Public transport in Auckland
Public transport in Auckland, the largest metropolitan area of New Zealand, consists of three modes: bus and ferry. Services are coordinated by Auckland Transport under the AT Metro brand. Britomart Transport Centre is the main transport hub; until the 1950s Auckland had high levels of ridership. However, the dismantling of an extensive tram system in the 1950s, the decision by William Goosman to not electrify Auckland's rail network, a focus of transport investment into a motorway system led to the collapse in both mode share and total trips. By the 1990s Auckland had experienced one of the sharpest declines in public transport ridership in the world, with only 33 trips per capita per year. Since 2000, a greater focus has been placed on improving Auckland's public transport system through a series of projects and service improvements. Major improvements include the Britomart Transport Centre, the Northern Busway, the upgrade and electrification of the rail network and the introduction of integrated ticketing through the AT Hop Card.
These efforts have led to sustained growth in ridership on the rail network. Between June 2005 and November 2017 total ridership increased from 51.3 million boardings per annum to 90.9 million. Despite those strong gains, the overall share of travel in Auckland by public transport is still quite low. At the 2013 census around 8% of journeys to work were by public transport and per capita ridership in 2017 of around 55 boardings is still well below that of Wellington, Melbourne and most large Canadian cities. Auckland's rapid population growth means that improving the city's public transport system is a priority for Auckland Council and the New Zealand Government. Major improvements planned or underway include the City Rail Link, extending the Northern Busway to Albany, construction of the Eastern Busway between Panmure and Botany, the proposed Auckland Airport Line, a light rail line between the city centre and Auckland Airport. Horse-drawn trams operated in Auckland from 1884 while the Auckland Electric Tram Company's system was opened on 17 November 1902.
The Electric Tram Company started as a private company before being acquired by Auckland City Council. The tram network shaped much of Auckland's growth throughout the early 20th century. Auckland's public transport system was well utilised, with usage peaking at over 120 million boardings during the Second World War though Auckland's population was under 500,000 at the time. Auckland's extensive tram network was removed in the 1950s, with the last line closing in late 1956. Although a series of ambitious rail schemes were proposed between the 1940s and 1970s, the focus of transport improvements in Auckland shifted to developing an extensive motorway system. Passionate advocacy from long-time Mayor of Auckland City Council Dove-Myer Robinson for a "rapid rail" scheme was unsuccessful. Removal of the tram system, little investment in Auckland's rail network and growing car ownership in the second half of the 20th century led to a collapse in ridership across all modes of public transport. From a 1954 average level of 290 public transport trips per person per year, patronage decreased rapidly.
1950s ridership levels were only reached again in the 2010s, despite Auckland's population growing four-fold over the same time period. These decisions shaped Auckland's growth patterns in the late 20th century, with the city becoming a low-density dispersed urban area with a population dependent on private vehicles for their travel needs. By the late 1990s ongoing population growth and high levels of car use were leading to the recognition that traffic congestion was one of Auckland's biggest problems, it has been claimed that the city's public transport decline resulted from, "privatisation, a poor regulatory environment and a funding system that favours roads". On the other hand, NZ Bus claim that increasing passengers and cost control began with privatisation in 1991; as concerns over urban sprawl and traffic congestion grew in the 1990s and early 2000s, public transport returned to the spotlight, with growing agreement of the "need for a substantial shift to public transport". Growing recognition that Auckland could no longer "build its way out of congestion" through more roads alone led to the first major improvements to Auckland's public transport system in half a century: The Britomart Transport Centre was opened in 2003, the first major upgrade of Auckland's rail network since World War II.
This project allowed trains to reach into the heart of Auckland's city centre and acted as a catalyst for the regeneration of this part of downtown Auckland. The Northern Busway was opened in 2008, providing Auckland's North Shore with rapid transit that enabled bus riders to avoid congestion on the Northern Motorway and Auckland Harbour Bridge. A core upgrade of Auckland's rail network between 2006 and 2011, known as Project DART, which included double-tracking of the Western Line, the reopening of the Onehunga Branch line to Onehunga, a rail spur to Manukau City and a series of station upgrades. Electrification of the Auckland rail network and the purchase of new electric trains from Spanish manufacturer CAF. Electric train services commenced in 2014. Implementation of an integrated ticketing and fares system, through the AT HOP card, enabling consistent fares and easy transfers between different bus and ferry operators. Despite these improvements, the lack of investment in Auckland's public transport system throughout the latter part of the 20th century means the city still has much lower levels of ridership than other major cities in Canada and Australia.
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility or area where trains stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It consists of at least one track-side platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales and waiting rooms. If a station is on a single-track line, it has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements; the smallest stations are most referred to as "stops" or, in some parts of the world, as "halts". Stations elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other transport modes such as buses, trams or other rapid transit systems. In British English, traditional usage favours railway station or station though train station, perceived as an Americanism, is now about as common as railway station in writing. In British usage, the word station is understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In American English, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station. In North America, the term depot is sometimes used as an alternative name for station, along with the compound forms train depot, railway depot, railroad depot, but applicable for goods, the term depot is not used in reference to vehicle maintenance facilities in American English.
The world's first recorded railway station was The Mount on the Oystermouth Railway in Swansea, which began passenger service in 1807, although the trains were horsedrawn rather than by locomotives. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw passenger service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on 22 May 1830; the oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, on the locomotive hauled Liverpool to Manchester line. As the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road; the station was the first to incorporate a train shed. The station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal; the first stations had little in the way of amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened in 1830.
Manchester's Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses. Early stations were sometimes built with both passenger and goods facilities, though some railway lines were goods-only or passenger-only, if a line was dual-purpose there would be a goods depot apart from the passenger station. Dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, passengers wanting to board the train had to flag the train down in order for it to stop; such stations were known as "flag stops" or "flag stations". Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the grandiose architecture of the time, lending prestige to the city as well as to railway operations. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations imitated 19th-century styles.
Various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles. Stations in Europe tended to follow British designs and were in some countries, like Italy, financed by British railway companies. Stations built more often have a similar feel to airports, with a simple, abstract style. Examples of modern stations include those on newer high-speed rail networks, such as the Shinkansen in Japan, THSR in Taiwan, TGV lines in France and ICE lines in Germany. Stations have staffed ticket sales offices, automated ticket machines, or both, although on some lines tickets are sold on board the trains. Many stations include a convenience store. Larger stations have fast-food or restaurant facilities. In some countries, stations may have a bar or pub. Other station facilities may include: toilets, left-luggage, lost-and-found and arrivals boards, luggage carts, waiting rooms, taxi ranks, bus bays and car parks.
Larger or manned stations tend to have a greater range of facilities including a station security office. These are open for travellers when there is sufficient traffic over a long enough period of time to warrant the cost. In large cities this may mean facilities available around the clock. A basic station might only have platforms, though it may still be distinguished from a halt, a stopping or halting place that may not have platforms. Many stations, either larger or smaller, offer interchange with local transportation. In many African, South American countries, Asian countries, stations are used as a place for public markets and other informal businesses; this is true on tourist routes or stations near tourist destinations. As well as providing services for passengers and loading facilities for goods, stations can sometimes have locomotive and rolling stock depots (usually with facilities for storing and refuelling rolling stock an
Parnell railway station
Parnell railway station is a station serving the inner-city suburb of Parnell in Auckland, New Zealand. It is situated on the Newmarket Line 600m north of Parnell Tunnel, is located in the Waipapa Valley adjacent to Auckland Domain, it serves Southern Western Line trains. Onehunga Line trains pass through the station without stopping; the station opened on 12 March 2017 with basic facilities and serving a limited number of lines. Future development will involve building a pedestrian bridge across the tracks to provide step-free access to the platforms, constructing several new paths to provide more direct access to Auckland Domain, Parnell Town Centre and the University of Auckland, it was intended that the station would serve all three lines which pass through it. This was contingent on the removal of the Sarawia Street level crossing in Newmarket, removing the signalling constraints which affected the line. A bridge built to replace the level crossing, linking Laxon Terrace with nearby Cowie Street, allowed the removal of the crossing.
After a plan to lease part of the area as a bus depot was cancelled, KiwiRail and Auckland Council were asked in 2010 by the outgoing Auckland Regional Council to make an early start on construction of the proposed station, to cost $13 million or more, to ensure that there would not need to be costly extra work after the electrification of the line as part of the Auckland railway electrification. It was proposed that several million dollars saved during the upgrade of the Newmarket station be allocated to this new station. An early proposal was to integrate the new station with some of the historic railway workshop sheds of the adjacent Mainline Steam depot but nothing eventuated; the Mainline Steam Heritage Trust had its lease on the depot terminated by KiwiRail and completed its move from the site in June 2015. The sheds were demolished in September 2015; the heritage station building from the Newmarket station is a feature of the station. Relocation of the building was planned for December 2016 and external refurbishment works were expected to be finished by April 2017.
In late 2015, Auckland Transport advised that opening the Parnell station to passenger services was being postponed until the completion of a road bridge at Cowie Street, replacing the nearby level crossing on Sarawia Street. AT received approval from independent planning commissioners in June 2016; the following November, the commissioners' recommendation for the bridge was appealed. If AT had been unable to address the concerns expressed in the appeal, an Environment Court hearing would have decided whether the appeal would be upheld. Trains began operating at the station on 12 March 2017, with an official opening by Mayor of Auckland, Phil Goff, Waitematā Local Board chair Pippa Coom on 13 March 2017. In July–August 2018, the Cowie Street bridge to Laxon Terrace was completed and opened and the Sarawia Street level crossing was closed to road traffic; as a result, a new timetable introduced on 26 August 2018 allowed Parnell to become a stop on all Southern Line and Western Line services. The station is located next to the Auckland Domain, where the Auckland War Memorial Museum is situated.
The two side platforms are linked by a subway. Future work will provide walking links to the Domain and the campuses of the University of Auckland and Auckland University of Technology. In mid-November 2018, a walkway was established connecting the Parnell Station to the University of Auckland's Carlaw Park Student Village and the Carlaw business centre, near the University of Auckland's City Campus on Symond Street. List of Auckland railway stations
Britomart Transport Centre
Britomart Transport Centre is the public transport hub in the central business district of Auckland, New Zealand, the northern terminus of the North Island Main Trunk railway line. It combines a railway station in a former Edwardian post office, extended with expansive post-modernist architectural elements, with a bus interchange, it is at the foot of Queen Street, the main commercial thoroughfare of Auckland city centre, with the main ferry terminal just across Quay Street. The centre was the result of many design iterations, some of them being larger and including an underground bus terminal and a large underground car park. Political concerns and cost implications meant. However, at the time of its inception in the early 2000s the centre was still Auckland's largest transport project built to move rail access closer to the city's CBD and help boost Auckland's low usage of public transport, it is one of the few underground railway stations in the world designed for use by diesel trains. Seen as underused and too costly, it is now considered a great success, heading for capacity with the growing uptake of rail commuting.
Limitations on further patronage are due to the access tunnel from the east which provides only two rail tracks, the lack of a through connection via a rail link to the North Shore or to the Western line via an underground tunnel, which would change it into a through station. A tunnel to the Western Line is now as part of the City Rail Link project. Britomart is on reclaimed land in the middle of, it is named after a former headland at Commercial Bay's eastern end. In the 1870s and 1880s the headland was levelled in order to extend the railway line to the bottom of Queen Street, was used to fill in Commercial Bay. Auckland Railway Station moved west from its original 1873 site to Britomart in 1885 and remained there after the Post Office was built on the Queen Street frontage in 1911. In 1930 the station was relocated 1.2 km east to Beach Road and the former station site became a bus terminal in 1937 and car park in 1958. Many proposals were made to locate the station back in the CBD, most notably in 1973 and 1987, with the 1970s proposal of the Mayor of Auckland, Dove-Myer Robinson, envisaging an underground station at Britomart and a tunnel loop, but, stopped by the Muldoon National Government, which claimed it was unjustified and too costly.
In 1995, Auckland City Council purchased the old Post Office building and proposed to redevelop the area as a transit centre. Early designs called for both the bus terminal and the railway to be underground, but these plans were scrapped as consultation showed that buses were preferred above ground by both users and operators, projected costs soared due to the difficulties with potential water ingress; the developer defaulted on contractual deadlines, the project failed. In 1998, a cheaper option was decided on after a consultation process with stakeholders and citizens; the architectural design was chosen via a competition. It used part of Queen Elizabeth II Square and surrounding streets as a bus terminal, with the existing dilapidated bus terminal redeveloped to incorporate both bus services and a pedestrianised area; when nearby Quay Street was realigned in the late 1990s, a tunnel was built to provide the underground railway link. Bus services using the old bus terminal were diverted to other locations in June 2001.
Designed by California architect Mario Madayag in collaboration with local Auckland architects Jasmax, construction of Britomart commenced in October 2001, with structural design having been provided by OPUS. It involved 14 km of piling, some being 40 m long and driven 16 m into the underlying bedrock to provide good earthquake protection, to futureproof the area for potential construction of buildings on top of the station. 200,000 cubic metres were excavated for the station, 40,000 cubic metres of concrete poured. The station includes 236 m ² retail area; the main chamber of Britomart is one of the best interiors in New Zealand and shows the influence of the main hall of the Austrian Postal Savings Bank building by Otto Wagner. The station opened to passengers on 7 July 2003, with the official opening on 25 July 2003 by Sir Edmund Hillary and government ministers. Services to the Beach Road terminus ceased, except for some peak-time commuter services and excursion trains using the former Platform 4, renamed'The Strand'.
The commuter services ceased after a few months. Cost over-runs and differing tastes made the centre politically controversial, the design being described as a large hole in the ground and figuratively. Despite this and a NZ$204 million price tag, it has won numerous design awards and is internationally recognised for its innovative but heritage-sympathetic architecture; the main source of contention was the great expense of this public transport development in the Auckland Region, where for many decades the focus had been on private vehicle ownership and travel. Initial plans included underground pedestrian walkways to Queen Elizabeth II Square, the nearby downtown ferry terminal and the main shopping street of Queen St. Due to cost over-runs only the short walkway under Queen Street to the square was built, the other two being dropped in favour of a sizeable rain-proof canopy that ran from the square's above-ground exit northward toward the ferry terminal and southward toward the Queen Street-Customs Street intersection.
The underground walkway was closed to pedestrians from 29 March 20
KiwiRail Holdings Limited is a New Zealand state-owned enterprise responsible for rail operations in New Zealand. Trading as KiwiRail and headquartered in Wellington, New Zealand, KiwiRail is the largest rail transport operator in New Zealand. KiwiRail has business units of KiwiRail Freight, The Great Journeys of New Zealand and Interislander. KiwiRail released a 10-Year Turn-around Plan in 2010 and has received significant government investment in support of this in an effort to make KiwiRail a viable long-term transport operator. Prior to the establishment of KiwiRail, rail transport in New Zealand has been under both public and private ownership. Government operators included the Public Works Department, New Zealand Railways Department, the New Zealand Railways Corporation. New Zealand Rail Limited was split off from the Railways Corporation in 1990, privatised in 1993 and renamed in 1995 to Tranz Rail. In 2004 Tranz Rail's rail and trucking operations were acquired by Toll Holdings and renamed Toll NZ, with the central government buying back the rail network under the New Zealand Railways Corporation.
As part of this acquisition, Toll agreed to pay ONTRACK Track Access Charges in exchange for exclusive network access for 66 years, subject to a "use it or lose it clause": if freight and passenger volumes fell below their 2002-2004 average for three or more years, Toll would lose its exclusive access. The agreement set a base track access fee but left future track access fees open to negotiation between ONTRACK and Toll. After several years of negotiations, the two parties could not come to an agreement on the amount that Toll should pay; this stifled the ability of rail in New Zealand to recover from the prior years of under-investment and threatened the ability of New Zealand to get its key primary products to market. In July 2008, the government announced the purchase for $690 million of Toll Rail, renaming it KiwiRail; the Railways Corporation owned both KiwiRail and ONTRACK, with both companies merging in October 2008 to create one company that controls both rail and ferry operations and rail infrastructure.
In 2011, KiwiRail proposed splitting its land and rail corridor assets from its rail operation assets. On 27 June 2012 it was announced by the company that the value of the land and rail operations would be written down from NZ$7.8 billion to $1.3 billion, KiwiRail would continue as the rail and ferry operator, while the New Zealand Railways Corporation would manage KiwiRail's land. The de-merger took effect on 31 December 2012. Under the years of private ownership prior to the government's re-nationalisation and establishment of KiwiRail in 2008, infrastructure investment in rail outside of Wellington dropped to an average of just over $25m a year. A significant capital injection along with a clear long-term strategic plan was required if rail was to survive as a viable transport operator in NZ; the result was the release by KiwiRail in 2010 of a 10-year turnaround plan and significant government investment in support of this in the years following. In support of the turn-around plan, from July 2008 to December 2016 KiwiRail received over $2.1 billion of Crown investment, spent on infrastructure and new rolling stock.
The focus of the Plan is to increase rail traffic volumes and productivity, modernise assets and separate out the commercial elements of the business from the non-commercial. The plan included the following points: "Step change" on the Auckland – Wellington – Christchurch trunk route: Reduce transit time and improve reliability along the route by easing curves, removing speed restrictions, greater investment in renewal of bridges and sleepers and passing loops. An express freight train journey between Auckland and Wellington took a half hours. KiwiRail aimed to reduce transit times to 11 hours. Improve exit and entry from Auckland and Wellington with improvements at terminals and on main lines to reduce transit times and conflicts with commuter services Increase ferry rail-freight capacity by extending the length of the Aratere and make the Kaitaki rail–capable Improve reliability and enabling investment: Increased renewals on "other key routes", including investment in sleeper replacement, bridge strengthening and track formation refurbishment.
Improved IT systems and processes and facilities at terminals New locomotives and 3,000 new wagons. Review of minor lines: North Auckland Line Stratford–Okahukura Line Napier – Gisborne Line North Wairarapa line. Clarify and assign costs associated with Auckland and Wellington metro services (resulting in Tranz Metro assets being transferred to the Greater Wellington Regional Council and contracts for running services being made "contestable", as in Auckland. Two of KiwiRail's major customers and Fonterra, invested in rail-related infrastructure in line with the Turnaround Plan. Mainfreight has allocated $60 million for investment in new railhead depots, while Fonterra has invested $130 million in a new rail hub complex in Hamilton and another in Mosgiel; the plan has had mixed success, with company Chairman John Spencer stating in 2013 that for its first three years, rail freight revenue had increased by over 25%. Similar progress in attaining new customers and increasing freight volumes has been made over the life of the Plan to date.
Steady and at times rapid progress has been made on t
Kingsland railway station, Auckland
Kingsland railway station is a station on the Western Line of the Auckland railway network in New Zealand. The station sits parallel to the Kingsland township, is located 400m from Eden Park, the major rugby and cricket stadium in Auckland, the home ground of New Zealand's national rugby team, the All Blacks; the station's proximity to Eden Park means that it functions as a terminus for stadium-goers, with dedicated services utilising both tracks to shuttle people into and out of Kingsland. Signalling was upgraded in 2011 to assist with this. Kingsland Station used to consist of a single platform, was situated further east of its present location, but in 2004 it was relocated as part of the Auckland rail network's double-tracking project; the old station's platform was demolished, but its shelter was retained and is now used by the Glenbrook Vintage Railway. The station now utilises a side platform configuration for each direction of travel and is accessible from New North Road and Sandringham Road.
An overbridge enables transfer between platforms, a subway links the northbound platform to the Eden Park end of Sandringham Road. 1880: Opened on 29 March, with the North Auckland Line. 1993: Platform upgraded to meet the requirements of ex-Perth diesel multiple units. 2003: Old station removed. 2004: Rebuilt with two platforms as part of the Western Line double-tracking project, for $4 million. 2009-2010: Platforms lengthened to 115 m for six-car trains, new stairs and an underpass from Sandringham Road to the northbound platform constructed, for $6 million. Signalling was upgraded to allow trains to leave from both platforms in the same direction to meet the needs of the 2011 Rugby World Cup, where it was expected that 15,000 fans would use the station in 70 minutes. Groups of 1,000 fans at a time were to departing every five minutes. 2011, June–August: shelters upgraded for the Rugby World Cup, made from the same materials as when building The Cloud on Auckland's waterfront. Bus routes 20, 22N, 22R, 24B, 24R and 209 pass near to Kingsland station on either New North Road or Sandringham Road.
In the film Mr. Pip, Kingsland railway station appears as Gravesend station in England. List of Auckland railway stations Public transport in Auckland
Fruitvale Road railway station
Fruitvale Road railway station is on the Western Line of the Auckland railway network. It is including two major high schools; the station was opened on 28 September 1953. In 2006/2007, the station was closed over summer to be upgraded, lengthened for 6-car trains, it is named after a nearby road. The road is not well known, thus new passengers will most have no idea which suburb this station serves, it has been proposed to rename it ` Kelston'. It is quite close to Kelston Shopping Centre, Kelston Girls' College and Kelston Deaf Education Centre. List of Auckland railway stations