35.55% from 25 to 49, 22.5% from 50 to 64, 6% who were 65 years of age or older. 47.85% of the population is female. Residents that were 18 years or older compromised 77.47% of the population.
49.46% of residents that were 18 years or older were female. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.8 males. In 2000, the median age was 39 years; as of 2000, there were 1,848 households out of which 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.8% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.7% were non-families. 22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.04. As of 2000, the median income for a household in the town was $68,696, the median income for a family was $77,621. Males had a median income of $48,992 versus $37,450 for females; the per capita income for the town was $30,805. About 0.9% of families and 1.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.6% of those under age 18 and 3.2% of those age 65 or over. Unemployment rates in 2013 were at 5.8% for East Granby residents, less than the state's unemployment rate of 7.8%.
In 2014, 6 families were receiving temporary assistance and 154 individuals were receiving food stamps. As of 2012, residents' educational attainment was: 23% high school graduate, 12% associate degree, 37% bachelor's degree or higher. During the 2010-2011 School Year, total town school enrollment was at 939. Most public school students in East Granby attend the East Granby School District, which had 889 students. East Granby has six historical buildings; the East Granby Historical Society can be found on North Main Street. Clark Farm Tenant House Congregational Meetinghouse Ezekiel Phelps House Joseph Penney House Methodist-Episcopal Meetinghouse Old Newgate Prison Viets' Tavern - Newgate Road Whitfield Cowles House East Granby has seven cemeteries; the oldest graves of East Granby can be found in the East Granby Center Cemetery, dates back to 1737. East Granby Center Cemetery - Located Near East Granby Center On School Street; the East Granby Cemetery was established in 1722, it is no longer active.
Copper Hill Cemetery - Located In The Northwest Part Of Town Elmwood Cemetery - Located On Windsor Locks Road, 3/4 Mile East Of Town Center Holcomb Cemetery - Located Near The Granby Railroad Station Prisoners' Cemetery - Located near Old Newgate Prison. Smallpox Cemetery - Located at the top of the hill off Tariffville Road; the cemetery is on top of the "Manitank Mt." between Turkey Hill and Hatchett Hill, the property is owned by Tilcon-Roncari. Viets Cemetery - Located Near Old Newgate Prison; this cemetery is in a clump of trees and bushes in a field in back of the farmhouse belonging to Jenny W. Kellogg, it is about a mile down the road leading from the prison towards 107-3. The plot is twenty feet square. There are about twenty stones in it. Not one of them is inscribed; the prisoners were taken down here from the prison and buried according to the story told around here. East Granby has six old schoolhouses. Center District Schoolhouse Copper Hill Schoolhouse Falls Schoolhouse Hazelwood Schoolhouse North Schoolhouse South Schoolhouse Walter Forward: Lawyer and Secretary of the Treasury for President Tyler.
Eunice Griswold Penney: Well-known artist who worked watercolors. Walter Wick: Author of the I Spy find-it-in-the-picture book series. Education in East Granby is through the East Granby Public School System, including East Granby High School, the smallest public high school in
Windsor is a town in Hartford County, United States, was the first English settlement in the state. It lies on the northern border of Hartford; the population of Windsor was 29,044 at the 2010 census. Poquonock is a northern area of Windsor. Other unincorporated areas in Windsor include Rainbow and Hayden Station in the north, Wilson and Deerfield in the south; the Day Hill Road area is known as Windsor's Corporate Area, although other centers of business include New England Tradeport, Kennedy Industry Park and Kennedy Business Park, all near Bradley International Airport and the Addison Road Industrial Park. The coastal areas and riverways were traditional areas of settlement by various American Indian cultures, in the region for thousands of years, they relied on the rivers for fishing and transportation. Before European contact, the historic Pequot and Mohegan tribes had been one Algonquian-speaking people. After they separated, they became traditional enemies in the Connecticut region. During the first part of the 17th century, the Pequot and Mohegan nations had been at war.
The Podunk were forced to pay tribute to the more powerful Pequot. The Podunk invited a small party of settlers from Plymouth, Massachusetts, to settle as a mediating force between the other tribes. In exchange they granted them a plot of land at the confluence of the Farmington River and the west side of the Connecticut River. After Edward Winslow came from Plymouth to inspect the land, William Holmes led a small party, arriving at the site on September 26, 1633, where they founded a trading post; the spot of the trading post is at the confluence of the Connecticut Rivers. The Loomis Chaffee School owns the land as the spot is now the school's sports fields. Native Americans referred to the area as Matianuck, it was about 50 miles up river from Long Island Sound, at the end of waters navigable by ship and above the Dutch fort at Hartford, offering an advantageous location for the English to trade with the Indians before they reached the Dutch. In 1635, a party of around 30 people, sponsored by Sir Richard Saltonstall, led by the Stiles brothers, Francis and Henry, settled in the Windsor area.
Governor John Winthrop of the Massachusetts Bay Company acknowledged in a letter to Saltonstall that the Stiles party was the second group to settle Connecticut. The first group of 60 or more people were led by Roger Ludlow, primary framer of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, having trekked overland from Dorchester, Massachusetts, they had arrived in the New World five years earlier on the ship Mary and John from Plymouth and settled in Dorchester. Reverend Warham promptly renamed the Connecticut settlement "Dorchester". During the next few years, more settlers arrived from Dorchester and soon displacing the original Plymouth contingent, who returned to Plymouth in 1638 after selling their parcel to a Matthew Allyn of Hartford. On February 21, 1637, the colony's General Court changed the name of the settlement from Dorchester to Windsor, named after the town of Windsor, Berkshire, on the River Thames in England; the same day, Windsor was incorporated as a town along with Wethersfield. Several "daughter towns" were formed from Windsor's original boundaries.
These include portions or all of Barkhamsted, Bolton, Coventry, East Granby, East Windsor, Enfield, Harwinton, Manchester, Simsbury, South Windsor, Tolland, Torrington and Windsor Locks. The first "highway" in the Connecticut Colony opened in 1638 between Hartford. Two years the highway was extended north to the colony's 1636 settlement at Springfield, with the road connecting to Wethersfield and thus the four settlements that came to dominate the region for much of colonial history were connected. In the summer of 1640, an event took place that would forever change the boundaries of the Connecticut River Valley. During a grain famine, the founder of Springfield, William Pynchon, was given authority by Windsor and Hartford to negotiate a price for grain for the three settlements with the natives. First, the natives refused to sell grain at the usual market price, refused to sell it at "a reasonable price". Pynchon refused to buy it, attempting to teach the natives a peaceful lesson about integrity and reliability.
Windsor's cattle were starving and the citizens of Hartford were furious. With Windsor's consent, Hartford commissioned the famous Indian fighter John Mason to travel to Springfield with "money in one hand and a sword in the other" to threaten the natives, thereby force the grain trade; the natives capitulated and sold their grain. After "negotiating the trade", Mason refused to share the grain with Springfield, and, to add further insult, insisted that Springfield pay a tax when sailing ships passed Windsor. Outraged, Springfield forever sided with the Massachusetts Bay Colony, a faraway theocracy based in Boston, rather than with the Connecticut Colony, much closer geographically and far more compatible ideologically. Windsor played a neutral role in the colonial rivalry between Springfield. Windsor sided with Connecticut; the Hartford & Springfield Street Railway, a trolley
Connecticut Route 2
Route 2 is a state highway in Connecticut and is 58.03 miles in length. It is a primary state route, with a limited-access highway section connecting Hartford to Norwich and an access highway section extending to Stonington; the entire limited-access section of Route 2 is known as the Veterans of Foreign Wars Memorial Highway. Route 2 begins as a continuation of State Street near Interstate 91 in downtown Hartford, it starts out heading east toward East Hartford. Route 2 crosses the Connecticut River on the Founders Bridge and has a partial interchange with I-91 at the crossing. After crossing into East Hartford, there is a complex interchange with Interstate 84. After this interchange, Route 2 heads southeast in the direction of Glastonbury. There is a partial interchange with Route 15 about 0.75 miles further. After East Hartford, Route 2 enters Glastonbury. At the East Hartford-Glastonbury town line, there is a full trumpet interchange with Route 3. About 1 mile after this interchange, there is a partial interchange with Route 17.
From Glastonbury, Route 2 passes into Marlborough. It continues into Colchester. In Colchester, Route 2 has a partial interchange with Route 11. After this interchange, Route 2 heads east toward Norwich. Once Route 2 leaves Colchester, it passes through the towns of Bozrah. After Bozrah, Route 2 enters Norwich. Just after entering Norwich, Route 32 joins Route 2. About 1.5 miles down Route 2, there is a partial cloverleaf interchange with Interstate 395. About 1.75 miles further east from the I-395 interchange, the limited-access highway section of Route 2 ends at a four-way at-grade intersection with Town Street, Harland Road, Washington Street. Route 32 separates in downtown Norwich after overlapping with Route 2 for 3.9 miles, following the west bank of the Thames River. Route 2 continues southeast from Norwich into Preston, into Ledyard. Just after entering Ledyard, Route 2 passes by the Mashantucket Pequot Reservation and the Foxwoods Resort Casino. After passing through Ledyard, Route 2 continues into North Stonington.
There is a partial interchange with Interstate 95 here. After leaving North Stonington, Route 2 heads into Stonington. Here, Route 2 is reduced to a minor arterial road, it has an interchange with Route 78 and terminates about 1.5 miles at the junction with US 1 just west of the Rhode Island state line. Several Connecticut limited-access highways terminate at Route 2. Route 3 ends at Route 2 near the East Hartford-Glastonbury town line, Route 17 ends at Route 2 in Glastonbury, Route 11 ends at Route 2 in Colchester. Route 78 ends at Route 2, in Stonington, it is unusual. Two early toll roads, the Hartford and New London Turnpike and the Colchester and Norwich Turnpike, followed the alignment of current Route 2 in the 1800s. In 1922, The New England Interstate system incorporated the future Route 2 alignment as Route 17. Upon the discontinuation of the New England routes in the 1932 state highway renumbering, the eastern half of old New England Route 17 was renumbered to Route 2; the western half of old New England Route 17 formed part of U.
S. Route 44. Limited-access highway construction along the Route 2 alignment started in the 1950s and continued through the 1960s and early 1970s; the oldest limited-access highway segment, between exits 5A and 7, opened in 1952. The state still maintains some segments of the older, access highway alignment, but does not sign these segments as state routes; the state remanded the remaining access highway segments to town jurisdiction
Avon is a town in the Farmington Valley region of Hartford County, United States. As of 2010, the town had a population of 18,098. Avon is a suburb of Hartford. Avon Old Farms School, a boarding school, is located there, it is home to the Pine Grove School House, built in 1865 and remains open today as a museum. Avon is home to Avon High School as well as two elementary schools, Pine Grove Elementary and Roaring Brook Elementary, an intermediate school, Thompson Brook, a middle school, Avon Middle School. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 23.5 square miles, of which 23.1 square miles is land and 0.4 square miles is water. The East side of Avon is flanked by Talcott Mountain, part of the Metacomet Ridge, a mountainous trap rock ridgeline that stretches from Long Island Sound to near the Vermont border. Talcott Mountain is a popular outdoor recreation resource notable for its towering western cliff faces; the 51-mile Metacomet Trail traverses the Talcott Mountain ridge.
Avon was settled in 1645 and was a part of Farmington. In 1750, the parish of Northington was established in the northern part of Farmington, to support a Congregational church more accessible to the local population, its first pastor was Ebenezer Booge, a graduate of Yale Divinity School who arrived in 1751. The Farmington Canal's opening in 1828 brought new business to the village, which sat where the canal intersected the Talcott Mountain Turnpike linking Hartford to Albany, New York. Hopes of industrial and commercial growth spurred Avon to incorporate. In 1830, the Connecticut General Assembly incorporated Northington as the town of Avon, after County Avon in England; such expansion never came and, in the 1900s, the rural town became a suburban enclave. In the 1960s Avon rejected the proposal for Interstate 291 coming through the southern edge of the town and denied the expressway going through the town; the section of Talcott Mountain, known as Avon Mountain, between Avon and West Hartford, is known for the climb of U.
S. Route 44, the most direct path to Hartford from much of the Farmington Valley and Litchfield County. One of the worst traffic accidents in Connecticut history occurred at the intersection of Route 44 and Route 10 at the foot of Avon Mountain. On July 29, 2005, the driver of a dump truck lost control of his brakes and swerved to avoid traffic waiting in his lane at the stoplight. On the eastbound side of the road, the truck collided with rush hour traffic waiting at the light. Four people, including the driver of the truck, died in the crash. Former Governor M. Jodi Rell proposed safety improvements for this road in the aftermath of the accident. In September 2007, the driver of another truck lost control; the truck, traveling westbound on U. S. Route 44 at Route 10, crashed into the Nassau Furniture building at about 11 am, taking out a column that supports the roof of the building. No major injuries resulted from the crash; the accidents prompted the State of Connecticut to modify Route 44 through the addition of a runaway truck ramp just above the Avon Old Farms Inn and the straightening and widening of the road on the western slope of the mountain.
The accidents and the reconstruction of the road have been covered by local media including the Hartford Courant. The Avon Free Public Library can be traced back to 1791 when Rev. Rufus Hawley started collecting money from residents to purchase books for a community library. In 1798, Samuel Bishop, a prominent citizen, began offering library services within his home with a collection of 111 titles; the library is a member of Library Connection, Inc. the cooperative regional automated circulation and online catalog database system, CONNECT, to which 33 libraries belong. Through this system, over 4 million volumes are available through interlibrary loan, the statewide reciprocal borrowing arrangement which encompasses over 160 libraries. Avon Congregational Church built in 1819 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972; the Farmington Canal Heritage Trail runs through town. Derrin House – 18th-century farmhouse Living Museum – former schoolhouse Pine Grove School House – former schoolhouse As of 2010, Avon had a population of 18,098.
The racial composition of the population was 89.8% white, 1.5% black or African American, 6.3% Asian, 0.7% from other races and 1.7% from two or more races. 3.4% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 15,832 people, 6,192 households, 4,483 families residing in the town; the population density was 684.8 people per square mile. There were 6,480 housing units at an average density of 280.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.93% White, 0.98% African American, 0.05% Native American, 2.96% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.57% of the population. There were 6,192 households, out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.8% were married couples living together, 4.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.6% were non-families. Of all households 23.5% were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.03. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 3.3% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.0 males. The mean income for a household in the town is $155,707, the mean income f
Hartford is the capital city of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960; the city is nicknamed the "Insurance Capital of the World", as it hosts many insurance company headquarters and is the region's major industry. It is the core city in the Greater Hartford area of Connecticut. Census estimates since the 2010 United States Census have indicated that Hartford is the fourth-largest city in Connecticut, behind the coastal cities of Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford. Hartford is among the oldest cities in the United States, it is home to the nation's oldest public art museum, the oldest publicly funded park, the oldest continuously published newspaper, the second-oldest secondary school. It is home to the Mark Twain House, where the author wrote his most famous works and raised his family, among other significant sites. Mark Twain wrote in 1868, "Of all the beautiful towns it has been my fortune to see this is the chief." Hartford was the richest city in the United States for several decades following the American Civil War.
Today, it is one of the poorest cities in the nation, with 3 out of every 10 families living below the poverty threshold. In sharp contrast, the Greater Hartford metropolitan area is ranked 32nd of 318 metropolitan areas in total economic production and 8th out of 280 metropolitan statistical areas in per capita income. Hartford coordinates certain Hartford-Springfield regional development matters through the Knowledge Corridor economic partnership. Various tribes lived around Hartford, all part of the Algonquin people; these included the Podunks east of the Connecticut River. The first Europeans known to have explored the area were the Dutch under Adriaen Block, who sailed up the Connecticut in 1614. Dutch fur traders from New Amsterdam returned in 1623 with a mission to establish a trading post and fortify the area for the Dutch West India Company; the original site was located on the south bank of the Park River in the present-day Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhood. This fort was called Fort Hoop or the "House of Hope."
In 1633, Jacob Van Curler formally bought the land around Fort Hoop from the Pequot chief for a small sum. It was home to a couple families and a few dozen soldiers; the fort was abandoned by 1654. The Dutch outpost and the tiny contingent of Dutch soldiers who were stationed there did little to check the English migration, the Dutch soon realized that they were vastly outnumbered; the House of Hope remained an outpost, but it was swallowed up by waves of English settlers. In 1650, Peter Stuyvesant met with English representatives to negotiate a permanent boundary between the Dutch and English colonies; the English began to arrive in 1636, settling upstream from Fort Hoop near the present-day Downtown and Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhoods. Puritan pastors Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone, along with Governor John Haynes, led 100 settlers with 130 head of cattle in a trek from Newtown in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and started their settlement just north of the Dutch fort; the settlement was called Newtown, but it was changed to Hartford in 1637 in honor of Stone's hometown of Hertford, England.
The etymology of Hartford is the ford where harts cross, or "deer crossing." The Seal of the City of Hartford features a male deer. The fledgling colony along the Connecticut River was outside of the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colony's charter and had to determine how it was to be governed. Therefore, Hooker delivered a sermon that inspired the writing of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, a document ratified January 14, 1639 which invested the people with the authority to govern, rather than ceding such authority to a higher power. Historians suggest that Hooker's conception of self-rule embodied in the Fundamental Orders inspired the Connecticut Constitution, the U. S. Constitution. Today, one of Connecticut's nicknames is the "Constitution State."The original settlement area contained the site of the Charter Oak, an old white oak tree in which colonists hid Connecticut's Royal Charter of 1662 to protect it from confiscation by an English governor-general. The state adopted the oak tree as the emblem on the Connecticut state quarter.
The Charter Oak Monument is located at the corner of Charter Oak Place, a historic street, Charter Oak Avenue. Throughout the 19th century, Hartford's residential population, economic productivity, cultural influence, concentration of political power continued to grow; the advance of the Industrial Revolution in Hartford in the mid-1800s made this city by late century one of the wealthiest per capita in United States. On December 15, 1814, delegates from the five New England states gathered at the Hartford Convention to discuss New England's possible secession from the United States. During the early 19th century, the Hartford area was a center of abolitionist activity, the most famous abolitionist family was the Beechers; the Reverend Lyman Beecher was an important Congregational minister known for his anti-slavery sermons. His daughter Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin.
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai