Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Virden is a town in southwestern Manitoba. Oil was first discovered in 1951, Virden has since come to be known as the "Oil Capital of Manitoba". Virden has its roots as a farming community known as Gopher Creek. However, it became a railway tent town in 1882, grew in population due to the brick and flour industry, as well as with the discovery of oil in the 1950s; the origin of the name, Virden arose as a misspelling of the German town Verden in the homeland of the 7th Duke of Manchester's wife. The town is located at the junction of the Trans-Canada Highway and Highway 83 and is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Wallace. Virden is a regional service centre owing in part to its location, it has a stable commercial sector, including several restaurants, gas stations, body shops, a movie theatre, a performing arts theatre. According to the 2011 Canadian Census, the population of Virden is 3,114, a 3.5% increased from 2006. Virden's land mass is 8.56 km2 with a population density is 363.6 people per km2.
The median age is 42.7 years old, 2 years older than the national average at 40.6 years old. There are 1,446 dwellings in Virden with an occupancy rate of 95.1%, the median cost of a dwelling at $159,748, more than $100,000 lower than the national average at $280,552. According to the 2011 National Household Survey, 96.8% of Virden residents are Canadian citizens, about 3.2% of residents are recent immigrants. The racial make up of Virden is Caucasian, with a moderate Aboriginal population; the Tourist Information Center is run by the Virden Chamber of Commerce. Located in the old train station, the Virden Tourist Information Centre provides tourists with any desired information about attractions in the Virden Area. For more information, visit their website. Known as the "Victorian Home on the Prairies", the Virden Pioneer Home Museum is located within a red brick veneer home built by James Frame in 1888. With an extensive collection of over ten thousand donated artifacts relating to Virden and area, the museum is a must tourist destination.
It is open May to September. The museum is located at 390 King Street West in Virden. For more information, visit the museum's website. Mary Carter, one of the first female judges in Saskatchewan. Happy Felsch, American baseball player who played in Virden in the late 1920s after being banned for involvement in the Black Sox Scandal. Carman Lapointe-Young, Under-Secretary-General for the United Nations Office of Internal Oversight Services Jim Treliving, Co-founder of Boston Pizza Lila Bell Acheson Wallace, Co-founder of the Reader's Digest Warren Winkler, former Chief Justice of Ontario Dorothy Ferguson and outfielder who played from 1945 through 1954 in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League Isabella Dryden and centenarian RCAF Station Virden Tundra Oil & Gas Place "Census Profile. 2016 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-316-X2016001". Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 25 October 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2018. Town of Virden Official Website Town of Virden Community Profile Map of Virden at Statcan
Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada was a federal political party in Canada. In 2003, the party membership voted to dissolve the party and merge with the Canadian Alliance to form the modern-day Conservative Party of Canada. One member of the Senate of Canada, Elaine McCoy, sat as an "Independent Progressive Conservative" until 2016; the conservative parties in most Canadian provinces still use the Progressive Conservative name. Some PC Party members formed the Progressive Canadian Party, which has attracted only marginal support. Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, belonged to the Liberal-Conservative Party, but in advance of confederation in 1867, the Conservative Party took in a large number of defectors from the Liberals who supported the establishment of a Canadian Confederation. Thereafter, the Conservative Party became the Liberal-Conservative Party until the turn of the twentieth century; the federal Tories governed Canada for over forty of the country's first 70 years of existence.
However, the party spent the majority of its history in opposition as the nation's number-two federal party, behind the Liberal Party of Canada. From 1896 to 1993 the Tories formed a government only five times—from 1911 to 1921, from 1930 to 1935, from 1957 to 1963, from 1979 to 1980 and from 1984 to 1993, it stands as the only Canadian party to have won more than 200 seats in an election—a feat it accomplished twice: in 1958 and 1984. The party suffered a decade-long decline following the 1993 federal election and formally dissolved on 7 December 2003, when it merged with the Canadian Alliance to form the modern-day Conservative Party of Canada; the last meeting of the Progressive Conservative federal caucus was held in early 2004. The Conservative Party of Canada took power in 2006 and governed under the leadership of Stephen Harper until 2015, when it was defeated by the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau. Between the party's founding in 1867, its adoption of the "Progressive Conservative" name in 1942, the party changed its name several times.
It was most known as the Conservative Party. Several loosely associated provincial Progressive Conservative parties continue to exist in Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador; as well, a small rump of Senators opposed the merger, continued to sit in the Parliament of Canada as Progressive Conservatives. The last one of them rescinded their party status in 2016; the Yukon association of the party renamed itself as the Yukon Party in 1990. The British Columbia Progressive Conservative Party changed its name to the British Columbia Conservative Party in 1991. Saskatchewan's Progressive Conservative Party ceased to exist in 1997, when the Saskatchewan Party formed – from former PC Members of the Legislative Assembly with a few Saskatchewan Liberal MLAs joining them; the party adopted the "Progressive Conservative" party name in 1942 when Manitoba Premier John Bracken, a long-time leader of that province's Progressive Party, agreed to become leader of the federal Conservatives on condition that the party add Progressive to its name.
Despite the name change, most former Progressive supporters continued to support the Liberal Party of Canada or the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, Bracken's leadership of the Conservative Party came to an end in 1948. Many Canadians continued to refer to the party as "the Conservatives". A major weakness of the party since 1885 was its inability to win support in Quebec, estranged by that year's execution of Louis Riel; the Conscription Crisis of 1917 exacerbated the issue. Though the Conservative Party of Quebec dominated politics in that province for the first 30 years of Confederation at both the federal and provincial levels, in the 20th century the party was never able to become a force in provincial politics, losing power in 1897, dissolving in 1935 into the Union Nationale, which took power in 1936 under Maurice Duplessis. In 20th-century federal politics, the Conservatives were seen as insensitive to French-Canadian ambitions and interests and succeeded in winning more than a handful of seats in Quebec, with a few notable exceptions: the 1930 federal election, in which Richard Bedford Bennett led the party to a thin majority government victory by securing 24 seats in rural Quebec.
The party never recovered from the fragmentation of Mulroney's broad coalition in the late 1980s resulting from Anglophone Canada's failure to ratify the Meech Lake Accord. Prior to its merger with the Canadian Alliance, it held only 15 of 301 seats in the House of Commons of Canada; the party did not hold more than 20 seats in Parliament between 1993 and 2003. The party pre-dates confederation in 1867, when it accepted many conservative-leaning former members of the Liberal Party into its ranks. At confederation, the Liberal-Conservative Party of Canada became Canada's first governing party under Sir John A. Macdonald, for years was either the governing party of Canada or the largest opposition party; the party changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada following the election as leader of Progressive Party of Manitoba Premier John Bracken in December 1942, who insisted on the name change as a condition of becoming leader. The Progressive Conservative Party was on the
Carberry is the largest town in the Rural Municipality of North Cypress in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. It is located 50 kilometres east of Brandon, Manitoba. Carberry and the surrounding Rural Municipality of North Cypress are known as "King Spud Country", a nickname which pays homage to the high quality potatoes grown in the area due to ideal soil conditions for the crop. Many businesses in Carberry offer supplies to support the robust agriculture industry. Food processing is a major employer in the community. A local factory owned by McCain Foods makes various potato products, is a major supplier for McDonald's Restaurants in Canada and the United States as well as producing potato products that are found in other well known restaurants, grocery stores and other varied world markets, it is one of the most advanced facilities of its kind in North America and operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Along with potatoes, the local agriculture industry is diverse and includes other vegetable, grain and industrial hemp crops as well as dairy and livestock, among other mixed farming.
Carberry's population increased by 4.1% between 2011 and 2016, due in part to the community's strong, stable economy along with other factors including its geographic location in relation to major transportation routes and the nearby city of Brandon. The close proximity of Carberry to Spruce Woods Provincial Park and the many unique recreational activities in the area make Carberry a popular tourist destination. Many businesses and services cater to tourists both on a year-round basis. In the late 1760s, a small fur trading post called Pine Fort was established by independent fur traders from Montreal, south of Carberry's present site in what is now Spruce Woods Provincial Park along the Assiniboine River. At that time, a diverse group of Native peoples were travelling through the area and harvesting rich crops of beaver and other furs. Early fur trade accounts indicate that the Sioux from the south, resident Cree and Assiniboine, eastern groups such as Saulteaux and various Ojibwa bands were all trading or hunting in the area.
Pine Fort was taken over by the North West Company, was abandoned in 1811. Native people continued to pass through or reside in the Carberry area and did so until the late 1870s when European settlement began to affect the landscape and game resources; the Native population in the area was settled onto reserves according to treaty provisions with the Federal Government of Canada. The town of Carberry was founded in 1882, it was settled by settlers coming from Eastern Canada who were of British origin, was named after the Carberry Tower located near Musselburgh, Scotland. As is the case with most towns in the southern districts of Western Canada, the present town of Carberry owes its origin to the Canadian Pacific Railway. In 1882, the CPR established a station at De Winton, a now defunct town-site about 3.5 kilometres east of Carberry's present site. At the time, several CPR officials covertly purchased much of De Winton's town-site property, hoping for large personal profits as the new town grew around the new train station.
This kind of speculation was against the CPR's company rules, on discovering the violation, the rail company decided to use 100 specially-hired men to physically move the train station to the present site of the town of Carberry. The extensive and secret operation was conducted in the middle of the night and was completed in less than 12 hours; when the station reached its new location, the town of Carberry was born. Carberry grew into a prosperous town and was an important stop along the Canadian Pacific Railway; the CPR main line route runs through Carberry to this day, however the passenger train station has since been removed. The Trans Canada Highway, another major national transportation route, was constructed on a routing that passed directly through the town of Carberry, which it did until the late 1950s when the route was changed according to plans for it to be upgraded to a 4-lane divided high-speed highway. Many businesses were established in Carberry to service the heavy traffic on the highway, many of which still exist.
Today the Trans Canada Highway is located 3 km north of Carberry, the old Trans Canada Highway route which passes directly through the town is known as Provincial Road 351. In 1909, a military training camp named "Camp Sewell" was established 10 kilometres west of Carberry along what is now PR 351 on the south side of the Canadian Pacific Railway line; the name of the camp was changed in 1915 to "Camp Hughes" in honour of Major-General Sir Sam Hughes, Canada's Minister of Militia and Defence at the time. The soldiers and support staff stationed at Camp Hughes maintained close social and economic ties with the town of Carberry, only a short distance away. Extensive trench systems and rifle ranges, military structures were built at Camp Hughes between 1915 and 1916, a variety of retail stores and entertainment complexes on a double-avenued area close to the main camp formed a lively commercial midway. During World War I, more than 38,000 troops of the Canadian Expeditionary Force trained at the camp, giving it the largest population in the province of Manitoba outside of the capital city, Winnipeg.
Many of the soldiers who were trained at the camp were involved in the infamous Battle of Vimy Ridge. The military continued to train soldiers at Camp Hughes until 1934, when troops were moved to CFB Shilo and CFB Winnipeg for financial and logistical reasons. Camp Hughes has been designated as a Provincial Heritage
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
Brandon—Souris is a federal electoral district in Manitoba, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1953. According to the Canada 2011 CensusEthnic groups: 83.4% White, 9.8% Aboriginal, 2.3% Latin American, 1.7% ChineseLanguages: 85.8% English, 4.3% German, 2.3% Spanish, 1.7% French, 1.4% ChineseReligions: 67.4% Christian, 30.5% None. Median income: $30,394 Average income: $36,827 The district is in the southwestern corner of the Province of Manitoba, it is bordered by the electoral district of Dauphin—Swan River—Marquette to the north, the electoral district of Portage—Lisgar to the east, the Canada–United States border to the south, the Province of Saskatchewan to the west. It includes the communities of Brandon, Virden, Killarney and North Cypress; the electoral district was created in 1952 from the former districts of Souris. It has been held by a centre-right party for all but one term of its existence; this tradition was broken in 1993 when massive vote-splitting between the Progressive Conservatives and Reform allowed the Liberals to sneak up the middle and take the riding.
However, the seat reverted to form in 1997. The PCs and their successors, the modern Conservatives, have held the seat since. While Brandon has some Liberal and NDP support, it is not enough to overcome the conservative bent in the more rural areas of the riding; this riding lost territory to Dauphin—Swan River—Neepawa and gained territory from Portage—Lisgar during the 2012 electoral redistribution. This riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: ^ Conservative change is from combined Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative. Percent change based on redistributed results. List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-03. Riding history for Brandon–Souris from the Library of Parliament Brandon–Souris in Elections Canada's 308 Electoral Districts Database Brandon–Souris in Elections Canada's 301 Electoral Districts Database Expenditures - 2008 Expenditures - 2004 Expenditures - 2000 Expenditures - 1997
1997 Canadian federal election
The 1997 Canadian federal election was held on June 2 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 36th Parliament of Canada. Prime Minister Jean Chrétien's Liberal Party of Canada won a second majority government; the Reform Party of Canada replaced the Bloc Québécois as the Official Opposition. The election results followed the pattern of the 1993 election; the Liberals swept Ontario. Reform made sufficient gains in the West to allow Preston Manning to become Leader of the Official Opposition, but lost its only seat east of Manitoba; the most significant change was major gains in Atlantic Canada by the New Democratic Party and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. The Liberals faced major losses, including two cabinet ministers; the Liberals' victory was not in doubt, though some commentators on election night were predicting that they would be cut down to a minority government, that Chrétien might lose his seat. Chrétien narrowly won his riding, the Liberals maintained a four-seat majority thanks to gains in Quebec at the expense of the Bloc.
Jean Charest's Tories and Alexa McDonough's NDP both regained official party status in the House of Commons. A change of 718 votes in just five ridings from the Liberals to the second place candidate would have resulted in a minority government; this was the first time that five political parties held official party status in a single session of Canada's Parliament. Voter turnout was 67.0% low at the time for Canadian elections. Prime Minister Jean Chrétien announced his approved request by Governor General Roméo LeBlanc to dissolve Parliament on April 26, 1997, with an election to be held on June 2 of that year. Chrétien's election call was one year and a half before the mandate of the government would expire, aside from the 1911 election, the earliest called by a party with a majority. Opinion polls at the time predicted that the Liberal Party was expected to win a landslide victory capturing at least 180 to 220 of the 301 seats in the House of Commons, with the fragmentation of the opposition meaning that one party was not expected to be able to defeat the government.
The election call was controversial both for being early and for occurring during Manitoba's recovery from the Red River Flood earlier in the year. Reg Alcock and several others inside the Liberal Party had opposed the timing of the vote, the poor results prompted Paul Martin's supporters to organize against Chrétien; the Liberal Party under Jean Chrétien campaigned on promising to continue to cut the federal deficit to allow for a budget surplus, to spend one half of the surplus on repaying Canada's national debt and cutting taxes while the other half of the surplus would be used to increase funding to health care, assistance for Canadian children in poverty, job creation. The platform was called Securing Our Future Together; the Liberal Party was attacked by the opposition parties for failing to keep many of the promises that the party campaigned on in the 1993 federal election. The Liberals attacked the Progressive Conservatives and the Reform Party for prematurely calling for tax cuts while a deficit still remained while attacking the New Democratic Party for proposing to increase government spending while Canada faced a deficit.
The Liberals suffered from a number of gaffes in their campaign. In one incident, when Jean Chrétien was questioned by reporters over the cost of the Liberals' election proposal of a national pharmacare program, reporters claimed that Chrétien was unsure of what the cost would be. Chrétien turned down invitations for interviews by Canada's national media outlet, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and MuchMusic. In the televised debates between the five major political parties, Chrétien apologized to Canadians for his government having cut funding for social programs to reduce the deficit. On election day, the Liberals won with a reduced majority. While they lost much of their support in Atlantic Canada, they won all but two seats in Ontario and improved on their numbers in Quebec, they were only assured of a majority. The Reform Party under Preston Manning campaigned on preserving national unity through decentralization of multiple federal government powers to all of the provinces, cutting taxes, reducing the size of government, reducing spending, opposing distinct society status for Quebec.
Feeling that the general acceptance of deficit reduction at the federal and provincial level had been encouraged by their party, Reform saw a chance to make the party a national in scope by making political inroads outside of the west in Ontario. Their platform was titled the Fresh Start for all Canadians; the Reformers ran a full slate of candidates in Quebec, making this the first and last election in which it would run candidates in every region of Canada. Reform's campaign ran into multiple problems; the party was accused by other parties and the media of holding intolerant views due to comments made by a number of Reform MPs during the writ period. Critics had accused the party's performance during the 1993-1997 parliament of being disorganized. Tension between the party's democratic nature and the leader-centric model of modern campaigning led to Manning's leadership abilities being questioned by a number of former members, including Stephen Harper, who accused Manning of inappropriately using a C$31,000 personal expens