Pencaitland is a village in East Lothian, about 12 miles south-east of Edinburgh, 5 miles south-west of Haddington, 1 mile east of Ormiston. The land where the village lies is said to have been granted by William the Lion to Calum Cormack in 1169, who gave the church, with the tithes and other property belonging to it, to the monks of Kelso, in whose possession it remained till a short time prior to the accession of Robert Bruce; the land subsequently became the property of a younger branch of the Maxwell family, who granted the advowson and tithes to the monks of Dryburgh Abbey, who held them until the Reformation. The Tyne Water divides the village into Easter Pencaitland and Wester Pencaitland, crossed by a three-arched bridge dating from the 16th Century. An ancient cross in Wester Pencaitland indicates that there would have been a market there. A large industrial maltings, built in 1965, is situated just before the entrance to the village at Wester Pencaitland; the name "Pencaitland" may derive from the Old Brythonic meaning "Head of the Woodland" Pencaitland Community Council meets 10 times throughout the year on the last Wednesday of the month at the Trevelyan Hall in Wester Pencaitland.
The Community Council is constituted from fifteen members of the local population along with the locally elected representatives of the Fa'side catchment. This catchment extends to New Boggs Holdings to the north and Peastonbank to the south. 0.5 miles north-west of Pencaitland is Winton House, the original square Tower house being built in the 15th century on land granted to the Setons by David I c1152, mentioned in a charter to them from William the Lion in 1169. It was burnt by the Earl of Hertford's forces during the Rough Wooing, subsequently repaired and enlarged by George Seton, 3rd Earl of Winton, commencing in 1619. Architecturally, Winton is one of the most important houses in Scotland, due to the work of William Wallace, appointed the King's Master Mason in 1617; this "peculiar and beautiful structure", is situated on a steep embankment sloping down to the valley of the Tyne. Hunnewell says: "this Jacobean mansion was that of Ravenswood in The Bride of Lammermoor. There is, of course, a ghost-room in the upper part of the house.
In 1630, Lord Winton had completed half of the house, beginning at Wallace’s Tower, burned, continuing as far as Jacob’s Tower. Another room, called the King’s Chamber, is said to have been occupied by Charles I when he came to Scotland to be crowned in 1633, although most records have him staying at Seton Palace. Thinking that better times were now at hand, the Earl of Winton caused to be carved on a fine stone tablet upon the frontispiece of his new building a crown supported by a thistle between two roses, signifying the union of Scotland and England. Under it he caused to be inscribed in deep letters of gold this Latin verse: Unio Nune Stoque Cadoque Tuis. Mylne makes a note upon this, saying: "Ye Union was ye cause of the families' ruin"; the Wintons' tenure lasted until 1715 when George Seton, 5th Earl of Winton engaged in supporting the Jacobites. He was captured and taken to the Tower of London, forfeited his land; the Earl's capture ended an era when kings were entertained and master craftsmen were engaged fresh from Edinburgh Castle to embellish Winton House in the style of the Scottish Renaissance.
In the absence of the Earl but in his name, Winton was requisitioned by Bonnie Prince Charlie in 1745 when his rebel army camped on the Winton estate. Winton is now the family home of Lady Ogilvy. 0.75 miles south-west of Pencaitland is Fountainhall, a late 16th-century mansion extended in the early 17th century on the same intimate scale and with the same materials, fine-grained harlings matching the pale yellow sandstone of the chimneys, crowstep gables, other dressings. The estate's original name was Woodhead, was purchased by John Pringle in 1635 who carried out extensive alterations and enhancements. On 13 August 1681 the estate was purchased by John Lauder of Newington, a rich Baillie of Edinburgh, for whom the house and lands were erected into the feudal barony of Fountainhall, becoming the seat of that family. Tradition states. Most of the internal finishings are the work of the Lauders from the early 18th century, with much panelling and plaster cornices. After the Lauders parted with Fountainhall in the 1920s, the removal of a lath-and-plaster wall revealed a tapestry in situ, dating from about 1700.
There is a 17th-century walled garden adjoining the east of the house, to the south of the house is a ruined 17th century dovecote imitated by the erection of another, nearby. The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland suggests that the two buildings flanked an 18th-century pedestrian access to the house. Professor John Holbourn renamed the house Pencait Castle. Professor Holbourn, a survivor of the Lusitania sinking in 1916, was the owner and laird of Foula in the Shetland Islands; the house was sold after the death of Marion, in the 1950s. In 1956, Mr. and Mrs. Ian and Trudy Cowe bought the house. In 1988, the house came into the hands of their son Robert and his wife Alison in whose possession the house remains; the Pencaitland parish Church of Scotland, at Easter Pencaitland, is of the 16th or early 17th century, but standing on medieval foundations. The west tower contains the Saltoun aisle entered through a fi
Namibia Breweries Limited
Namibia Breweries Limited is a Namibian brewery founded in 1920 when Carl List and Hermann Ohlthaver acquired four small breweries with financial difficulties. The breweries were merged under the name South West Breweries Limited. SWB changed its name to Namibia Breweries Limited when Namibia gained independence on March 21, 1990. Ohlthaver & List Group of Companies are still the majority shareholder. Own products: Club Shandy Tafel Lager Tafel Lite Urbock Windhoek Draught Windhoek Lager Windhoek Light McKane: Soda Water, Tonic Water Vigo: Marula, Wild Orange, KiwanoBrewed under licence: Amstel Lager Amstel Lite HeinekenDistribute: Guinness Erdinger Foundry Cider Archers Aqua NBL brew all of their beers according to the Reinheitsgebot from 1516. Other than the four top-selling beers NBL produces some speciality beers like Urbock - a winter bock beer. Nambrew distributes other beer brands like Erdinger Weissbeer and Kilkenny in the region; the low alcohol, low calorie product Windhoek Light was endorsed by the South African Heart Foundation.
NBL exports 60% of its production to South Africa and 22 other countries world-wide. NBL have invested in a 1. MW Solar Power plant; this is installed on existing roof structures. Official website
A glen is a valley one, long and bounded by sloped concave sides, unlike a ravine, deep and bounded by steep slopes. Whittow defines it as a "Scottish term for a deep valley in the Highlands", "narrower than a strath"; the word is Goidelic in origin: gleann in Scottish Gaelic, glion in Manx. The designation "glen" occurs in place names; the word is Goidelic in origin: gleann in Scottish Gaelic, glion in Manx. In Manx, glan is to be found meaning glen, it is cognate with Welsh glyn. Examples in Northern England, such as Glenridding, Westmorland, or Glendue, near Haltwhistle, are thought to derive from the aforementioned Welsh cognate, or another Brythonic equivalent; this underlies some examples in Southern Scotland. As the name of a river, it is thought to derive from the Irish word glan meaning clean, or the Welsh word gleindid meaning purity. An example is the Glens of Antrim in Northern Ireland where nine glens radiate out from the Antrim plateau to the sea along the coast between Ballycastle and Larne.
The designation "glen" occurs in place names such as Great Glen and Glenrothes in Scotland. In the Finger Lakes region of New York State, the southern ends of Seneca Lake and Cayuga Lake in particular are etched with glens, although in this region the term "glen" refers most to a narrow gorge, as opposed to a wider valley or strath; the steep hills surrounding these lakes are filled with loose shale from glacial moraines. This material has eroded over the past 10,000 years to produce rocky glens and waterfalls as rainwater has flowed down toward the lakes below. High valley Strath
Smirnoff is a brand of vodka owned and produced by the British company Diageo. The Smirnoff brand began with a vodka distillery founded in Moscow by Pyotr Arsenievich Smirnov, it is now distributed in 130 countries and produced in several countries including Albania, Honduras, Ireland, Latvia, the Philippines, the United Kingdom and the United States. Smirnoff products include vodka, flavoured vodka, malt beverages. In March 2006, Diageo North America claimed that Smirnoff vodka was the best-selling distilled spirit brand in the world. In 2015 India's Officer's Choice overtook Smirnoff vodka to become the world's largest selling spirit brand. In 2014, Smirnoff was chosen as the best selling vodka across the world; the vodka is made using a traditional charcoal filtration method developed by P. A. Smirnoff. Recipe No. 21, created by P. A.'s son Vladimir after escaping Russia during the October Revolution. Pyotr Arsenjevitch Smirnov founded his vodka distillery in Moscow in 1864 under the trading name of PA Smirnoff, pioneering charcoal filtration in the 1870s, becoming the first to utilize newspaper ads along with charitable contributions to the clergy to stifle anti-vodka sermons, capturing two-thirds of the Moscow market by 1886.
His brand was a Tsar favorite. When Pyotr died, he was succeeded by his third son Vladimir Smirnov; the company produced more than 4 million cases of vodka per year. In 1904, the Tsar nationalized the Russian vodka industry and Vladimir Smirnov was forced to sell his factory and brand. During the October Revolution of 1917, the Smirnov family had to flee the country. Vladimir Smirnov re-established a factory in 1920 in Constantinople. Four years he moved to Lwów and started to sell the vodka under the contemporary French spelling of the name, "Smirnoff"; the new product sold marginally well but not nearly as it had in Russia prior to 1904. An additional distillery was founded in Paris in 1925. In the 1930s, Vladimir met Rudolph Kunett, a Russian who had emigrated to America in the 1920s and became a successful businessman in New York City; the Kunett family had been a supplier of grains to Smirnoff in Moscow before the Revolution. In 1933, Vladimir sold Kunett the right to begin producing Smirnoff vodka in North America.
He returned to the United States, quit his sales job, established his first North American distillery in Bethel, Connecticut, USA in 1933. However, the business in America was not as successful. In 1938 Kunett could not afford to pay for the necessary sales licences, contacted John Martin, president of Heublein. Heublein was a company that specialized in the export of liquors and foreign foods. Using the $14,000 that the Heublein company made from a new product that ended up saving them from bankruptcy, Martin bought the rights to Smirnoff in 1939, his board thought. Americans were traditionally whiskey drinkers unfamiliar with vodka and so sales were slow. In a marketing move they changed the product to use whiskey corks instead and branded it as a "white whiskey" with "no taste, no smell". Sales picked up after that. In 1982, the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company acquired Heublein Inc. for $1.4 billion. RJR Nabisco sold the division to Grand Metropolitan in 1987. In 1985 Heublein Corporate Audit Manager Hanson J Kan had recommended to Heublein that they buy out the Grand Metropolitan IDV Smirnoff licensee with its global licensee locations.
Grand Metropolitan merged with Guinness to form Diageo in 1997. In 1990, after the Berlin Wall was demolished, Helmut Kohl made a deal with Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev allowing the reunification of Germany provided that the Soviet army could remain in East Germany, due to a pre-existing security agreement between the German Democratic Republic and the USSR. 500,000 Soviet soldiers were paid in hard currency and had nothing to do except drink. They proceeded to spend their currency on Marlboro cigarettes, Levi jeans and Smirnoff vodka; the US-made variety of Smirnoff vodka was popular. The London office of Heublein was inundated with orders and the Vice President, Jeremy Collis, set about exploiting this "gusher" to the fullest extent possible. Huge in-store Smirnoff displays were set up in the Russian army stores and the officers' messes were renamed Smirnoff Clubs. Individual messes started serving in excess of 200 litres a night of Smirnoff; the Soviet forces became the biggest market in Europe for Smirnoff outside the UK.
Smirnoff was shipped to Germany at the rate of 20,000 bottles a day. Moskovskaya and Stolichnaya's market share in Germany dropped from 100% to nothing. Seeing the popularity of Smirnoff amongst the Russian troops, Collis set about trying to sell Smirnoff vodka directly into the USSR; the entire vodka market in the Western world at that stage was 60 million cases but the USSR market was believed to be over 200 million cases. The first containers were shipped into Leningrad in 1991 where Collis had appointed a distributor, Empire Brands Inc. In 1985, Heublein Corporate Audit Manager Hanson J Kan recommended to Heublein that they buy out the Grand Metropolitan IDV Smirnoff licensee with its global licensee locations, but in 1987, Grand Met bought out Heublein including the global Smirnoff operations from RJR Nabisco. Empire Brands was established by Sergey Titov, a former interpreter with no prior commercial experience. In Soviet Russia no one had'commercial experience' so Titov became a m
Thomas Street Distillery
The Thomas Street Distillery was an Irish whiskey distillery located in Dublin, Ireland. At its peak, it was Dublin's largest and most productive distillery and with an output of over 2 million gallons per annum, twice that of John Jameson's acclaimed nearby Bow Street distillery. Alfred Barnard, a British author who visited most of the distilleries in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 1880s, wrote that, at the time of his visit, the Thomas Street Distillery may have been the largest whiskey distillery in the world and had the highest output of any whiskey distillery in the British Isles. However, the distillery entered into financial difficulties, closed in 1926. Although most of the distillery buildings were demolished following its closure, a few were incorporated into the Guinness St. James's Gate Brewery and are still extant. In January 2017, producers of Guinness, announced that they would invest €25 million in establishing a new distillery in the old brewery power house building on Thomas Street, close to the site of the original Thomas Street Distillery.
Production at the new distillery is planned to start in the first half of 2019. In addition, Diageo resurrected the original brand and launched a non-chill filtered, 45% ABV premium blended whiskey under the name "Roe & Co" in March 2017. In 1757, Peter Roe purchased a small existing distillery on Thomas Street in Dublin; the premises were expanded with rising trade, until the distillery fronted South Earl Street. Richard Roe continued operations at Thomas Street from 1766 to 1794. However, the distilling laws in the Kingdom of Ireland limited any serious chance of expansion. In 1782, he was operating a still with a capacity of 234 gallons. In 1784, another member of the Roe family, Nicolas Roe, set up a distillery in Pimlico; this distillery was a larger operation, was recorded as having a still of 1,165 gallon capacity in 1802, replaced by an larger 1,575 gallon still by 1807. By 1832, George Roe had inherited both of these plants which were near to each other, expanded them. In addition, he leased additional premises in Mount Brown, which were used as maltings and warehouses.
By 1827, output of the Thomas Street Distillery was reported as being 244,279 gallons. George Roe's two sons and George, succeeded to the ownership in 1862, by which point the firm was large and prosperous, the Roes a family of wealth and influence. So much so that in 1878, the Roes could afford to donate £250,000, a large sum in those days, to the restoration of Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin, were knighted for their efforts; when Alfred Barnard, the British historian, visited the plant, it was at its zenith, he described it as being one of the largest and best equipped in the world, occupying 17 acres, with eight pot stills in operation, an output of over 2 million gallons per annum, a payroll of over 200 staff, including 18 coopers. At the time, its largest export market was across to Great Britain. However, by 1891, the distillery was beginning to feel the impact of competition from Scottish distillers, the company was amalgamated with two other Dublin distilling companies, the Dublin Whiskey Distillery Company's Jones Road Distillery, William Jameson's Marrowbone Lane Distillery, to form a distilling behemoth, with a combined potential output of over 3.5 million gallons per annum.
However, following the loss of both the American and British Commonwealth export markets during prohibition and the Anglo-Irish trade war in the 1920s, the company suffered severe financial difficulties, both the Thomas Street and Marrowbone Lane distilleries closed in 1923, with the Jones Road Distillery following suit in 1926, though distilling may have continued at Jones Road until 1946. Following its closure, many of the buildings were demolished in stages. However, a portion of the site was purchased by the neighbouring Guinness Brewery at St. James's Gate, some of the buildings are still in existence, including the landmark St. Patrick's Tower. During the 1916 Easter Rising, both Roe's Distillery and the nearby Jameson Distillery at Marrowbone Lane were used as outposts by the Irish rebels. Constructed in 1757, the year Peter Roe purchased the small distillery on Thomas Street, St. Patrick's Tower is a 150 ft high brick-built windmill, believed to be one of the oldest extant smock windmills in Europe.
Once sited on the grounds of the Thomas Street distillery, it is now part of the Guinness St. James' Gate brewing complex. Irish whiskey Irish whiskey brands
Glenkinchie distillery is a Scotch single malt whisky distillery in East Lothian, Scotland. It is one of the six distilleries in the Lowland region, it is owned by the drinks giant Diageo. Glenkinchie lies, as the name might suggest, in a glen of the Kinchie Burn near the village of Pencaitland, East Lothian, it is situated about 15 miles from Edinburgh. The distillery is set in farmland; the name'Kinchie' is the original owners of the land. Its origins date back to around 1825 when it was founded by brothers John and George Rate, While there are no direct records it seems that Glenkinchie is the Milton Distillery previous recorded in the area; the brothers renamed it in about 1837. In 1853, the Rate Brothers were bankrupted and the site converted to a sawmill. In 1881, the plant was rebuilt and whisky-making restarted under Maj. James Grey. In 1969 the distillery stopped malting its own grain and the malting floors were turned into a museum of malt whisky; the Glenkinchie label was little known until 1989, when United Distillers started marketing it under their Classic Malts brand.
Glenkinchie 12 Year Old Tasting notes: On the nose aromatic and floral notes. On the palate it is sweet with a dry finish. Glenkinchie Distillers Edition Tasting notes: On the nose cut hay and malted barley. On the palate, biscuity sweet and hobnobs. Slight toffee finish; the Glenkinchie 12 Year Old was named Best Lowland Single Malt at the 2013 World Whiskies Awards. Whisky Scotch whisky List of whisky brands List of distilleries in Scotland Glenkinchie
Cardhu is a Speyside distillery near Archiestown, Scotland, founded by the whisky smuggler John Cumming, his wife Helen Cumming in 1824. The distillery is run by Diageo and the distillery's Scotch whisky makes up an important part of the Johnnie Walker blended whiskies; the word "Cardhu" derives from the Scots Gaelic Carn Dubh, meaning "Black Rock". The distillery was set up by John Cumming, a whisky smuggler, in 1824; the distillery was sited high up on Mannoch Hill, above the River Spey due to the peat softening the water. The distillery started as farm distillery working on a seasonal basis after the harvest had been gathered; the distillery was run by his wife Helen who used to sell bottles of whisky to passers-by through the window of their farmhouse. Due to the hill the farm distillery was on, Helen would be able to see the police coming and would throw flour on herself and say that she was baking bread to disguise the smell, she would offer them tea and fly a flag outside so that the other nearby distilleries could see and take prompt action.
In 1885 the distillery was rebuilt on a new piece of land but continued to stay in the hands of the Cummings, being run by Elizabeth Cumming, the daughter-in-law of Helen Cumming. The stills from the old distillery building were sold to William Grant who set up Glenfiddich distillery; the new building and stills meant that Cardhu could produce triple the amount of whisky it had produced. These higher production levels led to Johnnie Walker and Sons buying much of Cardhu's output to put into their popular blend. In 1893 Elizabeth Cumming sold the distillery to Johnnie Walker and Sons on the condition that the Cumming family could continue the day-to-day running of the distillery. Cardhu distillery kept working under these conditions until the onset of the Second World War when wartime restrictions meant that it was harder to use barley for distilling purposes. In 1960 the distillery's still-house, mash-house and tun-room were rebuilt, in 1970 steam coils were introduced to heat the stills and the number of stills was increased to six.
Spring water from Mannoch Hill started to be mixed with water from the local Lynne burn to supply the increased production of the distillery. In December 2003, parent company Diageo caused controversy by halting the production of Cardhu single malt and replacing it with a blended malt which they labelled a'pure malt' using the same bottle design and label as its single malt; the decision by Diageo angered both consumers and other whisky producers who were worried that the single malt image would be damaged. Diageo responded to the criticism by agreeing to change the label style and colour of their pure malt in order to avoid consumer confusion. Sales of Cardhu pure malt dropped due to the change. Cardhu recommenced producing a single malt in 2006. Cardhu single malt has 222 calories per 100 ml. List of whisky brands List of distilleries in Scotland Diageo's webpage on Cardhu Scotchwhisky.net's webpage on Cardhu Discovering Distilleries webpage on Cardhu Women Behind the Whisky on Helen Cumming and Cardhu