The Sandlot is a 1993 American coming of age sports comedy film co-written and narrated by David Mickey Evans which tells the story of a group of young baseball players during the summer of 1962. It stars Tom Guiry, Mike Vitar, Karen Allen, Denis Leary, James Earl Jones; the filming locations were in Midvale, Salt Lake City, Ogden, Utah. It has become a cult film. In the San Fernando Valley during the summer of 1962, Scotty Smalls is the new boy in the neighborhood, seeking to fit in, he would be welcomed on the local sandlot baseball team that practices every day, which only has eight players. His mother encouraged to make friends this summer. Smalls, cannot play baseball. Smalls, leaves the baseball field. Smalls asks his stepfather, Bill, to teach him to play, while his stepdad agrees, Scott cannot catch or throw the ball. Benny soon teaches him what he needs to know, with Benny's support, he gets a place on the team. Meanwhile, behind a wall at the end of the sandlot is a backyard inhabited by "the Beast", an English Mastiff so large and savage that it has become a neighborhood legend.
One day, the boys' last ball lands in the Beast's backyard. Smalls attempts to retrieve it; that evening, they tell him all about the Beast, that his owner, Mr. Mertle, got him when he was just a puppy when thieves were plaguing his junkyard, Mertle's Acres. After a couple of weeks, the puppy became the Beast. Squints' grandfather, the police chief at the time, had Mr. Mertle chain up the Beast in the backyard and keep him under his house forever. Smalls learns that many baseballs end up in the backyard, they just disappear; the next day, at a local swimming pool, it is revealed that Squints can’t swim so he drowns and plans it so that he can kiss the lifeguard, Wendy Peffercorn, whom he has a crush on. She does not take too kindly to it, they are banned from the pool. Nonetheless, she realizes. One day, Benny busts the guts out of their baseball and Smalls steals his stepfather's ball. After that ball ends up with the Beast, Smalls discovers the ball was special. Smalls' stepfather has gone to Chicago for a week-long business trip, putting Smalls and the others on a race against time to recover the ball before he returns.
They make many attempts to retrieve the ball. One night, Benny has a dream in which Babe Ruth gives him advice, Benny explains to him about the Beast, saying that he ate one kid who hopped the fence and went into Mr. Mertle's backyard; the next day, Benny puts on PF Flyers, shoes "guaranteed" to make a kid run faster and jump higher, goes into Mr. Mertle's backyard, despite protests from his team. Benny retrieves the ball, but the Beast breaks his chain and escapes, chasing Benny through the streets, a theater, a picnic, the local swimming pool and back to the sandlot. Mr. Mertle's fence falls on top of the Beast. Smalls and Benny meet Mr. Mertle, who reveals that the Beast's real name is Hercules, an English Mastiff, that he knew Babe Ruth, because he was a baseball player who went blind after getting hit by a baseball. Mr. Mertle trades the destroyed Babe Ruth-autographed baseball for a baseball signed by all of the 1927 New York Yankees, which Smalls gives to his stepfather as a gift to make up for the other ball.
The sandlot boys enjoy the rest of the summer and the next few years, with the Beast as their mascot. Over the next three decades, the boys go into different careers. Benny and Smalls remain close; the Sandlot has received mixed to positive reviews from critics. The film holds a 60% "fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 52 reviews; the site's consensus says "It may be shamelessly derivative and overly nostalgic, but The Sandlot is a genuinely sweet and funny coming-of-age adventure." Critic Roger Ebert gave the film three stars, comparing the movie to a summertime version of A Christmas Story, based on the tone and narration of both films: Bob Cannon of Entertainment Weekly gave the film a B+, praising its simplicity and strong fundamentals. Leonard Klady of Variety gave the film a negative review, he praised the cinematography and score, but felt the baseball team did not come together, that the film, while sincere, was a "remarkably shallow wade, rife with incident and slim on substance."
The film grossed $4 million in a further $32 million through ticket sales. Figures for worldwide VHS and DVD sales are estimated to be at $76 million. Since its release on both VHS and DVD, the film has become a cult favorite. In 1998, Michael Polydoros sued the producers of the film for defamation. Polydoros, a childhood classmate of David Mickey Evans, the author and director of The Sandlot, claimed that the character Michael "Squints" Palledorous was derogatory and caused him shame and humiliation; the trial court found in favor of the filmmakers, that finding was affirmed by the California Court of Appeal. After agreeing to review the case in 1998, the Supreme Court of California reversed its decision, d
West High School (Utah)
West High School is the oldest public high school in the U. S. state of Utah. It was founded in 1890, it is part of the Salt Lake City School District, its original name was Salt Lake High. The school colors are red and black and the school mascot is a panther, it has a current enrollment of 2,840. West High is located in close to downtown, at 241 North 300 West; the historical structure still functions as the school's main building, has undergone major restorations. It is surrounded by newer buildings, the newly updated stadium. West High is accessible because it is three blocks away from the UTA TRAX line and close to the Gateway Mall. Several films have been filmed at West High and it has been noted in the History Channel's Gangland TV series. West High students participate at state tournaments in the following sports, according to the season: Fall sports: cross country, boys' golf, tennis, volleyball Winter sports: basketball, wrestling, swimming Spring sports: lacrosse, soccer, tennis, girls' golfWest High has won 21 state football championships 1898-1992 and hold many records in football.
Many players and coaches have gone on to major sports programs. West's boys' basketball team beat Provo high school in the 2009 state championship game, ending Provo's 40 game win streak and earning West High its first championship since 1975. Nathan Chen, figure skater Clayton Christensen, Harvard Business School professor and bestselling author Tony Finau, PGA golfer Shannon Hale, Class of 1992, young adult author Earl Holding owner of Sinclair Oil Larry H. Miller, prominent businessman, former owner of the Utah Jazz Thomas S. Monson, former president of the LDS Church Dick Nemelka, former ABA basketball player Gordon Rhodes, former Major League Baseball player Aldo Richins, football player Harold W. Ross, founder of The New Yorker magazine George Von Elm, prominent golfer in 1920s and 1930s Dan Wells and young adult author Robison Wells, young adult author D. Frank Wilkins, Utah Supreme Court Justice Mark Willes, CEO of the LA Times and General Mills List of high schools in Utah List of school districts in Utah West High School official website
Climate of Salt Lake City
The climate of Salt Lake City varies widely. Lying in the Salt Lake Valley, the city is surrounded by the Great Salt Lake; the city has four distinct seasons: a snowy winter. The climate of the Salt Lake City area is subhumid, not semi-arid as claimed. Under the Köppen climate classification, Salt Lake City is in the transition zone between a humid subtropical climate and a hot-summer humid continental climate, with drier summers than the rest of the year; the Pacific Ocean is the primary influence on the weather, contributing storms from about October to May, with spring being the wettest season. Snow falls during the winter, contributed by the lake-effect from the Great Salt Lake; the only source of precipitation in the summer is monsoon moisture moving north from the Gulf of California. Summers are hot reaching above 100 °F, while winters are cold and snowy. However, winters are warmer than one would expect at this elevation and latitude, due to the Rocky Mountains to the east and north that block powerful polar highs from affecting the state during the winter.
Temperatures fall below 0 °F, but stay below freezing. Temperature inversions during winter can lead to thick overnight fog and daytime haze in the valley as cool air and pollutants are trapped in the valley by surrounding mountains. Winter temperatures are not as extreme as might be expected, given the elevation 4,300 feet and latitude of the city; the Rocky Mountains to the east and northeast of the state block most cold waves from polar highs positioned in the Great Plains from reaching the city. The frigidly cold air that does affect the city must come directly from the north or north-northwest from western Canada through fewer and lower intervening mountains. Temperatures fall below 0 °F. However, the average sub-zero days in a year is 2.3. Salt Lake City averages 26 days with high temperatures below freezing. In winter, warm air from the Desert Southwest is only drawn up to the city in advance of a cold front arriving from the northwest. January is the coldest month with an average temperature of 29.2 °F.
Salt Lake City's record low maximum temperature is 2 °F, set on December 22, 1990, during an extended period of frigid Arctic air, its overall record low temperature is −30 °F, set on February 9, 1933 during a historic cold air surge from the north. During spring, temperatures warm and rapidly. Wintry weather is last experienced by early-to-mid April. Summery weather first arrives in early to mid May. Major cold fronts stop arriving in late May or early June. Summer temperatures are hot, although are moderated somewhat by the cool breezes from the Great Salt Lake and by the city's elevation; the lack of cold fronts in summer allows the temperatures to become hot due to powerful, long-lasting high pressure. Occasional thunderstorms give the only relief in temperatures. In an average year, 5 days hotter than 100 °F, 23 days greater than 95 °F, 56 days greater than 90 °F can be expected.. However, such days have low humidity; the low humidity and the altitude create ideal conditions for radiational cooling, hence, large swings in temperature.
Summer nights are rather cool. July is the warmest month, with an average temperature of 77.0 °F. Salt Lake City's record high minimum temperature is 81 °F, set on July 18, 2016, its record high temperature is 107 °F, first set on July 26, 1960 and again on July 13, 2002; the last summer-like weather is experienced in mid-September. Temperatures cool down in fall; the first major cold fronts arrive anytime from mid-September to early October. The first winter-like weather is experienced in early-to-mid November. Salt Lake City's average yearly temperature is 52.1 °F, the freeze-free period lasts an average of 167 days, from April 30 to October 15, although it has lasted anywhere from 124 to 236 days. Freezing temperatures have occurred as early as September 13, as late as May 28. Both precipitation and humidity are highest from March through May and lowest from June through mid-September. Major sources of precipitation are winter snow storms originating in the Gulf of Alaska, late winter and spring rains from the Pineapple Express created in Hawaiian waters, summer monsoons from the Gulf of California.
The airport averages 16.5 inches of precipitation per year, with bench areas receiving up to 20 inches due to increased snowfall. May is the wettest month. Average year-round humidity is 55%; the summer monsoon rising from Mexico and Arizona passes through the region beginning in mid-July and continuing into September, bringing intense but short-lived thunderstorm activity. Tornadoes have been known to occur during this time period, the most notable recent example being in 1999 when an F2 tornado struck downtown Salt Lake City, causing extensive damage and resulting in one death. Many of these thunderstorms consist of dry lightning, which occurs when humidity is too low to support rainfall and the rain evaporates before reaching the ground; this is the main cause of wildfires i
History of Salt Lake City
The Salt Lake Valley was inhabited by the Shoshone, Paiute and Ute Native American tribes. At the time of the founding of Salt Lake City the valley was within the territory of the Northwestern Shoshone, who had their seasonal camps along streams within the valley and in adjacent valleys. One of the local Shoshone tribes, the Western Goshute tribe, referred to the Great Salt Lake as Pi'a-pa, meaning "big water", or Ti'tsa-pa, meaning "bad water"; the land was treated by the United States as public domain. Father Silvestre Vélez de Escalante, a Spanish Franciscan missionary is considered the first European explorer in the area in 1776, but only came as far north as Utah valley, some 60 miles south of the Salt Lake City area; the first US visitor to see the Salt Lake area was John Chugg in 1824. U. S. Army officer John C. Frémont surveyed the Great Salt Lake and the Salt Lake Valley in 1843 and 1845; the Donner Party, a group of ill-fated pioneers, traveled through the Great Salt Lake Valley a year before the Mormon pioneers.
This group had spent weeks traversing difficult terrain and brush, cutting a road through the Wasatch Mountains, coming through Emigration canyon into the Salt Lake Valley on August 12, 1846. This same path would be used by the vanguard company of Mormon pioneers, for many years after that by those following them to Salt Lake. On July 24, 1847 143 men, three women and two children founded Great Salt Lake City several miles to the east of the Great Salt Lake, nestled in the northern most reaches of the Salt Lake Valley. At the time of its founding there were no Indians present in the Salt Lake valley; the first two in this company to enter the Salt Lake valley were Erastus Snow. These members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints sought to establish an autonomous religious community and were the first people of European descent to permanently settle in the area now known as Utah. Thousands of Mormon pioneers would arrive in Salt Lake in the coming years. Brigham Young led the Saints west after the death of Joseph Smith.
Upon arrival to the Salt Lake valley, Young had a vision by saying, "It is enough. This is the right place. Drive on.". There is a state park in Salt Lake City known as This Is The Place Heritage Park commemorating the spot where Young made the famous statement. Salt Lake City was settled by Latter-day Saint Pioneers to be the New Zion according to church President and leader Brigham Young. Young governed both the territory and church by a High council which enacted the original municipal orders in 1848; this system was replaced with a city council and mayor style government. After a difficult winter and a miraculous crop retrieval, in which Pioneers reported to have been saved from cricket infestation by seagulls, the "Desert Blossomed as the Rose" in the Salt Lake Valley. Early Pioneers survived by maintaining a tight-knit community. Under Young's leadership Pioneers worked out a system of communal crop sharing within the various ward houses established throughout the Salt Lake Valley; the California Gold Rush brought many people through the city on their way to seek fortunes.
Salt Lake, at the cross-roads of the westward trek, became a vital trading point for speculators and prospectors traveling through. They came with goods from the East, such as clothing and other manufactured items, trading with the local farmers for fresh livestock and crops; the Congress organized the Utah Territory out of the "State of Deseret" in 1850, a few months on January 6, 1851 the city was formally organized as "The City of the Great Salt Lake". Fillmore, Utah was the territorial capital, but in 1856 it was moved to Salt Lake City, where it has stayed since; the city's name was changed to "Salt Lake City" at the same time. In 1857, when the Mormon practice of polygamy came to national awareness, President James Buchanan responded to public outcry by sending an army of 2500 soldiers, called the Utah Expedition, to investigate the LDS Church and install a non-LDS governor to replace Brigham Young. In response, Brigham Young imposed martial law, sending the Utah militia to harass the soldiers, a conflict called the Utah War.
Young surrendered to federal control when the new territorial governor, Alfred Cumming, arrived in Salt Lake City on April 12, 1858. Most troops pulled out at the beginning of the American Civil War. In order to secure the road to California during the Civil War, more troops arrived under the command of Colonel Patrick Edward Connor in 1862, they settled in the Fort Douglas area east of the city. Anti-LDS, Connor viewed the people with disdain, calling them, "a community of traitors, murderers and whores." To dilute their influence he worked with non-LDS business and bank owners, encouraged mining. In 1863 some of his troops discovered rich veins of silver in the Wasatch Mountains. In 1868 Brigham Young founded the Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution as a way to ward off dependency on outside goods and arguably to hinder ex-LDS retailers. Although ZCMI is sometimes credited with being the nation's first department store, a decade earlier New York City's "Marble Palace" and Macy's vied for that title.
Change was inevitable. The world started to come to Salt Lake City in 1869 with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad at Promontory Summit, north of the city. By 1870 Salt Lake had been linked to it via the Utah Central Rail Road. People began to pour into Salt Lake seeking opportuniti
University of Utah
The University of Utah is a public research university in Salt Lake City, United States. As the state's flagship university, the university offers more than 100 undergraduate majors and more than 92 graduate degree programs; the university is classified among "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" with "selective" admissions. Graduate studies include the S. J. Quinney College of Law and the School of Medicine, Utah's first medical school; as of Fall 2015, there are 23,909 undergraduate students and 7,764 graduate students, for an enrollment total of 31,673. The university was established in 1850 as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, making it Utah's oldest institution of higher education, it received its current name in 1892, four years before Utah attained statehood, moved to its current location in 1900. The university ranks among the top 50 U. S. universities by total research expenditures with over $518 million spent in 2015.
22 Rhodes Scholars, four Nobel Prize winners, two Turing Award winners, eight MacArthur Fellows, various Pulitzer Prize winners, two astronauts, Gates Cambridge Scholars, Churchill Scholars have been affiliated with the university as students, researchers, or faculty members in its history. In addition, the university's Honors College has been reviewed among 50 leading national Honors Colleges in the U. S; the university has been ranked the 12th most ideologically diverse university in the country. The university's athletic teams, the Utes, participate in NCAA Division I athletics as a member of the Pac-12 Conference, its football team has received national attention for winning the 2005 Fiesta Bowl and the 2009 Sugar Bowl. Soon after the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake valley in 1847, Brigham Young began organizing a Board of Regents to establish a university; the university was established on February 28, 1850, as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, Orson Spencer was appointed as the first chancellor of the university.
Early classes were held in private homes. The university closed in 1853 due to lack of funds and lack of feeder schools. Following years of intermittent classes in the Salt Lake City Council House, the university began to be re-established in 1867 under the direction of David O. Calder, followed by John R. Park in 1869; the university moved out of the council house into the Union Academy building in 1876 and into Union Square in 1884. In 1892, the school's name was changed to the University of Utah, John R. Park began arranging to obtain land belonging to the U. S. Army's Fort Douglas on the east bench of the Salt Lake Valley, where the university moved permanently in 1900. Additional Fort Douglas land has been granted to the university over the years, the fort was closed on October 26, 1991. Upon his death in 1900, Dr. John R. Park bequeathed his entire fortune to the university; the university grew in the early 20th century but was involved in an academic freedom controversy in 1915 when Joseph T. Kingsbury recommended that five faculty members be dismissed after a graduation speaker made a speech critical of Utah governor William Spry.
One third of the faculty resigned in protest of these dismissals. Some felt that the dismissals were a result of the LDS Church's influence on the university, while others felt that they reflected a more general pattern of repressing religious and political expression that might be deemed offensive; the controversy was resolved when Kingsbury resigned in 1916, but university operations were again interrupted by World War I, The Great Depression and World War II. Student enrollment dropped to a low of 3,418 during the last year of World War II, but A. Ray Olpin made substantial additions to campus following the war, enrollment reached 12,000 by the time he retired in 1964. Growth continued in the following decades as the university developed into a research center for fields such as computer science and medicine. During the 2002 Winter Olympics, the university hosted the Olympic Village, a housing complex for the Olympic and Paralympic athletes, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Prior to the events, the university received a facelift that included extensive renovations to the Rice-Eccles Stadium, a light rail track leading to downtown Salt Lake City, a new student center known as the Heritage Center, an array of new student housing, what is now a 180-room campus hotel and conference center.
The University of Utah Asia Campus opened as an international branch campus in the Incheon Global Campus in Songdo, South Korea in 2014. Three other European and American universities are participating; the Asia Campus was funded by the South Korean government. Campus takes up 1,534 acres, including the Health Sciences complex, Research Park, Fort Douglas, it is located on the east bench of the Salt Lake Valley, close to the Wasatch Range and 2 miles east of downtown Salt Lake City. Most courses take place on the west side of campus, known as lower campus due to its lower elevation. Presidents Circle is a loop of buildings named after past university presidents with a courtyard in the center. Major libraries on lower campus include the J. Willard Marriott Library and the S. J. Quinney Law Library; the primary student activity center is the A. Ray Olpin University Union, campus fitness centers include the Health, Physical Education, Recreation Complex and the Nielsen Fieldhouse. Lower campus is home to most public venues, such as the Rice-Eccles Stadium, the Jon M. Huntsman Center, the Utah Museum of Fine Arts, a museum with rot
Capitol Hill (Salt Lake City)
Capitol Hill in Salt Lake City gets its name from the Utah State Capitol prominently overlooking downtown. In addition, Capitol Hill can be considered a neighborhood of Salt Lake City; the hill slopes down to the south, overlooking downtown Salt Lake City, why the Utah State Capitol was built there between 1912 and 1916. State Street leads up Capitol Hill, Main Street climbs the one block to the west; the entire Salt Lake City metro area can seen from Capitol Hill, as can the Great Salt Lake miles to the west. The hill is home to many historic buildings; the west-sloping side of the hill is a diverse neighborhood called "Marmalade Hill", since the streets are named after various fruits that are used in making marmalade. The east slope descends into City Creek Canyon. Over the small canyon is another Salt Lake City neighborhood called "the Avenues". Above and to the north of the Capitol building is the Wasatch Springs area named after nearby natural hot springs; the sloping south face of Capitol Hill is sometimes called "Heber's Bench" after Heber C.
Kimball, former resident and Apostle of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The Marmalade District's borders are considered to be a small triangular area bounded by 300 North on the south, 500 North on the north, Center Street on the east, Quince Street, the district's "Main Street", on the west; the Capitol Hill Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The western slope of Capitol Hill is called the "Marmalade District" after marmalade fruit jam because of the streets named after fruit trees imported and planted there such as apricot and almond. Most of the original streets of Salt Lake City are aligned to and named after cardinal directions, exceptions to this rule are named; the Avenues are one example. The irregular and steep roads of the Marmalade District are another; the district is considered among the most architecturally diverse in Utah residential neighborhoods. Early examples of Utah vernacular architecture sit alongside diverse turn-of-the-century styles such as a Russian-influenced LDS meeting house, Gothic revival homes, Victorian mansions, eclectic houses of various combinations of adobe and carpentry.
Utah State Capitol Salt Lake City Council Hall - old Salt Lake City Hall relocated from downtown to across from the capitol building. White Memorial Chapel - 1883 Latter-day Saint 18th ward Gothic revival chapel, rebuilt across from Capitol building for non-denominational services. Pioneer Memorial Building - home of Pioneer History Museum, a replica of the Old Salt Lake City Theater. Kimball-Whitney Cemetery - a small cemetery for the Kimball and Whitney families, the final resting place of Heber C. Kimball. Dickson-Gardner-Wolf Home - large 1905 Classic revival mansion on East Capitol Street for US District Attorney William H. Dickson. Alfred McCune Home - 1901 Main Street mansion for Indian-born railroad and mining businessman Alfred W. McCune. Ashby Snow Home - 1909 State Street prairie-style mansion built for LDS apostle. Woodruff-Riter-Stewart Home - 1906 second renaissance revival State Street mansion. 19th Ward Chapel - Russian-influenced Latter-day Saint chapel featuring "onion dome" steeple.
19th Ward Relief Society Hall - the last remaining separate LDS Relief Society hall. The 19th Ward Chapel and Relief Society Hall are today the home of the Salt Lake Acting Company, or SLAC, one of two professional theatre companies in Utah. John Platts Home - a early 1856 vernacular adobe house with an 1860 fired brick second story added when bricks first became available in Utah. Morrow-Taylor Home – c. 1868 Victorian Italiante home once the residence of LDS church president John Taylor while evading federal authorities. Richard Vaughen Morris Home - 1860s adobe house of Nauvoo Legionnaire Richard Vaughen Morris. Thomas Quayle Home - 1884 gothic mansion relocated in 1975 from downtown. Memory Grove – A park dedicated in 1920 to the victims of World War I. Memory Grove is in a small canyon east of Capitol Hill. From June to August each year, the Capitol Preservation Board presents "Movie Under the Stars." This is an outdoor movie series. In previous years movies such as Kung Fu Panda; the movies are projected on an inflated movie screen on the south lawn of Capitol Building.
During the summer the Capitol Preservation Board hosts Capitol Discovery Day. A day to enjoy games and activities. Throughout the day bands play and choirs sing inside. Capitol Hill Neighborhood Council website Salt Lake Acting Company State of Utah Capitol Preservation Board Utah State Capitol @ Utah.com
Post–World War II economic expansion
The post–World War II economic expansion known as the Golden Age of Capitalism, postwar economic boom, the long boom, was a period of strong economic growth beginning after World War II and ending with the 1973–75 recession. The United States, Soviet Union, Western European and East Asian countries in particular experienced unusually high and sustained growth, together with full employment. Contrary to early predictions, this high growth included many countries, devastated by the war, such as Japan, West Germany and Austria, South Korea, France and Greece. In academic literature, the period is referred to as the post–World War II economic boom, though this term can refer to much shorter booms in particular markets, it is known as the Long Boom, though this term is generic and can refer to other periods. The Golden age of Capitalism is a common name for this period in both academic and economics books; the term is used in other contexts. In older sources and in contemporary ones, Golden age of Capitalism can refer to the period of the Second Industrial Revolution from 1870 to 1914, which saw rapid economic expansion.
Yet another name for the quarter century following the end of World War II is the Age of Marx, though the Soviet Union's economic statistics were not reliable during this period. Economist Roger Middleton states that economic historians agree on 1950 as the start date for the golden age, while Robert Skidelsky states 1951 is the most recognized start date. Both Skidelsky and Middleton have 1973 as the recognized end date, though sometimes the golden age is considered to have ended as early as 1970; this long term business cycle ended with a number of events in the early 1970s: the collapse of the Bretton Woods monetary system in 1971 the growing international trade in manufactured goods, such as automobiles and electronics the 1973 oil crisis, the 1973–1974 stock market crash, the ensuing 1973–75 recession, May Day 1975 the deregulation of fixed fees for trading stocks and market based commissionsWhile this is the global period, specific countries experienced business expansions for different periods.
OECD members enjoyed real GDP growth averaging over 4% per year in the 1950s, nearly 5% per year in the 1960s, compared with 3% in the 1970s and 2% in the 1980s. Skidelsky devotes ten pages of his 2009 book Keynes: The Return of the Master to a comparison of the golden age to what he calls the Washington Consensus period, which he dates as spanning 1980–2009: Skidelsky suggests the high global growth during the golden age was impressive as during that period Japan was the only major Asian economy enjoying high growth, it was not until that the world had the exceptional growth of China raising the global average. Skidelsky reports that inequality was decreasing during the golden age, whereas since the Washington Consensus was formed it has been increasing. Globally, the golden age was a time of unusual financial stability, with crises far less frequent and intense than before or after. Martin Wolf reports that between 1945–71 the world saw only 38 financial crises, whereas from 1973–97 there were 139.
High productivity growth from before the war continued until the early 1970s. Manufacturing was aided by automation technologies such as feedback controllers, which appeared in the late 1930s were a fast-growing area of investment following the war. Wholesale and retail trade benefited from new highway systems, distribution warehouses, material handling equipment such as forklifts and intermodal containers. Oil displaced coal in many applications in locomotives and ships. In agriculture, the post WW II period saw the widespread introduction of the following: Chemical fertilizers Tractors Combine harvesters High-yielding variety Pesticides Industries that were created or expanded during the post war period included television, commercial aviation and in the US, computer technology. Economists employing Marxian economic analysis and Crisis theory argue that the period of prosperity was a temporary phase in capitalist development fueled by a revival of capital stock, large pools of labor and raw materials, technological innovation emerging from the end of the Second World War and the scale of defeats of the international working class.
This era of prosperity helped prop up the perspective that the crises and business cycles inherent to capitalism could be solved through macroeconomic Keynesian policies, when in actuality the fundamental instabilities of capitalism had not been resolved. Keynesian economists argue that the post war expansion was caused by adoption of Keynesian economic policies. Naomi Klein has argued the high growth enjoyed by Europe and America was the result of Keynesian economic policies and in the case of rising prosperity that this post war period saw in parts of South America, by the influence of developmentalist economics led by Raúl Prebisch. One of Eisenhower's enduring achievements was championing and signing the bill that authorized the Interstate Highway System in 1956, he justified the project through the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 as essential to American security during the Cold War. It was believed that large cities would be targets in a possible war, h