Acidity regulators, or pH control agents, are food additives used to change or maintain pH. They can be organic or mineral acids, neutralizing agents, or buffering agents. Typical agents include the following acids and their sodium salts: sorbic acid, acetic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid. Acidity regulators are indicated by their E number, such as E260, or listed as "food acid". Acidity regulators differ from acidulants, which are acidic but are added to confer sour flavors, they are not intended to stabilize the food. Adipate List of food additives Sodium bicarbonate
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid. It is a waxy solid and its chemical formula is C17H35CO2H, its name comes from the Greek word στέαρ "stéar". The salts and esters of stearic acid are called stearates; as its ester, stearic acid is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in nature following palmitic acid. The triglyceride derived from three molecules of stearic acid is called stearin. Stearic acid is obtained from fats and oils by the saponification of the triglycerides using hot water; the resulting mixture is distilled. Commercial stearic acid is a mixture of stearic and palmitic acids, although purified stearic acid is available. Fats and oils rich in stearic acid are more abundant in animal fat than in vegetable fat; the important exceptions are the foods cocoa butter and shea butter, where the stearic acid content is 28–45%. In terms of its biosynthesis, stearic acid is produced from carbohydrates via the fatty acid synthesis machinery wherein acetyl-CoA contributes two-carbon building blocks.
In general, the applications of stearic acid exploit its bifunctional character, with a polar head group that can be attached to metal cations and a nonpolar chain that confers solubility in organic solvents. The combination leads to uses as softening agent. Stearic acid undergoes the typical reactions of saturated carboxylic acids, a notable one being reduction to stearyl alcohol, esterification with a range of alcohols; this is used from simple to complex electronic devices. The fatty acids are absorbed in the regular diet the same as the free fatty acids. Low acute toxicity is shown. There was in 2017 no evidence at doses up to 10% in the diet for toxic effects. Stearic acid is used in the production of detergents and cosmetics such as shampoos and shaving cream products. Soaps are not made directly from stearic acid, but indirectly by saponification of triglycerides consisting of stearic acid esters. Esters of stearic acid with ethylene glycol, glycol stearate, glycol distearate are used to produce a pearly effect in shampoos and other cosmetic products.
They are allowed to crystallize under controlled conditions. Detergents are obtained from quaternary alkylammonium derivatives of stearic acid. In view of the soft texture of the sodium salt, the main component of soap, other salts are useful for their lubricating properties. Lithium stearate is an important component of grease; the stearate salts of zinc, calcium and lead are used to soften PVC. Stearic acid is used along with castor oil for preparing softeners in textile sizing, they are mixed with caustic potash or caustic soda. Related salts are commonly used as release agents, e.g. in the production of automobile tires. Being inexpensive and chemically benign, stearic acid finds many niche applications; as an example, it can be used to make castings from a plaster piece mold or waste mold, to make a mold from a shellacked clay original. In this use, powdered stearic acid is mixed in water and the suspension is brushed onto the surface to be parted after casting; this reacts with the calcium in the plaster to form a thin layer of calcium stearate, which functions as a release agent.
When reacted with zinc it forms zinc stearate, used as a lubricant for playing cards to ensure a smooth motion when fanning. Stearic acid is a common lubricant during injection molding and pressing of ceramic powders, it is used as a mold release for foam latex, baked in stone molds. Stearic acid is used as a negative plate additive in the manufacture of lead-acid batteries, it is added at the rate of 0.6 g per kg of the oxide while preparing the paste. It is believed to enhance the hydrophobicity of the negative plate during dry-charging process, it reduces the extension of oxidation of the freshly formed lead when the plates are kept for drying in the open atmosphere after the process of tank formation. As a consequence, the charging time of a dry uncharged battery during initial filling and charging is comparatively lower, as compared to a battery assembled with plates which do not contain stearic acid additive. Fatty acids are classic components of candle-making. Stearic acid is used along with simple corn syrup as a hardener in candies.
In fireworks, stearic acid is used to coat metal powders such as aluminium and iron. This prevents oxidation. An isotope labeling study in humans concluded that the fraction of dietary stearic acid that oxidatively desaturates to oleic acid is 2.4 times higher than the fraction of palmitic acid analogously converted to palmitoleic acid. Stearic acid is less to be incorporated into cholesterol esters. In epidemiologic and clinical studies, stearic acid was found to be associated with lowered LDL cholesterol in comparison with other saturated fatty acids. Magnesium stearate Sodium stearate NIST Chemistry WebBook Entry
Carnauba called Brazil wax and palm wax, is a wax of the leaves of the palm Copernicia prunifera, a plant native to and grown only in the northeastern Brazilian states of Piauí, Ceará, Maranhão, Rio Grande do Norte. It is known as "queen of waxes" and in its pure state comes in the form of hard yellow-brown flakes, it is obtained from the leaves of the carnauba palm by collecting and drying them, beating them to loosen the wax refining and bleaching the wax. As a food additive, its E number is E903. Carnauba consists of aliphatic esters, diesters of 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, ω-hydroxycarboxylic acids, fatty alcohols; the compounds are predominantly derived from alcohols in the C26-C30 range. Distinctive for carnauba wax is the high content of diesters as well as methoxycinnamic acid. Carnauba wax is sold in several grades, labeled T1, T3, T4, depending on the purity level. Purification is accomplished by filtration and bleaching. Carnauba wax can produce a glossy finish and as such is used in automobile waxes, shoe polishes, dental floss, food products such as sweets, instrument polishes, floor and furniture waxes and polishes when mixed with beeswax and with turpentine.
Use for paper coatings is the most common application in the United States. It was used in its purest form as a coating on speedboat hulls in the early 1960s to enhance speed and aid in handling in salt water environments, it is the main ingredient in surfboard wax, combined with coconut oil. Because of its hypoallergenic and emollient properties as well as its shine, carnauba wax appears as an ingredient in many cosmetics formulas where it is used to thicken lipstick, mascara, eye shadow, deodorant, various skin care preparations, sun care preparations, etc, it is used to make cutler's resin. It is the finish of choice for most briar smoking pipes, it produces. This finish dulls with time rather than flaking off. Although too brittle to be used by itself, carnauba wax is combined with other waxes to treat and waterproof many leather products where it provides a high-gloss finish and increases leather's hardness and durability, it is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a tablet-coating agent.
Adding the carnauba wax aids in the swallowing of tablets for patients. A small amount is sprinkled onto a batch of tablets after they have been sprayed and dried; the wax and tablets are tumbled together for a few minutes before being discharged from the tablet-coating machine. In 1890, Charles Tainter patented the use of carnauba wax on phonograph cylinders as a replacement for a mixture of paraffin and beeswax. Carnauba wax may be used as a mold release agent for manufacture of fibre-reinforced plastics. An aerosol mold release agent is formed by dissolving carnauba wax in a solvent. Unlike silicone or PTFE, carnauba is suitable for use with liquid epoxy, epoxy molding compounds, some other plastic types and enhances their properties. Carnauba wax is not soluble in chlorinated or aromatic hydrocarbons. Carnauba is used in melt/castable explosives to produce an insensitive explosive formula such as Composition B, a blend of RDX and TNT. In 2006, Brazil produced 22,409 tons of carnauba wax, of which 14% was solid wax, 86% was in powder form.
There are 20-25 exporters of carnauba wax in Brazil who buy the carnauba wax from middlemen or directly from farmers. The exporters refine the wax before exporting it to the rest of the world; the four largest exporters of carnauba wax are Pontes, Brasil Ceras and Carnauba do Brasil, who together account for around €25 million of the export market. According to the German television program Markencheck, conditions for many carnauba production workers are quite poor. Relative density is about 0.97. It is insoluble in water, soluble on heating in ethyl acetate and in xylene, insoluble in ethyl alcohol. Botanical description - from the Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden Carnauba wax data sheet - from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization Carnauba Wax Background Paper - published report from field work
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA. The "E" stands for "Europe". Found on food labels, their safety assessment and approval are the responsibility of the European Food Safety Authority. Having a single unified list for food additives was first agreed upon in 1962 with food colouring. In 1964, the directives for preservatives were added, 1970 for antioxidants and 1974 for the emulsifiers, stabilisers and gelling agents; the numbering scheme follows that of the International Numbering System as determined by the Codex Alimentarius committee, though only a subset of the INS additives are approved for use in the European Union as food additives. Outside the European continent plus Russia, E numbers are encountered on food labelling in other jurisdictions, including the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, South Africa, New Zealand and Israel, they are though still found on North American packaging on imported European products.
In some European countries, "E number" is sometimes used informally as a pejorative term for artificial food additives, products may promote themselves as "free of E numbers". This is incorrect, because many components of natural foods have assigned E numbers, e.g. vitamin C and lycopene, found in carrots. NB: Not all examples of a class fall into the given numeric range. Moreover, many chemicals in the E400–499 range, have a variety of purposes; the list shows all components that had an E-number assigned. Not all additives listed are still allowed in the EU, but are listed as they used to have an E-number. For an overview of allowed additives see information provided by the Food Standards Agency of the UK. Food Chemicals Codex List of food additives List of food additives, Codex Alimentarius Codex Alimentarius, the international foods standards, established by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization in 1963 See their document "Class Names and the International Numbering System for Food Additives" Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives publications at the World Health Organization Food Additive Index, JECFA, Food and Agriculture Organization E-codes and ingredients search engine with details/suggestions for Muslims Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers Food Additives in the European Union Food Additives, Food Safety, website of the European Union.
Includes Lists of authorised food additives Food additives database The Food Additives and Ingredients Association, FAIA website, UK
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink. They come in many forms consisting of liquids, powders and pastes. Food coloring is used both in domestic cooking. Food colorants are used in a variety of non-food applications including cosmetics, home craft projects, medical devices. People associate certain colors with certain flavors, the color of food can influence the perceived flavor in anything from candy to wine. Sometimes the aim is to simulate a color, perceived by the consumer as natural, such as adding red coloring to glacé cherries, but sometimes it is for effect, like the green ketchup that Heinz launched in 1999. Color additives are used in foods for many reasons including: To make food more attractive, appealing and informative Offset color loss due to exposure to light, temperature extremes and storage conditions Correct natural variations in color Enhance colors that occur Provide color to colorless and "fun" foods Allow consumers to identify products on sight, like candy flavors or medicine dosages The addition of colorants to foods is thought to have occurred in Egyptian cities as early as 1500 BC, when candy makers added natural extracts and wine to improve the products' appearance.
During the Middle Ages, the economy in the European countries was based on agriculture, the peasants were accustomed to producing their own food locally or trading within the village communities. Under feudalism, aesthetic aspects were not considered, at least not by the vast majority of the very poor population; this situation changed with urbanization at the beginning of the Modern Age, when trade emerged—especially the import of precious spices and colors. One of the first food laws, created in Augsburg, Germany, in 1531, concerned spices or colorants and required saffron counterfeiters to be burned. With the onset of the industrial revolution, people became dependent on foods produced by others; these new urban dwellers demanded food at low cost. Analytical chemistry was still primitive and regulations few; the adulteration of foods flourished. Heavy metal and other inorganic element-containing compounds turned out to be cheap and suitable to "restore" the color of watered-down milk and other foodstuffs, some more lurid examples being: Red lead and vermillion were used to color cheese and confectionery.
Copper arsenite was used to recolor used tea leaves for resale. It caused two deaths when used to color a dessert in 1860. Sellers at the time offered more than 80 artificial coloring agents, some invented for dyeing textiles, not foods. Thus, with potted meat and sauces taken at breakfast he would consume more or less Armenian bole, red lead, or bisulphuret of mercury. At dinner with his curry or cayenne he would run the chance of a second dose of mercury. Again his tea if mixed or green, he would not escape without the administration of a little Prussian blue... Many color additives had never been tested for toxicity or other adverse effects. Historical records show that injuries deaths, resulted from tainted colorants. In 1851, about 200 people were poisoned in England, 17 of them fatally, directly as a result of eating adulterated lozenges. In 1856, the first synthetic color, was developed by Sir William Henry Perkin and by the turn of the century, unmonitored color additives had spread through Europe and the United States in all sorts of popular foods, including ketchup, mustard and wine.
These were dubbed'coal-tar' colors because the starting materials were obtained from bituminous coal. Many synthesized dyes were easier and less costly to produce and were superior in coloring properties when compared to derived alternatives; some synthetic food colorants are diazo dyes. Diazo dyes are prepared by coupling of a diazonium compound with a second aromatic hydrocarbons; the resulting compounds contain conjugated systems that efficiently absorb light in the visible parts of the spectrum, i.e. they are colored. The attractiveness of the synthetic dyes is that their color and other attributes can be engineered by the design of the specific dyestuff; the color of the dyes can be controlled by selecting the number of azo-groups and various substituents. Yellow shades are achieved by using acetoacetanilide. Red colors are azo compounds; the pair indigo and indigo carmine exhibit the same blue color, but the former is soluble in lipids, the latter is water-soluble because it has been fitted with sulfonate functional groups.
Concerns over food safety led to numerous regulations throughout the world. German food regulations released in 1882 stipulated the exclusion of dangerous minerals such as arsenic, chromium, lead and zinc, which were used as ingredients in colorants. In contrast to today, these first laws followed the principle of a negative listing. In the United States, the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 reduced the permitted list of synthetic colors from 700 down to seven; the seven dyes approved were Ponceau 3R, erythrosine, indigotine (F
Beeswax is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis. The wax is formed into scales by eight wax-producing glands in the abdominal segments of worker bees, which discard it in or at the hive; the hive workers collect and use it to form cells for honey storage and larval and pupal protection within the beehive. Chemically, beeswax consists of esters of fatty acids and various long-chain alcohols. Beeswax has been used since prehistory as the first plastic, as a lubricant and waterproofing agent, in lost wax casting of metals and glass, as a polish for wood and leather and for making candles, as an ingredient in cosmetics and as an artistic medium in encaustic painting. Beeswax is edible, having similar negligible toxicity to plant waxes, is approved for food use in most countries and in the European Union under the E number E901; the wax is formed by worker bees, which secrete it from eight wax-producing mirror glands on the inner sides of the sternites on abdominal segments 4 to 7.
The sizes of these wax glands depend on the age of the worker, after many daily flights, these glands begin to atrophy. The new wax is glass-clear and colorless, becoming opaque after mastication and adulteration with pollen by the hive worker bees, becoming progressively more yellow or brown by incorporation of pollen oils and propolis; the wax scales are about three millimetres across and 0.1 mm thick, about 1100 are required to make a gram of wax. Honey bees use the beeswax to build honeycomb cells in which their young are raised with honey and pollen cells being capped for storage. For the wax-making bees to secrete wax, the ambient temperature in the hive must be 33 to 36 °C; the amount of honey used by bees to produce wax has not been determined. The book, Beeswax Production, Harvesting and Products, suggests one kilogram of beeswax is used to store 22 kg honey. According to Whitcomb's 1946 experiment, 6.66 to 8.80 kg of honey yields one kilogram of wax. Another study estimated; when beekeepers extract the honey, they cut off the wax caps from each honeycomb cell with an uncapping knife or machine.
Its color varies from nearly white to brownish, but most a shade of yellow, depending on purity, the region, the type of flowers gathered by the bees. Wax from the brood comb of the honey bee hive tends to be darker than wax from the honeycomb. Impurities accumulate more in the brood comb. Due to the impurities, the wax must be rendered before further use; the leftovers are called slumgum. The wax may be clarified further by heating in water; as with petroleum waxes, it may be softened by dilution with mineral oil or vegetable oil to make it more workable at room temperature. Beeswax is a tough wax formed from a mixture of several chemical compounds. An approximate chemical formula for beeswax is C15H31COOC30H61, its main constituents are palmitate and oleate esters of long-chain aliphatic alcohols, with the ratio of triacontanyl palmitate CH329O-CO-14CH3 to cerotic acid CH324COOH, the two principal constituents, being 6:1. Beeswax can be classified into European and Oriental types; the saponification value is lower for European beeswax, higher for Oriental types.
Beeswax has a low melting point range of 62 to 64 °C. If beeswax is heated above 85 °C discoloration occurs; the flash point of beeswax is 204.4 °C. Density at 15 °C is 958 to 970 kg/m³; when natural beeswax is cold, it is brittle, its fracture dry and granular. At room temperature it is tenacious and it softens further at human body temperature; the specific gravity at 15 °C is from 0.958 to 0.975, that of melted wax at 98 to 99 °C compared with water at 15.5 °C is 0.822. Candle-making has long involved the use of beeswax, flammable, this material was traditionally prescribed for the making of the Paschal candle or "Easter candle". Beeswax candles are purported to be superior to other wax candles, because they burn brighter and longer, do not bend, burn "cleaner", it is further recommended for the making of other candles used in the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church. Beeswax is the candle constituent of choice in the Orthodox Church. Refined beeswax plays a prominent role in art materials both as a binder in encaustic paint and as a stabilizer in oil paint to add body.
Beeswax is an ingredient in surgical bone wax, used during surgery to control bleeding from bone surfaces. Beeswax blended with pine rosin is used for waxing, can serve as an adhesive to attach reed plates to the structure inside a squeezebox, it can be used to make Cutler's resin, an adhesive used to glue handles onto cutlery knives. It is used in Eastern Europe in egg decoration. Beeswax is used by percussionists to make a surface on tambourines for thumb rolls, it can be used as a metal injection moulding binder component along with other polymeric binder materials. Beeswax was used in the manufacture of phonograph cylinders, it may still be used to seal formal legal or royal decree and academic parchments such as placing an awarding stamp imprimatur of the university upon completion of pos
Coating is an industrial process that consists of applying a liquid or a powder onto the surface of an edible product to convey new properties. Coating designates an operation as much as the result of it: the application of a layer and the layer itself. Coating takes different meanings depending on the industry concerned; this article concerns coating applications in the food industry. There are many similarities between coating processes and numerous examples of technology transfer to and from the food industry. Coating in the food industry is the application of a layer of liquids or solids onto a product; the operation relies on mechanical energy. It consists in setting the product particles in motion and applying the coating ingredient in a certain pattern to expose one to the other, it involves such phenomena as adhesion, viscosity, surface tension and crystallisation. Food coating is not a “hard” science such as drying or cooling, which can be described by equations and are predictable. Food coating is rather a “soft” knowledge derived from the accumulation of know-how.
One reason is that the product and the ingredients considered have complex characteristics and interactions. Encapsulation is the application of a liquid layer to small particles, it relies on an array of principles: entrapping a molecule inside a matrix, chemical bonding, polymerisation. Encapsulation aims at the protection and controlled release of active molecules when immersed in an environment; as a rule of thumb, particle size can discriminate between “encapsulation” and “food coating”. Mere mechanical movement is not adequate and sufficient to fulfill the proper coating of minute particles. Pictures Coatings can be added for the enhancement of organoleptic properties of a food product. Appearance and palatability can be improved by changing the surface aspect. Coatings can be used to add vitamins and minerals or food energy. Coating conveys functional properties, such as particle separation, antioxidant effect, or a barrier effect. Barrier effects are difficult to achieve. An ingredient may be cheaper than the product it thus allows for a slight cost reduction.
The coating process begins with the application of the coating on the food product, but the end product must be stable throughout its shelf life. Therefore, a coating process is completed by a stabilizing process, either by freezing, heating or drying; the sequences of this process are: Application: To apply minute quantities of an ingredient, spraying is used to disperse it first, instead of just pouring it. This hastens the dispersion on the whole surface of the product. For larger ratios of coating to substrate, mixing or dipping can be used. Multiple stages can be used. Adhesion: the coating must adhere to the product, meaning there must be a degree of affinity between the ingredient and the product. Coalescence: in case of a liquid, the multiple droplets may merge to form a uniform continuous layer. Characteristics of the ingredient in relation to the product, such as viscosity and surface tension associated to a mechanical effect are critical. Stabilisation: depending on the nature of the coating ingredient and substrate product, the ingredient is stabilised by elimination of the solvent, crystallisation, or thermal treatment.
A coating process can be broken into the following elements: Inputs: base product and ingredients Additional flows: air as a carrier of product or ingredient, or for drying, energy in a mechanical or a thermal form Outputs: end product, excess of coating ingredient, lost or to be recycledCollaterals occur along the process: Breakage of product Generation of fines Agglomeration of products Clogging of system surfaces with product or ingredient Airborne pollution, volatile organic componentThese effects are to be avoided unless the end product is made more desirable. Parameters affecting the system are listed by origin: This first set of criteria governs the choice of the coating ingredient; the coating consists either in a mix. This mix has different physical forms: solution, suspension, etc, it has its own characteristics. In addition, a fluid may be required such as spraying, heating or drying air; the combination of the above characteristics drives the choice of the process principle. It has to be described.
The selection of the proper process and its control rely on the gathering of precise and reliable information. The influence of some phenomena and their parameters is critical: crystallisation, water removal, glass transition, viscosity, or surface tension. Among the parameters, temperature has a choice place, it influences surface tension, drying or crystallisation behaviour. It influences the coating rate and coating resistance, it therefore influences the degree of clogging of ingredient in the system. For