Outer Mission, San Francisco
Outer Mission is a small residential neighborhood on the south edge of San Francisco. The Outer Mission is a neighborhood in Southeast San Francisco with boundaries of Interstate 280 to the west, Geneva Avenue to the north, Mission Street and the Daly City border to the south, its surrounding neighborhoods include Ingleside to the west, Mission Terrace to the north, Excelsior to the northeast, Crocker-Amazon to the southeast, Daly City to the southwest. The name Outer Mission causes confusion, leading some to believe that Outer Mission is south of Mission District; some call any and all neighborhoods south of Mission the "Outer Mission area," which results in further confusion. The Outer Mission was developed around the 1910s as an extension of the nearby Mission District; the area was serviced by the Southern Pacific Railroad. Before the area was developed it consisted of farms, providing the city with Swiss chard and potatoes. Like the Mission, many of its original residents were of Italian descent.
The neighborhood is near Cayuga Park and playground, a unique park beneath the BART tracks, featuring dense vegetation and over 100 whimsical wood statues carved by the park's creator, along with a small baseball field and tennis courts. Most of the area contains single-family residences that are attached and have a small fenced back yard; the 1990s to 2000s housing bubble and its subsequent gentrification led to many Latino/Chicano and Asian/Filipino families to move into the area: It remains one of the few low-rent and middle class enclaves in San Francisco. Due to this shift in demographics, a common practice in this neighborhood is the construction of an in-law apartment in part of the garage space; the owner of the building often rents out this in-law unit to supplement his or her income or mortgage payment. Because of this, there is a high percentage of renters in this neighborhood, despite consisting exclusively of single family homes; the in-laws often are unwarranted, resulting in a higher population density than the neighborhood was built for or the city would allow.
This has some undesirable side effects such as the streets filling up with cars. Outer Mission houses featured front yards or small planting areas in front of the property. Over the years, many homeowners paved over their planting areas, to allow them to park cars on the sidewalk; this has made the streets less attractive. The neighborhood is well served by public transportation and is adjacent to the I-280, one of San Francisco's two major freeways; the BART line through the city runs adjacent to the Outer Mission. As the tracks are above-ground, the trains are visible and audible throughout most of the neighborhood; the neighborhood is in walking distance to Balboa Park Station, one of the city's largest public transportation hubs, being served by BART, three Muni Metro lines and many bus lines. The main bus line serving the Outer Mission is the 14 Mission: The bus line operates along the full length of Mission Street. In addition to the 14, during peak hours, Muni runs two variations: the 14-R and the 14-X.
During peak hours, the 88 BART Shuttle Muni line passes through the Outer Mission and can be used to get to Balboa Park and directly. The numerous bus lines that run along Geneva Avenue are accessible from the neighborhood. In addition to Muni, SamTrans operates several of its lines on Mission Street which can be used to get to destinations on the Peninsula. While bicycling is not as widespread as in other neighborhoods, it is popular with some residents. Well marked and wide bike lanes exist along most of Alemany Blvd
A streetcar suburb is a residential community whose growth and development was shaped by the use of streetcar lines as a primary means of transportation. Early suburbs were served by horsecars, but by the late 19th century cable cars and electric streetcars, or trams, were used, allowing residences to be built further away from the urban core of a city. Streetcar suburbs called additions or extensions at the time, were the forerunner of today's suburbs in the United States and Canada. Western Addition in San Francisco is one of the best examples of streetcar suburbs before westward and southward expansion occurred. Although most associated with the electric streetcar, the term can be used for any suburb built with streetcar-based transit in mind, thus some streetcar suburbs date from the early 19th century; as such, the term is general and one development called a streetcar suburb may vary from others. However, some concepts are present in streetcar suburbs, such as straight street plans and narrow lots.
By 1830, many New York City area commuters were going to work in Manhattan from what are now the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, which were not part of New York City at that time. They commuted by ferries. In 1852, architect Alexander Jackson Davis designed Llewellyn Park in New Jersey, a planned suburb served by both ferry and steam railroad. In the 1840s and 1850s, new railroad lines fostered the development of such New York City suburbs as Yonkers, White Plains, New Rochelle; the steam locomotive in the mid 19th century provided the wealthy with the means to live in bucolic surroundings, to socialize in country clubs and still commute to work downtown. These suburbs were what historian Kenneth T. Jackson called the "railroad suburbs" and historian Robert Fishman called a "bourgeois utopia". Outside of Philadelphia, suburbs like Radnor, Bryn Mawr, Villanova developed along the Pennsylvania Main Line; as early as 1850, 83 commuter stations had been built within a 15-mile radius of Boston. Chicago saw huge developments, with 11 separate lines serving over 100 communities by 1873.
A famous community served was Riverside, arguably one of the first planned communities in the United States, designed in 1869 by Frederick Law Olmsted. However, the suburbs closest to the city were based on horsecars and cable cars. First introduced to America around 1830, the horse-drawn omnibus was revolutionary because it was the first mass transit system, offering scheduled stops along a fixed route, allowing passengers to travel three miles sitting down in the time it would take them to walk two miles. More efficient horse-drawn streetcars allowed cities to expand to areas more distant. By 1860, they operated in most major American and Canadian cities, including New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Saint Louis and Boston. Horsecar suburbs emanated from the city center towards the more distant railroad suburbs. For the first time, transportation began to separate social and economic classes in cities, as the working and middle class continued to live in areas closer to the city center, while the rich could afford to live further out.
The introduction of the electrical streetcar in Richmond, Virginia in 1887 by Frank J. Sprague marked the start of a new era of transportation-influenced suburbanization through the birth of the "streetcar suburb"; the early trolley allowed people to effortlessly travel in 10 minutes what they could walk in 30, was introduced in cities like Boston and Los Angeles, to all larger American and Canadian cities. There were 5,783 miles of streetcar track serving American cities in 1890. By 1890, electric streetcar lines were replacing horse-drawn ones in cities of all sizes, allowing the lines to be extended and fostering a tremendous amount of suburban development, they were extended out to rural communities, which experienced an initial surge of development, new residential corridors were created along the newly built lines leading to what had sometimes been separate communities. On side streets, the houses closest to the original streetcar line are as much as ten to twenty years older than houses built further down the street, reflecting the initial surge and slow completion of a development.
Because streetcar operators offered low fares and free transfers, commuting was affordable to nearly everyone. Combined with the cheap cost of land further from the city, streetcar suburbs were able to attract a broad mix of people from all socioeconomic classes, although they were most popular by far with the middle class; the houses in a streetcar suburb were narrow in width compared to homes, Arts and Crafts movement styles like the California Bungalow and American Foursquare were most popular. These houses were purchased by catalog and many of the materials arrived by railcar, with some local touches added as the house was assembled; the earliest streetcar suburbs sometimes had more ornate styles, including Stick. The houses of streetcar suburbs, whatever the style, tended to have prominent front porches, while driveways and built-in garages were rare, reflecting the pedestrian-focused nature of the streets when the houses were built. Setbacks between houses were not nearly as small as in older neighborhoods, but houses were still built on lots no wider than 30 to 40 feet.
Shops such as groceries and drug stores were built near the intersection of streetcar lines or directly along more traveled routes (otherwise, routes would be lined with houses similar to those found in
San Francisco Bay Area Planning and Urban Research Association
SPUR, formally known as the San Francisco Bay Area Planning and Urban Research Association, is a non-profit research and advocacy organization focused on issues of planning and governance in San Francisco, San Jose and Oakland. SPUR's history dates back to 1910, when a group of young city leaders came together to improve the quality of housing after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire; that group, the San Francisco Housing Association, authored a hard-hitting report which led to the State Tenement House Act of 1911. In the 1930s, SFHA continued to advocate for housing concerns. In the 1940s, SFHA merged with Telesis, a group of graduates from UC Berkeley's city planning program, to become the San Francisco Planning and Housing Association. In 1942, the association landed a major success with the creation of San Francisco's Department of City Planning. During the 1950s, SFPHA pushed for the revitalization of San Francisco as the Bay Area's central city, in an effort to curb suburban sprawl and channel growth back into the urban core.
In 1959, the San Francisco Planning and Housing Association was reorganized into the San Francisco Planning and Urban Renewal Association and, in 1977, the San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association. The group has helped shape some of the most important planning decisions in the region, from the founding of the Bay Area Rapid Transit system to the preservation of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Retaining growth in the urban core was evaluated in racial terms; as late as 1966, SPUR's rationale for revitalization was the aspiration San Francisco's "population will move closer to'standard White Anglo-Saxon Protestant’ characteristics."Over the years, the organization has grown to more than 6,000 members and has diversified its focus, analyzing subjects from sea-level rise and renewable energy to bicycle lanes and the ties between the Beat movement and the cultural understanding of urbanism. SPUR provides annual analysis and selective endorsement of San Francisco ballot measures.
In June 2009, SPUR moved into new headquarters at 654 Mission Street. This location houses the majority of SPUR's staff, as well as a gallery, a research library, meeting space for SPUR's regular hosted talks. In 2012, SPUR initiated a long-range plan to work in all three of the Bay Area's central cities; the organization opened offices in San Jose in 2012 and Oakland in 2015, adding "Bay Area" to its name to reflect its broader scope. SPUR's board and staff have developed this strategic plan based on the following assumptions: San Francisco's share of jobs and population is declining, most of the growth in the Bay Area is occurring in other areas. Most regional decisions are made by local governments. SPUR's core competency is urban planning. San Jose and San Francisco combined represent 30 percent of the region's population and 34 percent of the region's jobs. Official website
California Democratic Party
The California Democratic Party is the state branch of the United States Democratic Party in the state of California. The party is headquartered in Sacramento, is led by acting-Chair Alex Gallardo-Rooker. With 43.5% of the state's registered voters as of 2018, the Democratic Party has the highest number of registrants of any political party in California. Democrats enjoy supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature, holding 61 out of 80 seats in the California State Assembly and 29 out of 40 in the California State Senate. Democrats hold all 8 statewide executive branch offices, 46 of the state's 53 seats in the House of Representatives, both of California's seats in the United States Senate. Since the beginning of the 1850s, issues regarding slavery had split the California Democratic Party. By the 1853 general election campaign, large majorities of pro-slavery Democrats from Southern California, calling themselves the Chivalry, threatened to divide the state in half, should the state not accept slavery.
John Bigler, along with former State Senator and Lieutenant Governor David C. Broderick from the previous McDougall Administration, formed the Free Soil Democratic faction, modeled after the federal Free Soil Party that argued against the spread of slavery; the Democrats split into two camps, with both the Chivalry and Free Soilers nominating their own candidates for the 1853 election. By 1857, the party had split into the Anti-Lecompton factions. Lecompton members supported the Kansas Lecompton Constitution, a document explicitly allowing slavery into the territory, while Anti-Lecompton faction members were in opposition to slavery's expansion; the violence between supporting and opposition forces led to the period known as Bleeding Kansas. Splits in the Democratic Party, as well as the power vacuum created by the collapse of the Whig Party, helped facilitate the rise of the American Party both in state and federal politics. In particular, state voters voted Know-Nothings into the California State Legislature, elected J. Neely Johnson as governor in the 1855 general elections.
During the 1859 general elections, Lecompton Democrats voted for Milton Latham, who had lived in the American South, as their nominee for Governor. Anti-Lecomptons in turn selected John Currey as their nominee; the infant Republican Party, running in its first gubernatorial election, selected businessman Leland Stanford as its nominee. To make matters more complicated, during the campaign, Senator David C. Broderick, an Anti-Lecompton Democrat, was killed in a duel by slavery supporter and former state Supreme Court Justice David Terry on September 13; until the early 1880s the Republican Party held the state through the power and influence of railroad men. The Democratic Party responded by taking an anti freedom of attainment position. In 1894, Democrat James Budd was elected to the governorship, the Democratic Party attempted to make good on their promises to reform the booming railroad industry; the party began working with the state's railroad commission to create fair rates for passengers and to eliminate monopolies the railroad companies held over the state.
The main effort focused on making railroads public avenues of transportation similar to streets and roads. This measure passed and was a great victory for the Democrats. Budd was to be the last Democratic governor for thirty years; the struggle between the anti-monopolists and the railroad companies was, however, a key and defining issue for the Democratic Party for some time. Despite their relative lack of power during this period, the Democrats in California were still active in pursuing reform; the party crusaded for tariff reform. The party supported the large scale railroad strikes that sprung up statewide; the corruption of the time in both the railroad companies and the government led to a change in political dynamic. The people of the state moved away from both of the main parties and the Progressive Movement began. While the Progressives were successful in creating positive reform and chasing out corruption, the movement drained away many of the Democratic Party's members; as their movement ended, the Republicans won the governorship, but the Democratic Party had a distinct voter advantage.
In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president and the Power balance between the Republicans and the Democrats in California equalized. However, as Roosevelt's New Deal policies began to raise the nation out of the depression, Democratic strength mounted. Culbert Olson was elected to the governorship, but his term was rocky and both parties organized against him. Shortly thereafter, Earl Warren and the Republicans seized power again; the California Democratic Party needed a new strategy to regain power in the state. A strategy of reorganization and popular mobilization emerged and resulted in the creation of the California Democratic Council; the CDC as it became known was a way for members of the party from all levels of government to come together and as such the party became more unified. A new network of politically minded civilians and elected officials emerged and the party was stronger for it. Despite the fact that the council struggled in the cold war era, due to Republican strength and issues such as the Vietnam War, it still exists today.
By 1992, California was hurting more than most states from a national recession which had started in 1990, causing incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush's approval rating to tank within the state, giving an opening for the Democratic party to break through and become the largest party. Starting with the double digit victory of Bill Clinton, this became the f
San Francisco Board of Supervisors
The San Francisco Board of Supervisors is the legislative body within the government of the City and County of San Francisco, United States. The City and County of San Francisco is a consolidated city-county, being a charter city and charter county with a consolidated government, a status it has had since 1856. Since it is the only such consolidation in California, it is therefore the only California city with a mayor, the county executive, a county board of supervisors that acts as the city council. Whereas the overall annual budget of the city and county is about $9 billion as of 2016, various legal restrictions and voter-imposed set-asides mean that Board of Supervisors can allocate only about $20 million directly without constraints, according to its president's chief of staff. Members of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors were paid $110,858 per year in 2015. There are 11 members of the Board of Supervisors, each representing a geographic district; the current Board President is Norman Yee, who represents District 7, was elected by his colleagues on the Board to succeed Malia Cohen, after she won the election to a seat on the California Board of Equalization.
How the Board of Supervisors should be elected has been a matter of contention in recent San Francisco history. Throughout the United States all cities and counties with populations in excess of 200,000 divide the jurisdiction into electoral districts to achieve a geographical distribution of members from across the community, but San Francisco, notwithstanding a population of over 700,000, was an exception. Prior to 1977 and again from 1980 through 2000, the Board of Supervisors was chosen in'at-large' elections, with all candidates appearing together on the ballot; the person who received the most votes was elected President of the Board of Supervisors, the next four or five were elected to seats on the board. District elections were enacted by Proposition T in November 1976; the first district-based elections in 1977 resulted in a radical change to the composition of the Board, including the election of Harvey Milk, only the third gay or lesbian individual elected to public office in the United States.
Following the assassinations of Supervisor Milk and Mayor George Moscone a year by former Supervisor Dan White, district elections were deemed divisive and San Francisco returned to at-large elections until the current system was implemented in 2000. District elections were repealed by Proposition A in August 1980 by a vote of 50.58% Yes to 49.42% No. An attempt was made to reinstate district elections in November 1980 with Proposition N but it failed by a vote of 48.42% Yes to 51.58% No. District elections were reinstated by Proposition G in November 1996 with a November runoff. Runoffs were eliminated and replaced with instant-runoff voting with Proposition A in March 2002. Under the current system, supervisors are elected by district to four-year terms; the City Charter provides a term limit of two successive four-year terms and requires supervisors to be out of office for four years after the expiration of their second successive term before rejoining the Board, through election or appointment, again.
A partial term counts as a full term if the supervisor is appointed and/or elected to serve more than two years of it. The terms are staggered so that only half the board is elected every two years, thereby providing continuity. Supervisors representing odd-numbered districts are elected every fourth year counted from 2000. Supervisors representing even-numbered districts were elected to transitional two-year terms in 2000, thereafter to be elected every fourth year. Terms of office begin on the January 8 following the regular election for each seat; each supervisor is required to live in his or her district, although elections are held on a non-partisan basis, as of 2016 all 11 supervisors are known to be members of the Democratic Party. The most recent supervisoral elections were held on November 8, 2016; the President of the Board of Supervisors, under the new system, is elected by the members of the Board from among their number. This is done at the first meeting of the new session commencing after the general election, or when a vacancy in the office arises.
Members of the Board of Supervisors are elected from 11 single-member districts. The districts cover the following neighborhoods, approximately; the maps shown below lack markings for streets or street names. The City of San Francisco has detailed maps of each district available on its website. Members of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors San Francisco Board of Supervisors website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti