National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units
Ethan A. Hitchcock (general)
Ethan Allen Hitchcock was a career United States Army officer and author who had War Department assignments in Washington, D. C. during the American Civil War, in which he served as a major general. Hitchcock was born in Vermont, his father was Samuel Hitchcock, a lawyer who served as United States District Judge for Vermont, his mother was Lucy Caroline Allen, the daughter of American Revolutionary War hero General Ethan Allen. Hitchcock's siblings included a Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court. Henry's son Ethan Hitchcock served as United States Secretary of the Interior under William McKinley. Another of Henry's sons, Henry Hitchcock, was a prominent attorney in St. Louis. Ethan A. Hitchcock graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1817 and was commissioned a third lieutenant of Field Artillery, he was promoted to captain in 1824. From 1829 to 1833, he served as commandant of cadets at West Point and was promoted to major in 1838. By 1842 he achieved the rank of the lieutenant colonel in the 3rd Infantry Regiment, in command of Fort Stansbury.
He served in the Seminole War in Florida, in the Pacific Northwest, in the Mexican–American War, where he served as Gen. Winfield Scott's inspector general in the march on Mexico City, he received a brevet promotion to colonel for Contreras and Churubusco and to brigadier general for Molino del Rey. In 1851 became the colonel of the 2nd Infantry. From 1851 to 1854 he commanded the Pacific Division and the Department of the Pacific. In October, 1855, he resigned from the Army following a refusal by Secretary of War Jefferson Davis to extend a four-month leave of absence that he had requested for reasons of health, he moved to St. Louis and began a presumed retirement, occupying himself with writing and studies of general literature and philosophy. Hitchcock was a diarist, his journal entries from this time have served as a crucial source of evidence for Howard Zinn's reinterpretation of United States history, Voices of A People's History of the United States. After the start of the Civil War, Hitchcock was rejected.
It was only after the intervention of Winfield Scott that he was commissioned a major general in February, 1862 and became special adviser to the Secretary of War. From March 17 to July 23, 1862, he served as the chairman of the War Board, the organization that assisted President Abraham Lincoln and Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton in the management of the War Department and the command of the Union armies during the period in which there was no general-in-chief. Hitchcock sat on the court-martial of Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter which convicted the general of disobedience and cowardice. From November 1862 through the end of the war, he served as Commissioner for Prisoner of War Exchange, Commissary-General of Prisoners. Hitchcock was mustered out in 1867 and moved to Charleston, South Carolina to Sparta, Georgia, he died at Glen Mary Plantation in Sparta in 1870 and is buried in West Point National Cemetery, New York. By the time of his death, Hitchcock had amassed a large private library, including over 250 volumes on the subject of alchemy.
This collection was regarded as one of the finest private holdings of rare alchemical works and is preserved by St. Louis Mercantile Library at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. Through Remarks upon Alchemy and the Alchemists and other writings, Hitchcock argued that the alchemists were religious philosophers writing in symbolism. In Problems of Mysticism and its Symbolism, the Viennese psychologist Herbert Silberer credited Hitchcock with helping to open the way for his explorations of the psychological content of alchemy. Hitchcock played the flute and amassed a sizable collection of flute music. In the 1960s one hundred years after his death, part of Hitchcock's personal music collection was discovered in Sparta, Georgia; this collection, which consists of 73 bound volumes and 200 loose manuscripts resides in the Warren D. Allen Music Library at Florida State University. Included in this collection are works by some of the general's contemporaries, music manuscripts handwritten by Hitchcock himself, items of personal correspondence.
The library's acquisition of these materials was celebrated in 1989 by a recital given by F. S. U. Flute students and attended by several of Hitchcock's descendants. Remarks upon Alchemy and Alchemists Swedenborg a Hermetic Philosopher Christ the Spirit The Story of the Red Book of Appin Spenser's Poem Notes on the Vita Nuova of Dante Remarks on the Sonnets of Shakespeare Fifty Years in Camp and Field A Traveler in Indian Territory: The Journal of Ethan Allen Hitchcock, Late Major-General in the United States Army List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1964. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7. Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Hitchcock, Ethan Allen, American soldier". Encyclopedia Americana. Military biography of Hitchcock from the Cullum biographies Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Hitchcock, Ethan Allen
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U. S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city lies just south of the geographical midpoint of South Carolina's coastline and is located on Charleston Harbor, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean formed by the confluence of the Ashley and Wando rivers. Charleston had an estimated population of 134,875 in 2017; the estimated population of the Charleston metropolitan area, comprising Berkeley and Dorchester counties, was 761,155 residents in 2016, the third-largest in the state and the 78th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Charleston was founded in 1670 as Charles Town, its initial location at Albemarle Point on the west bank of the Ashley River was abandoned in 1680 for its present site, which became the fifth-largest city in North America within ten years. Despite its size, it remained unincorporated throughout the colonial period.
Election districts were organized according to Anglican parishes, some social services were managed by Anglican wardens and vestries. Charleston adopted its present spelling with its incorporation as a city in 1783 at the close of the Revolutionary War. Population growth in the interior of South Carolina influenced the removal of the state government to Columbia in 1788, but the port city remained among the ten largest cities in the United States through the 1840 census. Historians estimate that "nearly half of all Africans brought to America arrived in Charleston", most at Gadsden's Wharf; the only major antebellum American city to have a majority-enslaved population, Charleston was controlled by an oligarchy of white planters and merchants who forced the federal government to revise its 1828 and 1832 tariffs during the Nullification Crisis and launched the Civil War in 1861 by seizing the Arsenal, Castle Pinckney, Fort Sumter from their federal garrisons. Known for its rich history, well-preserved architecture, distinguished restaurants, hospitable people, Charleston is a popular tourist destination.
It has received numerous accolades, including "America's Most Friendly " by Travel + Leisure in 2011 and in 2013 and 2014 by Condé Nast Traveler, "the most polite and hospitable city in America" by Southern Living magazine. In 2016, Charleston was ranked the "World's Best City" by Travel + Leisure; the city proper consists of six distinct districts. Downtown, or sometimes referred to as The Peninsula, is Charleston's center city separated by the Ashley River to the west and the Cooper River to the east. West Ashley, residential area to the west of Downtown bordered by the Ashley River to the east and the Stono River to the west. Johns Island, far western limits of Charleston home to the Angel Oak, bordered by the Stono River to the east, Kiawah River to the south and Wadmalaw Island to the west. James Island, popular residential area between Downtown and the town of Folly Beach where the McLeod Plantation is located. Cainhoy Peninsula, far eastern limits of Charleston bordered by the Wando River to the west and Nowell Creek to the east.
Daniel Island, fast-growing residential area to the north of downtown, east of the Cooper River and west of the Wando River. The incorporated city fit into 4–5 square miles as late as the First World War, but has since expanded, crossing the Ashley River and encompassing James Island and some of Johns Island; the city limits have expanded across the Cooper River, encompassing Daniel Island and the Cainhoy area. The present city has a total area of 127.5 square miles, of which 109.0 square miles is land and 18.5 square miles is covered by water. North Charleston blocks any expansion up the peninsula, Mount Pleasant occupies the land directly east of the Cooper River. Charleston Harbor runs about 7 miles southeast to the Atlantic with an average width of about 2 miles, surrounded on all sides except its entrance. Sullivan's Island lies to the north of Morris Island to the south; the entrance itself is about 1 mile wide. The tidal rivers are evidence of drowned coastline. There is a submerged river delta off the mouth of the harbor and the Cooper River is deep.
Charleston has a humid subtropical climate, with mild winters, hot humid summers, significant rainfall all year long. Summer is the wettest season. Fall remains warm through the middle of November. Winter is short and mild, is characterized by occasional rain. Measurable snow only occurs several times per decade at the most however freezing rain is more common. However, 6.0 in fell at the airport on December 23, 1989, the largest single-day fall on record, contributing to a single-storm and seasonal record of 8.0 in snowfall. The highest temperature recorded within city limits was 104 °F on June 2, 1985, June 24, 1944, the lowest was 7 °F on February 14, 1899. At the airport, where official records are kept, the historical range is 105 °F on August 1, 1999, down to 6 °F on January 21, 1985. Hurricanes are a major threat to the area during the summer and early fall, with several severe hurrican
White House Millennium Council
The White House Millennium Council was an American organization established by Executive Order 13072 in 1998 by President Bill Clinton as part of global millennium celebrations. The council's theme was "Honor the Past – Imagine the Future." The council was headed by First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, during a two-year period it engaged in numerous activities surrounding the millennium. The capsule is designed to be opened in 2100, is stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. Students were challenged to imagine traveling to and living on Mars by 2030; the President and the First Lady hosted Millennium Evenings, a series of lectures and cultural showcases designed to highlight contributions of Americans in arts and other areas. The White House Millennium Celebration included several events, was televised internationally. Nathan D. Baxter, then-Dean of Washington National Cathedral, was selected to deliver the prayer for the nation. Save America's Treasures National Millennium Trail White House Millennium Council website
Hancock County, Georgia
Hancock County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,429; the county seat is Sparta. The county was named for John Hancock. Hancock County is included in Georgia Micropolitan Statistical Area. Before the Civil War, Hancock County's economy was based on growing cotton, labor was done by slaves; this area is classified as part of the Black Belt of the United States, due to its fertile soil and association with the slave society. Slaves made up 61% of the total county population in the 1850 Census. Unusually for such a plantation-dominated society, the county's representatives at the Georgia Secession Convention, overwhelmingly white and Democratic, voted against secession in 1861; the secession conventions were dominated by men who voted for separation, Georgia soon seceded and entered the war. According to the 2010 census estimate, the racial makeup of the county seat of Sparta was 84% African American, 15% White, 0.50% from two or more races, 0.30% Asian, 0.10% Native American.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.70% of the population. Most African Americans support whites support the Republican Party. In August 2015, the majority-white Hancock County Board of Elections initiated an effort to purge African-American voters from the rolls, they directed deputy sheriffs to the homes of more than 180 African Americans residing in the county seat of Sparta to inform them they would lose their voting rights unless they appeared in court to prove their residency. A total of 53 voters were removed the voting rolls, but a federal judge overturned the Board's actions. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 479 square miles, of which 472 square miles is land and 6.8 square miles is water. The western portion of Hancock County, defined by a line running southeast from White Plains to the intersection of State Route 22 and Springfield Road running southwest along State Route 22, is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin.
The southern portion of the county, defined by a triangle made of State Route 22 and State Route 15, with Sparta at its apex, is located in the Lower Oconee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin. The northeastern portion of Hancock County is located in the Upper Ogeechee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin. No Interstate Highway State Route 248 State Route 15 State Route 16 State Route 22 State Route 77 Taliaferro County - north Warren County - northeast Glascock County - east Washington County - southeast Baldwin County - southwest Putnam County - west Greene County - northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 10,076 people, 3,237 households, 2,311 families residing in the county; the population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 4,287 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.76% Black or African American, 21.46% White, 0.16% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.14% from other races, 0.38% from two or more races.
0.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,237 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.00% were married couples living together, 28.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.60% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.10% under the age of 18, 9.90% from 18 to 24, 31.00% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 12.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 118.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $22,003, the median income for a family was $27,232. Males had a median income of $26,062 versus $19,328 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,916.
About 26.10% of families and 29.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45.40% of those under age 18 and 25.30% of those age 65 or over. Hancock County is the poorest county in Georgia and the 55th poorest in the country according to per capita income; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 9,429 people, 3,341 households, 2,183 families residing in the county. The population density was 20.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,360 housing units at an average density of 11.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 74.1% black or African American, 24.4% white, 0.5% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.1% from other races, 0.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.1% were American. Of the 3,341 households, 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.8% were married couples living together, 23.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families, 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 43.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $22,283 and the median income for a family was $27,168. Males had a median income of $26,837 versus $21,223 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,925. About 26.7% of families and 26.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.3% of those under age 18 and 21.7% of those age 65 or over. Culverton Sparta Mayfield Hancock County has