Bangor Erris is a town in Kiltane parish in Erris, County Mayo, Ireland with a population of 500. It is on the banks of the Owenmore River and is the gateway to the Erris Peninsula linking Belmullet with Ballina and Westport, nestled at the foot of the "Bangor Trail" a 22-mile mountain pass across the Nephin Beg Mountain Range to Newport. Only 2 km away is Carrowmore Lake, Bangor is a centre for wild atlantic salmon and sea trout fishing. Bangor Erris is located in the Parish of Kiltane. Due west from Bangor are the towns of Belmullet, Mulranny and Doolough; the original name for Bangor was Doire Choinadaigh, a name found on maps from 1724 - 1829. The place was called'Coineadach' by John O'Donovan in the Ordnance Survey Name Books of 1838. In 1802 when James McPartlan surveyed the area, he called the village'Cahal' and noted that there were regular fairs held there at that time. Locally the village was known as'Aonach Cathail' because a wealthy buyer of that name was a regular at the fair days.
The name'Bangor' was given to the village by Major Denis Bingham who established the town of Bangor Erris. The reason Bangor was chosen as a site for Bingham's town was because it was situated at the crossroads of two old roads which were in use from about the middle of the 18th century. One road led from Carne to Castlebar and the other went from Inver to Newport. Both roads were repaired by order of the County Assizes in 1793; the crossroads was well sheltered from the worst of the prevailing winds and its situation on the banks of the Owenmore River made it a suitable site. Major Bingham introduced the Revenue Police to stamp out the illicit distillation of drink, in reality it was to get personal protection for himself in his house Bingham Lodge on the western edge of the town. A post office was established in the town in 1842; the local parish church dates back to the mid 19th Century. In January 1921, a local man - Michael McAndrew was stabbed in the neck by a soldier. McAndrew was attempting to take the soldier's rifle.
He was taken to Belmullet Hospital. Bus Éireann route 446 links Bangor Erris with Bellacorick and Ballina. In the reverse direction it links to the Mullet Peninsula. There is one service a day including Sundays. On Friday evenings an extra journey operates from Ballina. Onward rail and bus connections are available at Ballina. There are three public houses in Bangor. There is one supermarket/grocery shop in Bangor, Carrabine's. There is a hardware store also. Bangor National School, attended by the children of Bangor and other neighboring villages such as Tawnagh and Bellacorick. Bangor Hibs have just completed an All Weather Astroturf Pitch, suitable for 7/8 a side or 2 x 5 a side football; the GAA Club in Kiltane is Kiltane GFC. Kiltane were wear blue and gold jerseys, they won the Intermediate Championships in 1972 and 1973 respectively. The fact that Kiltane have maintained their Senior status since is a source of tremendous pride to a parish who have always relied upon a small player pool most of whom are living out of the area.
The soccer club in Bangor Erris is named Bangor Hibernians F. C. Founded in 1995 the club plays in the Premier division of the Mayo Association League and is affiliated with the Football Association of Ireland; the club's colours are black vertical stripes. 2009 was historic for the club with its fielding of a B team in the Mayo League. The club President is Miomir Jugin, Serbia; the club crest denotes the "Big Bridge" in Bangor which carries traffic over the Owenmore River and is situated close to the club's home ground namely Ballybeg Park. The Club's first major Junior Cup Final victory came against Partry Athletic in the Tonra Cup in 2006.. 2011 has been a historic year for Bangor Hibs with the team recording a second major Cup Final victory by claiming the Tuohy Cup also against Partry Athletic on a 3-0 scoreline in the final, played in Milebush Park, Castlebar. Just two weeks on 7 August the team have recorded a first League title following a 2-1 home win over local rivals Crossmolina. Bangor Hibs were named Mayo League Club of the Year in 2011.
The club have completed an all weather Astroturf facility at Ballybeg Park suitable for 7/8 a side or 2 x 5 aside football. Bangor Hibs added a second League title in 2015 when they won the Premier Division B title; as of 2018 the club are in the Mayo League Premier Division. More on Bangor Hibs:- Johnny Carey Rosaleen Gallagher In the 1968 summer Olympics Rosaleen Gallagher won a medal in four different sports, she went on to compete in many other games. Rosaleen Gallagher is Ireland's most successful Paralympian in individual events, she was awarded the freedom of the city of Toronto and the Mayo Association of New York dedicated March 15th as Rosaleen Gallagher day. The area around Bangor Erris is rich in local folklore; the legend of the Ulster Cycle took place not far from Bangor Erris at the fort at Rathmorgan beside Carrowmore Lake. Known as Táin Bó Flidhais it tells the story of a cattle raid around the 1st century AD. There is a folktale that the road between Bangor Erris and Ballycroy is haunted by magical creatures.
A phantom dog sometimes appears, as does a white cow, whose appearance is regarded as a warning of deat
Erris is a barony in northwestern County Mayo in Ireland consisting of over 230,452 acres, much of, mountainous blanket bog. It has extensive sea coasts along its north boundaries; the main towns are Bangor Erris. The name Erris derives from the Irish'Iar Ros' meaning'western promontory'; the full name is the Iorrais Domnann, after the Fir Domnann. To its north is the wild Atlantic Ocean and the bays of Broadhaven and Sruth Fada Conn and to its west is Blacksod Bay, its main promontories are the Doohoma Peninsula, Mullet Peninsula, Erris Head, the Dún Chiortáin and Dún Chaocháin peninsulas and Benwee Head. There are five Catholic parishes in Erris: Kilcommon, Kiltane and Ballycroy. Parts of Erris are in a Gaeltacht area, with first-language speakers of Irish in the following areas of the barony: An Fál Mór, Tamhaiin na hUltaí, Eachléim, Tearmann, Tránn, An Mullach Rua, Cartúr, An Baile Úr, Cill Ghallagáin, Corrán Buí, Ceathrú na gCloch, Port a' Chluaidh, Ros Dumhach and Ceathrú Thaidhg; the area with the most Irish speakers is Ceathrú Thaidhg.
There are between 3,500-5,000 native Irish speakers in Erris. Much of inland Erris is covered with blanket bog. A triangle between Ballycroy and Bangor Erris consists of little else over its surface. Blanket bog, unlike raised bog, grows across the landscape like a blanket covering the ground, due to a continuous supply of water from rainfall, maintaining waterlogged conditions on the ground; the bog is acidic with a pH of between 3.5 and 4.2. This is Atlantic blanket bog and it provides a suitable habitat for many species of flora small species of mosses, carnivorous plants and delicate flowers such as the scarlet pimpernel. Species of fauna found on Atlantic blanket bog, include smaller varieties such as frogs and insects as well as many bird varieties, not common elsewhere. Several areas of the blanket bog are protected under European legislation such as Special Areas of Conservation, Special Protection Areas and Natural Heritage Areas; these include Ballycroy National Park and Bellacorick.
Erris has a large range of habitats including blanket bogs, salt marshes, fresh water lakes, cliffs, sand dunes, sandy beaches and rocky shores. It is an important area for bird watchers as the treeless landscape allows easy access for birdwatching. Brent geese overwinter here feeding along the estuaries, corncrake, rock dove and twite are sometimes seen at Erris Head. Sightings of rarer birds, such as the grey phalarope, booted warbler and Wilson's petrel, have been recorded; the oldest rocks in Ireland, some 1.8 billion years old, are to be found on the west coasts of Erris. Pink or orange striped gneisses are found along the beaches of Elly Bay and Annagh Head where they have become separated from the same rocks on the east coast of Northern Canada over hundreds of millions of years by the separation of tectonic plates in the mid Atlantic Ocean. "Erris Head" is a promontory at the northernmost tip of the Mullet Peninsula. It is a landmark known well by mariners and is one of the sea areas cited by Met Éireann's weather forecasters.
The coastline of Erris has some of "the grandest sea cliffs in Ireland" over the Atlantic Ocean from where the next stop is the east coast of America. Erris Head is not served by any road and can only be reached by crossing a number of fields from the hamlet of Glenlara where the road ends. Along the coast there are several uninhabited islands; these include the Inishkea Islands, Duvillaun, the Stags of Broadhaven Bay and other smaller islands. Erris, in common with most of inland Ireland, became covered in extensive native woodland a few thousand years after the last Ice Age retreated but its northern and western shores remained lightly afforested. Across inland Erris, the remains of these forests can be seen across the blanket bog landscape in the form of fossilised greying tree stumps which are the remains of ancient Scots pine trees; these become most obvious. The odd petrified bog oak can be found too. During the Neolithic period, starting about 6,000 years ago, the first people living in Ireland whose ancestors had hunted and gathered along the coastlines of Erris from about 9,000 years ago, began to cut down the forestry to clear land for growing crops and grazing livestock.
Because the underlying rock type was ancient and weathered schists the soil was thin and eroded by inclement weather. After a couple of years the crops began to fail and the Neolithic people had to clear the native woodlands further and further inland to clear more land for their crops. With minor changes in climate and high rainfall levels the land became blanketed by the bog and remains that way to the current day; when present-day turf cutters harvest the bog for fuel, archaeological remains from the Neolithic and early Bronze Age, which have become buried under the bog come to light. Some archaeological sites are marked on Ordnance Survey maps; the period of Early Christianity saw several small churches set up but no major religious houses came to the area. During the Plantations of Ireland, there were two major landlords in the area - the Binghams and the Carters. Oliver Cromwell's policy of sending the native Irish who refused to bow down to him "to hell or to Connaught" saw a large influx of population into Erris where the disinherited native Irish tried to eke a living from poor quality agricultural land under the tenancy of the landlords and their agents.
During the Irish Famine of 1845 -'47 many died in Err
Time in the Republic of Ireland
Ireland uses Irish Standard Time in the summer months and Greenwich Mean Time in the winter period. In Ireland, the Standard Time Act 1968 established that the time for general purposes in the State shall be one hour in advance of Greenwich mean time throughout the year; this act was amended by the Standard Time Act 1971, which established Greenwich Mean Time as a winter time period. Ireland therefore operates one hour behind standard time during the winter period, reverts to standard time in the summer months; this is defined in contrast to the other states in the European Union, which operate one hour ahead of standard time during the summer period, but produces the same end result. The instant of transition to and from daylight saving time is synchronised across Europe. In Ireland, winter time begins at 02:00 IST on the last Sunday in October, ends at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in March; the following table lists recent past and near-future starting and ending dates of Irish Standard Time or Irish Summer Time: Before 1880, the legal time at any place in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was defined as local mean time, as held by the appeal in the 1858 court case Curtis v. March.
The Statutes Act, 1880 defined Dublin Mean Time as the legal time for Ireland. This was the local mean time at Dunsink Observatory outside Dublin, was about 25 minutes 21 seconds behind Greenwich Mean Time, defined by the same act to be the legal time for Great Britain. After the Easter Rising, the time difference between Ireland and Britain was found inconvenient for telegraphic communication and the Time Act, 1916 provided that Irish time would be the same as British time, from 2:00 am Dublin Mean Time on Sunday 1 October 1916. Summer time had been introduced in May 1916 across the United Kingdom as a temporary efficiency measure for the First World War, the changeover from Dublin time to Greenwich time was simultaneous with the changeover from summer time to winter time. John Dillon opposed the first reading of the Time Bill for having been introduced without consultation of the Irish Parliamentary Party. T. M. Healy opposed the second reading on the basis that "while the Daylight Saving Bill added to the length of your daylight, this Bill adds to the length of your darkness".
After the Irish Free State became independent in 1922, subsequent developments tended to mirror those in the United Kingdom. This avoided having different times on either side of the border with Northern Ireland. Summer time was provided on a one-off basis by acts in 1923 and 1924, on an ongoing basis by the Summer Time Act, 1925; the 1925 act provided a default summer time period. Double summer time was considered but not introduced during the Emergency of World War II. From 1968 standard time was observed all year round, with no winter time change; this was an experiment in the run-up to Ireland's 1973 accession to the EEC, was undone in 1971. In those years, time in Ireland was the same as in the six EEC countries, except in the summer in Italy, which switched to Central European Summer Time. One artefact of the 1968 legislation is that "standard time" refers to summer time. From the 1980s, the dates of switch between winter and summer time have been synchronised across the European Union; the statutory instruments that have been issued under the Standard Time Acts are listed below, in format year/SI-number, linking to the Irish Statute Database text of the SI.
Except where stated, those issued up to 1967 were called "Summer Time Order <year>", while those issued from 1981 are "Winter Time Order <year>". 1926/, 1947/71, 1948/128, 1949/23, 1950/41, 1951/27, 1952/73, 1961/11, 1961/232, 1962/182, 1963/167, 1964/257, 1967/198, 1981/67, 1982/212, 1986/45, 1988/264, 1990/52, 1992/371, 1994/395, 1997/484, 2001/506 Possible adjustments to the Irish practice were discussed by the Oireachtas joint committee on Justice and Equality in November 2011, but the government stated it had no plans to change. In November 2012, Tommy Broughan introduced a private member's bill to permit a three-year trial of advancing time by one hour, to CET in winter and CEST in summer. Debate on the bill's second stage was adjourned on 5 July 2013, when Alan Shatter, the Minister for Justice and Equality, agreed to refer the matter to the joint committee for review, suggested that it consult with the British parliament and devolved assemblies. In July 2014, the joint committee issued an invitation for submissions on the bill.
On 8 February 2018, the European Parliament voted to ask the European Commission to re-evaluate the principle of Summer Time in Europe. After a web survey showing high support for not switching clocks twice annually, on 12 September 2018 the European Commission decided to propose that an end be put to seasonal clock changes In order for this to be valid, the European Union legislative procedure must be followed that the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament must both approve the proposal; the United Kingdom is due to have left the EU by and, if the UK does not follow the reform and contin
A townland is a small geographical division of land used in Ireland. The townland system is of Gaelic origin, pre-dating the Norman invasion, most have names of Irish Gaelic origin. However, some townland names and boundaries come from Norman manors, plantation divisions, or creations of the Ordnance Survey; the total number of inhabited townlands was 60,679 in 1911. The total number recognised by the Irish Place Names database as of 2014 was 61,098, including uninhabited townlands small islands. In Ireland a townland is the smallest administrative division of land, though a few large townlands are further divided into hundreds; the concept of townlands is based on the Gaelic system of land division, the first official evidence of the existence of this Gaelic land division system can be found in church records from before the 12th century, it was in the 1600s that they began to be mapped and defined by the English administration for the purpose of confiscating land and apportioning it to investors or planters from Britain.
The term "townland" in English is derived from the Old English word tun. The term describes the smallest unit of land division in Ireland, based on various forms of Gaelic land division, many of which had their own names; the term baile, anglicised as "bally", is the most dominant element used in Irish townland names. Today the term "bally" denotes an urban settlement, but its precise meaning in ancient Ireland is unclear, as towns had no place in Gaelic social organisation; the modern Irish term for a townland is baile fearainn. The term fearann means "land, quarter"; the Normans left no major traces in townland names, but they adapted some of them for their own use seeing a similarity between the Gaelic baile and the Norman bailey, both of which meant a settlement. Throughout most of Ulster townlands were known as "ballyboes", represented an area of pastoral economic value. In County Cavan similar units were called "polls", in Counties Fermanagh and Monaghan they were known as "tates" or "taths".
These names appear to be of English origin, but had become naturalised long before 1600. In modern townland names the prefix pol- is found throughout western Ireland, its accepted meaning being "hole" or "hollow". In County Cavan, which contains over half of all townlands in Ulster with the prefix pol-, some should be better translated as "the poll of...". Modern townlands with the prefix tat- are confined exclusively to the diocese of Clogher, which covers Counties Fermanagh and Monaghan, the barony of Clogher in County Tyrone), cannot be confused with any other Irish word. In County Tyrone the following hierarchy of land divisions was used: "ballybetagh", "ballyboe", "sessiagh", "gort" and "quarter". In County Fermanagh the divisions were "ballybetagh", "quarter" and "tate". Further subdivisions in Fermanagh appear to be related to liquid or grain measures such as "gallons", "pottles" and "pints". In Ulster the ballybetagh was the territorial unit controlled by an Irish sept containing around 16 townlands.
Fragmentation of ballybetaghs resulted in units consisting of four and twelve townlands. One of these fragmented units, the "quarter", representing a quarter of a ballybetagh, was the universal land denomination recorded in the survey of County Donegal conducted in 1608. In the early 17th century 20 per cent of the total area of western Ulster was under the control of the church; these "termon" lands consisted of ballybetaghs and ballyboes, but were held by erenaghs instead of sept leaders. Other units of land division used throughout Ireland include: In County Tipperary, "capell lands" and "quatermeers". A "capell land" consisted of around 20 great acres. In the province of Connacht, "quarters" and "cartrons", a quarter being reckoned as four cartrons, each cartron being 30 acres; the quarter has been anglicised as "carrow", "carhoo" or "caracute". In County Clare, as in Connacht, "quarters", "half-quarters", "cartrons" and "sessiagh". Here a "half-quarter" equated to around 60 acres, a "cartron" equated to around 30 acres and a "sessiagh" was around 20 acres."Cartrons" were sometimes called "ploughlands" or "seisreagh".
Thomas Larcom, the first Director of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, made a study of the ancient land divisions of Ireland and summarised the traditional hierarchy of land divisions thus: 10 acres – 1 Gneeve. This hierarchy was not applied uniformly across Ireland. For example, a ballybetagh or townland could contain less than four ploughlands. Further confusion arises when it is taken into account that, while Larcom used the general term "acres" in his summary, terms such as "great acres", "large acres" and "small acres" were used in records. Writing in 1846, Larcom remarked that the "large" and "small" acres had no fixed ratio between them, that there were various other kinds of acre in use in Ireland, including the Irish acre, the English acre, the Cunningham acre, the plantation acre and the statute acre; the Ordnance Survey maps used the statute acre measurement. The quality and situation of the land affected the size of these acres; the Cunningham acre is give
Great Famine (Ireland)
The Great Famine, or the Great Hunger, was a period in Ireland between 1845 and 1849 of mass starvation and emigration. With the most affected areas in the west and south of Ireland, where the Irish language was spoken, the period was contemporaneously known in Irish as An Drochshaol, loosely translated as the "hard times"; the worst year of the period, that of "Black 47", is known in Irish as Bliain an Drochshaoil. During the famine, about one million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland, causing the island's population to fall by between 20% and 25%; the proximate cause of the famine was a natural event, a potato blight, which infected potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, precipitating some 100,000 deaths in total in the worst affected areas and among similar tenant farmers of Europe. The food crisis influenced much of the unrest in the more widespread European Revolutions of 1848; the event is sometimes referred to as the Irish Potato Famine outside Ireland. The impact of the blight was exacerbated by political belief in laissez-faire economics.
The famine was a watershed in the history of Ireland, which from 1801 to 1922 was ruled directly by Westminster as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Together with the Napoleonic Wars, the Great Famine in Ireland produced the greatest loss of life in 19th-century Europe; the famine and its effects permanently changed the island's demographic and cultural landscape, producing an estimated two million refugees and spurring a century-long population decline. For both the native Irish and those in the resulting diaspora, the famine entered folk memory; the strained relations between many Irish and the British Crown soured further both during and after the famine, heightening ethnic and sectarian tensions, boosting Irish nationalism and republicanism in Ireland and among Irish emigrants in the United States and elsewhere. The potato blight returned to Europe in 1879, but by that point the labourers of Ireland had, in the Legacy of the Great Irish Famine, begun the "Land War", described as one of the largest agrarian movements to take place in 19th-century Europe.
The movement, organized by the Land League, continued the political campaign for the Three Fs, issued in 1850 by the Tenant Right League and developed during the Great Famine. When the potato blight returned in 1879, the League boycotted "notorious landlords" and its members physically blocked evictions of farmers; as a result, the consequent reduction in homelessness and house demolition resulted in a drastic reduction in the number of deaths. Since the Acts of Union in January 1801, Ireland had been part of the United Kingdom. Executive power lay in the hands of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and Chief Secretary for Ireland, who were appointed by the British government. Ireland sent 105 members of parliament to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Irish representative peers elected 28 of their own number to sit for life in the House of Lords. Between 1832 and 1859, 70 % of Irish representatives were the sons of landowners. In the 40 years that followed the union, successive British governments grappled with the problems of governing a country which had, as Benjamin Disraeli put it in 1844, "a starving population, an absentee aristocracy, an alien established Protestant church, in addition the weakest executive in the world."
One historian calculated that, between 1801 and 1845, there had been 114 commissions and 61 special committees enquiring into the state of Ireland, that "without exception their findings prophesied disaster. Lectures printed in 1847 by John Hughes, Bishop of New York, are a contemporary exploration into the antecedent causes the political climate, in which the Irish famine occurred. During the Famine, Ireland produced enough food and wool to feed and clothe double its nine million people; when Ireland had suffered a famine in 1782–83, its ports were closed to keep Irish-grown food in Ireland to feed the Irish. Local food prices promptly dropped. Merchants lobbied against the export ban, but Grattan's Parliament, exercising the short-lived powers within the Constitution of 1782, overrode their protests. There was no such export ban in the 1840s; some historians have argued, because exports were not stopped, the famine was artificial and a consequence of the British government's failure to retain foodstuffs in the country.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, Irish Catholics were discriminated against. They constituted the vast majority of the population, but they had been prohibited by the penal laws from purchasing or leasing land, holding political office, living in or within 5 miles of a corporate town, obtaining education, entering a profession, doing many other things necessary for a person to succeed and prosper in society. By 1793, such laws had been reformed and the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829 allowed Irish Catholics to again sit in parliament. During the 18th century, the "middleman system" for managing landed. Rent collection was left in middlemen; this assured the landlord of a regular income, relieved them of direct responsibility, while leaving tenants open to exploitation by the middlemen. Catholics, the bulk of whom lived in conditions of poverty and insecurity despite Catholic emancipation in 1829, made up 80% of the population. At the top of the "social pyramid" was the "ascendancy class", the English and Anglo-Irish f
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Belmullet or Béal an Mhuirthead is a coastal Gaeltacht town with a population of around 1,000 on the Mullet Peninsula in the barony of Erris, County Mayo, Ireland. It is the commercial and cultural heart of the barony of Erris, which has a population of 10,000. Belmullet has two bays, Blacksod Bay and Broadhaven Bay, linked by Carter's Canal running through the town; the origin of the name Belmullet is not clear. It may have come from Irish Béal Muileat or Béal an Mhuileat, translated as "mouth of the isthmus". Bernard O'Hara in Mayo: Aspects of its Heritage suggests that "A change from'L' to'R', quite common in Irish, may have given Béal an Mhuireat which in turn became Béal an Mhuirhead", it has been suggested that the latter half of the name may refer to the fish or the star shape used in heraldry. According to Richard Pococke, in about 1715, Sir Arthur Shaen "began building a little town" where Belmullet now stands. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, an admiral chased pirates into Broadhaven Bay, hauled his boats across the isthmus, caught up with them near the Iniskea Islands.
To drain the area and form a passageway from Blacksod Bay into Broadhaven Bay, Shaen had a canal excavated, known thereafter as Shaen's Cut, large enough for small boats to pass through from one bay to the other. However, little development of the town occurred, by 1752 the canal was choked up and impassable. Belmullet was the scene of Monster meetings of the Land League at the end of the 19th century. In the early 19th century Belmullet consisted of little more than a few thatched buildings. In 1820, the first post office in Erris opened in the new town of Belmullet. In 1822, a coastguard station was built. William Henry Carter had inherited huge tracts of Shaen's land in Erris when he married Shaen's daughter and began to put plans in place to develop the town. A new road was built which connected Belmullet with Castlebar, completed in 1824. In 1825, Carter built a pier large enough to accommodate vessels of 100 tons. Carter's stated objective was to "create a home market for produce that did not exist nearer than thirty miles by land," and his aim was to thrust the older village of An Geata Mór, a village founded by the powerful Bingham family on the Mullet peninsula into a secondary position.
By 1826, the Erris Hotel was opened. In 1829, Alexander Nimmo, an engineer on the Erris roads, wrote the following: "at Belmullet, the advance is quite surprising. British manufacturers and tea and sugar were sold. A Roman Catholic chapel was built in 1832 at the cost of £300. There was a daily postal service between Belmullet. In 1833, a courthouse was built costing £300 which held weekly court sessions, demonstrating that the town was growing. In the 1830s, a visitor described it as "the youngest town in Ireland and like all young things it is comparatively fresh and fair; the town itself contains a few thatched cabins but consists of small streets of moderately sized slated houses branching from a little square, or market place. Buildings are going on and speculation is progressing', he commented that the approach to the town was'spoiled by deformed, wretched bog huts." Two new roads were built - one to the east went to Ballycastle and one to the south to Newport. The export of meal from the area to England started.
The local Protestant Church was built in 1843. In 1845, work began to re-open the canal, constructed by Arthur Shaen; because of the Irish Famine, the canal was not completed until 1851. During the Relief work for the Distress in 1846 and 1847, the footpaths were flagged. A workhouse was erected on the site of the current hospital; the Head of the Treasury, Charles Trevelyan, notoriously decreed that relief was only to be given to workhouse people. Starving people crowded to the workhouse. At one stage at the height of the Famine, 3,000 people were recorded as being in Belmullet workhouse; the area around Belmullet was impacted by the Great Irish Famine in the 19th century and in the next 100 years many people emigrated from the area to the United States and to England. Throughout the second half of the 19th century, many proposals were made regarding the development of a railway line in to Belmullet and Erris region. Three routes were surveyed and discussed: Route One: Ballina - Ballycastle - Belmullet Route Two: Newport - Mulrany - Belmullet Route Three: Ballina - Crossmolina - BelmulletPeople along these routes lobbied for the railway lines to pass through their district.
However the merchants of Belmullet were more skeptical and feared that the introduction of a railway line would adversely affect their trading position, putting Ballina within easy reach of the population. Plans for a railway to Blacksod, which would have served trans-Atlantic shipping, were therefore postponed. Many still pressed the authorities for a rail line, this movement gained momentum during the latter days of the First World War, when it was proposed that a line would improve lines of communication between both London and Canada, between London and the United States. However, when the war ended in 1918, the hopes for a railway service to Blacksod ended with it. In the early 1920, the Sligo Steam Navigation Company ran weekly sailings between Belmullet and Liverp