Facebook, Inc. is an American online social media and social networking service company. It is based in California, it was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies along with Amazon and Google; the founders limited the website's membership to Harvard students and subsequently Columbia and Yale students. Membership was expanded to the remaining Ivy League schools, MIT, higher education institutions in the Boston area. Facebook added support for students at various other universities, to high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in this requirement, depending on local laws; the name comes from the face book directories given to American university students. Facebook held its initial public offering in February 2012, valuing the company at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.
It began selling stock to the public three months later. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements; the Facebook service can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers and smartphones. After registering, users can create a customized profile revealing information about themselves. Users can post text and multimedia of their own devising and share it with other users as "friends". Users can use various embedded apps, receive notifications of their friends' activities. Users may join common-interest groups. Facebook had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018. It receives prominent media coverage, including many controversies such as user privacy and psychological effects; the company has faced intense pressure over censorship and over content that some users find objectionable. Facebook offers other services, it independently developed Facebook Messenger. Zuckerberg built; the site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person".
Facemash attracted 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours. The site was sent to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days by Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy; the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam, he uploaded all art images to a website, each of, accompanied by a comments section shared the site with his classmates. A "face book" is a student directory featuring personal information. In 2003, Harvard had only a paper version along with private online directories. Zuckerberg told the Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard.... I think. I can do it better than they can, I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is available... the benefits are many."
Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook" located at thefacebook.com. Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed; the three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares. Membership was restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia and Yale. and to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, Washington and successively most universities in the United States and Canada.
In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. In June 2004, the company moved to California, it received its first investment that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com for US$200,000. The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation. In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005. Eligibility expanded to include employees including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address. By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages. Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced th
The Alex Theatre is a landmark located at 216 North Brand Boulevard in Glendale, United States. It is owned by the city of Glendale and operated by Glendale Arts; the architectural design of the original 1925 Alexander was attributed to the architectural firm of Meyer & Holler. The unique interior has distinct neo-classic Greek and Egyptian architectural elements, similar to the Greco-Egyptian period of Ptolemaic Egypt. A long walkway and courtyard separating the ticket booth from the lobby was inspired after the famous Grauman's Egyptian Theatre in Hollywood. In 1940, notable theater architect S. Charles Lee was commissioned to redesign the exterior of the Alexander. Lee's portfolio included the Tower Theatre and the Los Angeles Theatre, both in Downtown Los Angeles, the Academy Theatre in Inglewood, as well as the Tujunga Theatre in Tujunga, his contributions included a 100-foot-tall art-deco column with neon lights, topped by a spiked, neon sphere that gave it a starburst appearance. A neon, angled marquee emblazoned the theater's new name, the Alex, shortened to fit the larger letters.
The Alexander opened its doors on September 4, 1925. It was operated by the West Coast-Langley Theatre Circuit and featured vaudeville performances and silent movies on a single screen, it was named after Alexander Langley, the son of C. L. Langley, owner of the West Coast chain that included the Raymond Theater in Pasadena, the Orange Theatre in the city of Orange. In addition to the lavish architecture, a huge Wurlitzer pipe organ was installed. A regular organist supplied improvised accompaniment during the silent picture era. Located only a few miles from Walt Disney's Hyperion studio, the theater was Disney's favorite place to preview his cartoons to see how they would play to audiences. Several movies had their preview screening at The Alex, inviting celebrities such as Alice Faye, Don Ameche, Elizabeth Taylor for National Velvet and Bing Crosby for Going My Way. A backstage fire in 1948 caused $150,000 in damages. Starting in the 1950s, the Alex showed blockbuster films such as Ben-Hur and Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom.
A wide aspect ratio screen was installed in 1954, along with a surround sound system to accommodate the new Cinemascope pictures. The Alex underwent an extensive renovation in 1993 which restored much of the original wall-painting and decorations, as well as the neon spire added by S. Charles Lee; the Alex Theatre Performing Arts and Entertainment Center has been the centerpiece of the Glendale's arts and community events since it opened. It is managed by a non-profit organization; the theater's diverse schedule boasts 250 events per year and attracts more than 100,000 patrons annually. Programs range from classical and contemporary concerts, dance, comedy and special events as well as TV and film productions and industry related award presentations. Resident companies include the Alex Film Society, Glendale Youth Orchestra, Musical Theatre Guild, the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra; the Alex Film Society schedules classic films accompanied with special guests, live musical performances of the films soundtrack and vintage photos.
Backstage tours covering the entire history of the Alex are available through the Alex Theatre website. List of National Historic Landmarks by state List of threatened historic sites in the United States History of the National Register of Historic Places The Alex Theatre online The Alex Film Society
Instagram is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, launched in October 2010 on iOS. A version for Android devices was released a year and half in April 2012, followed by a feature-limited website interface in November 2012, apps for Windows 10 Mobile and Windows 10 in April 2016 and October 2016 respectively; the app allows users to upload photos and videos to the service, which can be edited with various filters, organized with tags and location information. An account's posts can be shared publicly or with pre-approved followers. Users can browse other users' content by tags and locations, view trending content. Users can "like" photos, follow other users to add their content to a feed; the service was distinguished by only allowing content to be framed in a square aspect ratio, but these restrictions were eased in 2015. The service added messaging features, the ability to include multiple images or videos in a single post, as well as "Stories"—similar to its main competitor Snapchat—which allows users to post photos and videos to a sequential feed, with each post accessible by others for 24 hours each.
After its launch in 2010, Instagram gained popularity, with one million registered users in two months, 10 million in a year, 800 million as of September 2017. In April 2012, Facebook acquired the service for US$1 billion in cash and stock; as of October 2015, over 40 billion photos had been uploaded to the service. Although praised for its influence, Instagram has been the subject of criticism, most notably for policy and interface changes, allegations of censorship, illegal or improper content uploaded by users; as of 14 January 2019, the most liked photo on Instagram is a picture of an egg, posted by the account @world_record_egg, created with a sole purpose of surpassing the previous record of 18 million likes on a Kylie Jenner post. The picture has over 50 million likes. Instagram began development in San Francisco, when Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger chose to focus their multi-featured HTML5 check-in project, Burbn, on mobile photography; as Krieger reasoned, Burbn became too similar to Foursquare, both realized that it had gone too far.
Burbn was pivoted to become more focused on photo-sharing. The word Instagram is a portmanteau of instant telegram. On March 5, 2010, Systrom closed a $500,000 seed funding round with Baseline Ventures and Andreessen Horowitz while working on Burbn. Josh Riedel joined the company in October as Community Manager, Shayne Sweeney joined in November as an engineer, Jessica Zollman joined as a Community Evangelist in August 2011. Kevin Systrom posted the first photo to Instagram on July 16, 2010; the photo shows Systrom's girlfriend's foot. On October 6, 2010, the Instagram iOS app was released through the App Store. In February 2011, it was reported that Instagram had raised $7 million in Series A funding from a variety of investors, including Benchmark Capital, Jack Dorsey, Chris Sacca, Adam D'Angelo; the deal valued Instagram at around $20 million. On April 3, 2012, Instagram was released for Android phones, it was downloaded more than one million times in less than one day. In March 2012, The Wall Street Journal reported that Instagram was raising a new round of financing that would value the company at $500 million, details that were confirmed the following month, when Instagram raised $50 million from venture capitalists with a $500 million valuation.
The same month, Facebook bought Instagram for $1 billion in cash and stock, with a plan to keep the company independently managed. Britain's Office of Fair Trading approved the deal on August 14, 2012, on August 22, 2012, the Federal Trade Commission in the U. S. closed its investigation. On September 6, 2012, the deal between Instagram and Facebook was closed; the deal, made just prior to Facebook's scheduled IPO, cost about a quarter of Facebook's cash-on-hand, according to figures documented at the end of 2011. The deal was for a company characterized as having "lots of buzz but no business model", the price was contrasted with the $35 million Yahoo! paid for Flickr in 2005. Mark Zuckerberg noted that Facebook was "committed to building and growing Instagram independently", in contrast to its past practices. According to Wired, the deal netted Systrom $400 million based on his ownership stake in the business; the exact purchase price was 23 million shares of stock. In November 2012, Instagram launched website profiles, allowing anyone to see users' feeds from their web browsers.
However, the website interface was limited in functionality, with notable omissions including the lack of a search bar, a news feed, the ability to upload photos. In February 2013, the website was updated to offer a news feed, in June 2015, the website was redesigned to offer bigger photos. On October 22, 2013, during the Nokia World event held in Abu Dhabi, Systrom confirmed the upcoming release of the official Instagram app for Windows Phone, after pressure from Nokia and the public to develop an app for the platform; the app was released as a beta version on November 21, 2013, was lacking the ability to record and upload video, though an Instagram spokesperson stated that "We're not finished, our team will continue developing the Windows Phone app to keep releasing features and bringing you the best Instagram possible". In April 2016, Instagram upgraded the app to Windows 10 Mobile, adding support for video and direct messages, followed by updates in October 2016 that
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
With 18,000 employees, the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department the County of Los Angeles Sheriff's Department, is the nation's largest sheriff's department. The department's three main responsibilities entail providing patrol services for 153 unincorporated communities of Los Angeles County, California and 42 cities, providing courthouse security for the Superior Court of Los Angeles County, the housing and transportation of inmates within the county jail system. In addition, the department contracts with the Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority and Metrolink, provides law enforcement services to ten community colleges, patrols over 177 county parks, golf courses, special event venues, two major lakes, 16 hospitals, over 300 county facilities; the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's transit division alone is the second largest transit police force in the world, aside from the New York City Police Department. This is through policing contracts of the Metro trains and buses of the Los Angeles Metro and Metrolink.
Furthermore, with policing contracts with nine campuses of the Los Angeles Community College and Lancaster Community College District, the LASD is the largest community policing agency in the United States. The Sheriff's Department's headquarters are located in downtown Los Angeles at the Los Angeles County Hall of Justice; the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department is the largest sheriff's department and the fourth largest local policing agency in the United States. There are 17,926 employees. There are 791 reserve deputies and 400 explorers. On December 1, 2014, Jim McDonnell took the oath of office and was sworn in as the 32nd Los Angeles County Sheriff. LASD deputies provided law enforcement services to over three million residents in an area of 3,171 square miles of the 4,083 square miles on the county, both in the unincorporated County land and within the 42 contract cities; the following are the LASD Divisions: Sheriff's Headquarters Undersheriff Sheriff's Information Bureau Legal Advisory Unit Constitutional Policy Advisors Community Outreach Strategic Communications Chief of Staff Legislative Unit Audit and Accountability Bureau Professional Standards & Training Division Advocacy Unit Internal Affairs Bureau Internal Criminal Investigations Bureau Risk Management Bureau Training Bureau Administrative & Professional Standards - includes: Administrative Services Division - includes: Contract Law Enforcement Bureau Facilities Planning Bureau Facilities Services Bureau Financial Programs Fiscal Administration Personnel Command Personnel Administration Bureau Psychological Services Bureau Bureau of Labor Relations & Compliance Technology & Support Division Communications & Fleet Management Bureau Data Systems Bureau Records & Identification Bureau Scientific Services Bureau Custody Operations - includes.
This includes staffing bailiffs, operating courthouse lock-ups, serving and enforcing civil and criminal process. Court Services provides these services for 48 courthouse locations throughout Los Angeles County, which include the following: Civil Management Bureau Court Services Central Court Services East Court Services West Court Services Transportation Bureau Special Operations Division Aero Bureau Special Enforcement Bureau - Special Enforcement Detail, Canine Services Detail, Emergency Services Detail Emergency Operations Bureau which includes: Industrial Relations Detail - maintains liaison between the business and labor communities; the Detail trains patrol personnel in the handling of labor disputes and picket lines. Arson Explosives Detail Hazardous Material Detail Transit Services Bureau Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority MetroLink Patrol Operations are divided amongst as follows: North Patrol Division - Lancaster, Malibu/Lost Hills, Santa Clarita Valley, West Hollywood.
South Patrol Division - Carson, Lakewood, Lomita and Pico Rivera. East Patrol Division - Altadena, Crescenta Valley, San Dimas and Walnut/Diamond Bar. Central Patrol Division - Avalon, Compton, Marina Del Rey, South Los Angeles. Detective Division - Contains the following.
The Armenian Genocide known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians citizens within the Ottoman Empire. The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, deported from Constantinople to the region of Ankara, 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of whom were murdered; the genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases—the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, the elderly, the infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian Desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery and massacre. Other ethnic groups were targeted for extermination in the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide, their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy.
Most Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide. Raphael Lemkin was moved by the annihilation of the Armenians to define systematic and premeditated exterminations within legal parameters and coin the word genocide in 1943; the Armenian Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides, because scholars point to the organized manner in which the killings were carried out. It is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust. Turkey denies. In recent years, Turkey has been faced with repeated calls to recognize them as genocide; as of 2018, 29 countries have recognized the mass killings as genocide, as have most genocide scholars and historians. The Armenian Genocide took place before the coining of the term genocide. English-language words and phrases used by contemporary accounts to characterise the event include "massacres", "atrocities", "annihilation", "holocaust", "the murder of a nation", "race extermination" and "a crime against humanity".
Raphael Lemkin coined "genocide" in 1943, with the fate of the Armenians in mind. It happened to the Armenians after the Armenians Hitler took action."The survivors of the genocide used a number of Armenian terms to name the event. Mouradian writes that Yeghern, or variants like Medz Yeghern and Abrilian Yeghern were the terms most used; the name Aghed translated as "Catastrophe", according to Beledian, the term most used in Armenian literature to name the event. After the coining of the term genocide, the portmanteau word Armenocide was used as a name for the Armenian Genocide. Works that seek to deny the Armenian Genocide attach qualifying words against the term genocide, such as "so-called", "alleged" or "disputed," or characterise it as a "controversy", or dismiss it as "Armenian allegations", "Armenian claims" or "Armenian lies", or employ euphemisms to avoid the word genocide, such as calling it a "tragedy for both sides", or "the events of 1915". American President Barack Obama's use of the term Medz Yeghern when referring to the Armenian Genocide has been described "as a means of avoiding the word genocide".
Several international organizations have conducted studies of the atrocities, each in turn determining that the term "genocide" aptly describes "the Ottoman massacre of Armenians in 1915–16". Among the organizations affirming this conclusion are the International Center for Transitional Justice, the International Association of Genocide Scholars, the United Nations' Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. In 2005, the International Association of Genocide Scholars affirmed that scholarly evidence revealed the "Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire began a systematic genocide of its Armenian citizens – an unarmed Christian minority population. More than a million Armenians were exterminated through direct killing, starvation and forced death marches"; the IAGS condemned Turkish attempts to deny the factual and moral reality of the Armenian Genocide. In 2007, the Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity produced a letter signed by 53 Nobel Laureates re-affirming the Genocide Scholars' conclusion that the 1915 killings of Armenians constituted genocide.
Bat Ye'or has suggested that "the genocide of the Armenians was a jihad". Ye'or holds jihad and what she calls "dhimmitude" to be among the "principles and values" that led to the Armenian Genocide; this perspective is challenged by Fà'iz el-Ghusein, a Bedouin Arab witness of the Armenian persecution, whose 1918 treatise aimed "to refute beforehand inventions and slanders against the Faith of Islam and against Moslems generally... hat the Armenians have suffered is to be attributed to the Committee of Union and Progress... T has been due to their nationalist fanaticism and their jealousy of the Armenians, to these alone. Arnold Toynbee writes that "the Young Turks made Pan-Islamism and Turkish Nationalism work together for their ends, but the development of their policy shows the Islamic element receding and the Nationalist gaining ground". Toynbee and various other sources report that many Armenians were spared death by marrying into Turkish families or converting to Islam. Concerned that Westerners would come to regard the "extermination of the Armenians" as "a black stain on the history of Islam, which the ages will not efface", El-Ghusein observes that many