Hudson's Bay Company
The Hudson's Bay Company is a Canadian retail business group. A fur trading business for much of its existence, HBC now owns and operates retail stores in Canada, the United States, parts of Europe including Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany; the company's namesake business division is Hudson's Bay referred to as The Bay. Other divisions include Home Outfitters, Lord & Taylor and Saks Fifth Avenue. HBC's head office is located in Brampton, Ontario; the company is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol "HBC". After incorporation by English royal charter in 1670, the company functioned as the de facto government in parts of North America for nearly 200 years until the HBC sold the land it owned to Canada in 1869 as part of The Deed of Surrender. During its peak, the company controlled the fur trade throughout much of the English- and British-controlled North America. By the mid-19th century, the company evolved into a mercantile business selling a wide variety of products from furs to fine homeware in a small number of sales shops across Canada.
These shops were the first step towards the department stores. In 2008, HBC was acquired by NRDC Equity Partners, which owns the upmarket American department store Lord & Taylor. From 2008 to 2012, the HBC was run through a holding company of NRDC, Hudson's Bay Trading Company, dissolved in early 2012. Since 2012, the HBC directly oversees its Canadian subsidiaries Hudson's Bay and Home Outfitters, in addition to the operations of Lord & Taylor in the United States; the Hudson's Bay Company bought Saks, Inc. in 2013, German department store chain Galeria Kaufhof in 2015, online shopping site Gilt Groupe in 2015, 20 former Vroom & Dreesmann sites in the Netherlands in 2015. Gilt Groupe was sold to online fashion store Rue La La in 2018. In the 17th century the French had a de facto monopoly on the Canadian fur trade with their colony of New France. Two French traders, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers, Radisson's brother-in-law, learned from the Cree that the best fur country lay north and west of Lake Superior, that there was a "frozen sea" still further north.
Assuming this was Hudson Bay, they sought French backing for a plan to set up a trading post on the Bay, to reduce the cost of moving furs overland. According to Peter C. Newman, "concerned that exploration of the Hudson Bay route might shift the focus of the fur trade away from the St. Lawrence River, the French governor", Marquis d'Argenson, "refused to grant the coureurs de bois permission to scout the distant territory". Despite this refusal, in 1659 Radisson and Groseilliers set out for the upper Great Lakes basin. A year they returned with premium furs, evidence of the potential of the Hudson Bay region. Subsequently, they were arrested for trading without a licence and fined, their furs were confiscated by the government. Determined to establish trade in the Hudson Bay and Groseilliers approached a group of English colonial businessmen in Boston, Massachusetts to help finance their explorations; the Bostonians agreed on the plan's merits but their speculative voyage in 1663 failed when their ship ran into pack ice in Hudson Strait.
Boston-based English commissioner Colonel George Cartwright learned of the expedition and brought the two to England to raise financing. Radisson and Groseilliers arrived in London in 1665 at the height of the Great Plague; the two met and gained the sponsorship of Prince Rupert. Prince Rupert introduced the two to his cousin, King Charles II. In 1668 the English expedition acquired two ships, the Nonsuch and the Eaglet, to explore possible trade into Hudson Bay. Groseilliers sailed on the Nonsuch, commanded by Captain Zachariah Gillam, while the Eaglet was commanded by Captain William Stannard and accompanied by Radisson. On 5 June 1668, both ships left port at Deptford, but the Eaglet was forced to turn back off the coast of Ireland; the Nonsuch continued to James Bay, the southern portion of Hudson Bay, where its explorers founded, in 1668, the first fort on Hudson Bay, Charles Fort at the mouth of the Rupert River. Both the fort and the river were named after the sponsor of the expedition, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, one of the major investors and soon to be the new company's first governor.
After a successful trading expedition over the winter of 1668–69, Nonsuch returned to England on 9 October 1669 with the first cargo of fur resulting from trade in Hudson Bay. The bulk of the fur – worth £1,233 – was sold to Thomas Glover, one of London's most prominent furriers; this and subsequent purchases by Glover made. The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson's Bay was incorporated on 2 May 1670, with a royal charter from King Charles II; the charter granted the company a monopoly over the region drained by all rivers and streams flowing into Hudson Bay in northern Canada. The area was named "Rupert's Land" after Prince Rupert, the first governor of the company appointed by the King; this drainage basin of Hudson Bay constitutes 1.5 million square miles, comprising over one-third of the area of modern-day Canada and stretches into the present-day north-central United States. The specific boundaries were unknown at the time. Rupert's Land would become Canada's largest land "purchase" in the 19th century.
The HBC established six posts between 1668 and 171
Conservative Party of Canada (1867–1942)
The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. Known as the "Liberal-Conservative Party", it dropped "Liberal" from its name in 1873, although many of its candidates continued to use this name; as a result of World War I and the Conscription Crisis of 1917, the party joined with pro-conscription Liberals to become the "Unionist Party", led by Robert Borden from 1917 to 1920, the "National Liberal and Conservative Party" until 1922. It reverted to "Liberal-Conservative Party" until 1938, when it became the "National Conservative Party", it ran in the 1940 election as "National Government" though it was in opposition. The party was always referred to as the "Conservative Party" or Tories; the roots of the party are in the pre-Confederation coalition government of 1854 comprising the Parti bleu of George-Étienne Cartier, along with Ontario Liberals and Conservatives led by Sir John A. Macdonald, it was out of this coalition that the Liberal-Conservative Party was formed and it was this period that formed the basis for Confederation in 1867.
Macdonald became the leader of the Conservative Party and formed the first national government in 1867. The party brought together ultramontane Quebec Catholics, pro-tariff businessmen, United Empire Loyalist Tories and Orangemen. One major accomplishment of Macdonald's first government was the creation of the Canadian Pacific Railway which led to the Pacific Scandal that brought down the government in 1873; the Conservatives under Macdonald returned to power in 1878 by opposing the Liberal Party's policy of free trade or reciprocity with the United States and promoting, the National Policy which sought to promote business and develop industry with high tariff protectionist measures as well as settle and develop the west. The principal difference between the Conservatives and the Liberals in this period and well into the twentieth century was that Conservatives were in favour of imperial preference and strong political and legal links with Britain while Liberals promoted free trade and continentalism and greater independence from Britain.
Macdonald died in 1891 and, without his leadership, the Conservative coalition began to unravel under the pressure of sectarian tensions between Catholic French Canadians and British imperialists who tended to be anti-French and anti-Catholic. The government's mis-handling of the grievances that aroused the Red River Rebellion and the North-West Rebellion, its hanging of their leader Louis Riel), the Manitoba Schools Question exacerbated tensions within the Conservative Party and suppressed much of the support among Quebecois for the Conservative party, a problem only smoothed over by the 1980s. Free trade between Canada and the U. S. was the major issue of the 1911 election. Sir Wilfrid Laurier's Liberals, in favour of increased trade with the U. S. were swept from power. Robert Borden led a new Tory administration that emphasised a revitalised National Policy and continued strong links to Britain. Borden had built a base in Quebec by allying with anti-Laurier Quebec nationalists, but, in government, tensions between Quebec nationalists and English Canadian imperialists made any grand coalition untenable.
World War I created a further strain as most Quebecers were unenthusiastic about Canadian involvement in what they saw as a foreign, British, while Borden's supporters, most living in English Canada, supported Canada's war effort and its policy of conscription of men for the war. The attempt to turn the Conservatives into a hegemonic party by merging with Liberal-Unionists failed as most Liberals either joined the new Progressive Party of Canada or rejoined the Liberals under its new leader William Lyon Mackenzie King. One critical issue in this split was free trade - farmers were hostile to Tory tariff policy and free trade was a key issue in the creation of the Progressives while the Conscription Crisis destroyed any remaining Conservative base in Quebec for generations leaving the Tories with less support than they had before the Union government. Borden's successor, Arthur Meighen formally attempted to make the Unionist coalition permanent by creating the "National Liberal and Conservative Party" but most Liberals ended up returning to their old party and some Conservatives balked at what they saw as an attempt to destroy the Conservative Party.
John Hampden Burnham, MP for Peterborough West, quit the government caucus to sit as an Independent Conservative and resigned his seat in order to contest it in a by-election on his position. Meighen's party was defeated by the Liberals in the election of 1921 coming in third behind the Progressives. At March 1922 caucus meeting the party voted to revert to its original name of the Liberal-Conservative Party; the Liberals were reduced to a minority government in the 1925 election. The Conservatives won a plurality of seats in the House of Commons, but King was able to stay in power with the support of the Progressives and form a minority government. King's government was defeated in a vote in the House of Commons within months and Prime Minister King asked Governor-General Byng to call a new election but Byng refused and asked Meighen to form a government. Meighen's government was defeated three days after taking office by a vote in the Commons, leaving no choice but a new election; the general election produced a Liberal victory.
Sir Rodmond Palen Roblin, was a businessman and politician in Manitoba, Canada. Roblin was born in Prince Edward County, Canada West; the Roblin family was established in Sophiasburgh by Loyalist farmers Philip and Elizabeth Roblin from Smith's Clove in Orange County, New York. He was educated at Albert College in Belleville, arrived in Winnipeg in 1877, worked as a grain merchant. Roblin served as reeve of Dufferin for five years and as warden for two, was a school trustee in the community, he entered provincial politics in the 1886 Manitoba election, running as a Liberal Party candidate against Conservative cabinet minister David H. Wilson in the constituency of Dufferin North, he lost this race by five votes, but won a subsequent by-election held on May 12, 1888. The by-election took place shortly after Thomas Greenway was inaugurated as Manitoba's first Liberal premier. Roblin was a supporter of Greenway in this period, was re-elected by acclamation when the new premier called another provincial election for July 1888.
Although Greenway's Liberals won this election with a landslide majority, the new premier was unable to fulfill a campaign promise for the development of local railways. The Canadian Pacific Railway had lost its formal monopoly in the region, but it was still the dominant line and transportation costs remained high. Confronted with Greenway's failure, Roblin abandoned the government in 1889 and caucused with the small Conservative opposition. With the death of John Norquay in the same year, he emerged as the party's leading spokesman. Roblin was the Conservative Party's de facto leader in the legislature between 1890 and 1892. In opposition, Roblin spoke against Greenway's proposed education reforms. After his failure to reform the provincial railway system, Greenway repudiated an earlier pledge and withdrew state support for Manitoba's Catholic and francophone education system, his reforms triggered a national political crisis, known as the Manitoba Schools Question. While many Canadian francophones regarded Greenway's policy as discriminatory, it was popular with Manitoba's anglophone and Protestant majority.
Greenway's government was re-elected in the 1892 election, Roblin was defeated in the rural constituency including the town of Morden. Greenway won another landslide victory in the 1896 election, although Roblin was this time returned to the legislature for the constituency of Woodlands, he became the parliamentary leader of the Conservatives for a second time, but stood aside to allow Hugh John Macdonald to become the official leader of the party in 1897. The 1899 provincial election different from the previous two campaigns; the schools question was resolved in 1896, Greenway was forced to defend a mediocre record on other issues against a more organized opposition. The result was a narrow victory for Macdonald's Conservatives. Macdonald was inaugurated as premier early in 1900. Roblin, re-elected in Woodlands and was the main architect of the Conservative victory, was left out of cabinet. Macdonald resigned as premier on October 29, 1900, to run for the Conservative Party of Canada against Clifford Sifton in the federal riding of Brandon.
Roblin became premier in his place, took the powerful cabinet position of Railway Commissioner. In December, he appointed himself as Minister of Agriculture as well; this consolidation of power reflected Roblin's personal authority over both the government and the provincial Conservative Party: his control over both would be unquestioned for the next fourteen years. While Greenway had won elections on single-issue populism, Roblin relied on "machine politics" for his electoral success. Despite some coercion, he was able to dispense patronage and could rely on the support of many loyal followers at the community level. Roblin's Conservatives won thirty-one seats in the 1903 election, against nine for Greenway's Liberals; the extent of this victory may be credited to Greenway's leadership of the Liberal Party—he was uninterested in provincial politics, was spending much of his time looking for a federal patronage appointment. Roblin's machine coasted to easy victories in 1907 and 1910, winning twenty-eight of forty-one seats on both occasions.
Roblin played a crucial role in the 1911 federal election on reciprocity, by putting his electoral machine at the disposal of the federal Conservative Party. In so doing, Roblin helped to put Robert Borden in power. Borden, in turn, enacted legislation to expand Manitoba's boundaries to their current limit. Like his counterpart James Whitney in Ontario, Roblin expanded the role of government in Manitoba and promoted many initiatives that would be regarded today as progressive; as railway commissioner, he reached an agreement with Canadian Northern Railways to build an alternate route to the lakehead, put control of the rates into the hands of the province. His government promoted significant expansions in health and road services, all of which were required to service Manitoba's increasing population. Roblin's Tories created Manitoba's first crown corporations, expropriating Bell's telephone services to create a state-owned system—the first effective public utilities system in Canada; the government started a state-owned system of grain elevators to assist farmers, but this was less successful.
A scandal involving these elevators weakened his government's hold on power in the early 1910s. Roblin was more conservative on social issues, he is remembered today for his opposition to women's suffrage, for clashing with Nellie McClung on the issue
Dauphin—Swan River—Marquette was a federal electoral district in Manitoba, represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1904 to 2015. Its population in 2011 was 74,800; the riding became known as Dauphin—Swan River—Neepawa for the 2015 federal election. According to the Canada 2011 CensusLanguages: 83% English, 2.03% French, 14.97% Other According to the Canada 2006 CensusRacial groups: 75.02% White, 24.21% Aboriginal Average income: $16,388 Religions: 47.30% Protestant, 32.18% Catholic, 14.45% Non religious, 3.27% Christian Orthodox, 1.99% Other Christian Riding associations are the local branches of the national political parties: The riding was located in between southern and central Manitoba, west of Lake Winnipegosis and Lake Manitoba. The electoral district was created as "Dauphin" riding in 1903 from Macdonald and Saskatchewan ridings. In 1983, it was renamed "Dauphin–Swan River". In 2004, it was renamed "Dauphin–Swan River–Marquette"; the riding elected the following Members of Parliament: The seat was last held by Robert Sopuck, a fisheries biologist.
When the riding became known as Dauphin-Swan River-Neepawa, Sopuck handily won the election. Dauphin—Swan-River—Marquette was a conservative riding for much of the last half-century of its existence, it was held by the Liberals from 1993–1997, with that party's sweeping victory in the 1993 general election. The only other time that it was not represented by a centre-right party after 1958 was from 1980 to 1984, when it was held by the NDP. 2010 by-election ^ Change is from the total of Progressive Conservative and Canadian Alliance votes in the 2000 election. Note: Canadian Alliance vote is compared to Reform Party vote in 1997 election. Note: NDP vote is compared to CCF vote in 1958 election. Swan River Dauphin, Manitoba Swan River, Manitoba Neepawa, Manitoba Minnedosa, Manitoba List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-03. Riding history for Dauphin–Swan River from the Library of Parliament Riding history for Dauphin–Swan River–Marquette from the Library of Parliament Expenditures -2008 Expenditures - 2004 Expenditures - 2000 Expenditures - 1997 Notice of vacancy - Dauphin-Swan River-Marquette, Elections Canada, September 16, 2010 2010 by-elections results from Elections Canada
Legislative Assembly of Manitoba
The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba and the Queen of Canada in Right of Manitoba, represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba form the legislature of the Canadian province of Manitoba. Fifty-seven members are elected to this assembly in provincial general elections, all in single-member constituencies with first-past-the-post voting; the Manitoba Legislative Building is located in central Winnipeg, at the meeting point of the Wolseley and Fort Rouge constituencies. The Premier of Manitoba is Brian Pallister and the current Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba is Myrna Driedger; the Legislature of Manitoba had another chamber, the Legislative Council of Manitoba, but this was abolished in 1876, just six years after the province was formed. Members in bold are in the Cabinet of Manitoba† Speaker of the Assembly The seating arrangement is viewable at the official website. Official site Legislative tour
1892 Manitoba general election
This was the eighth Manitoba general election and was held on July 23, 1892
The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada. At a land area of 1,144,000 km2 and a 2016 census population of 41,786, it is the second-largest and the most populous of the three territories in Northern Canada, its estimated population as of 2018 is 44,445. Yellowknife became the territorial capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission; the Northwest Territories, a portion of the old North-Western Territory, entered the Canadian Confederation on July 15, 1870, but the current borders were formed on April 1, 1999, when the territory was subdivided to create Nunavut to the east, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. While Nunavut is Arctic tundra, the Northwest Territories has a warmer climate and is both boreal forest, tundra, its most northern regions form part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago; the Northwest Territories is bordered by Canada's two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, by the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the south.
The name is descriptive, adopted by the British government during the colonial era to indicate where it lay in relation to Rupert's Land. It is shortened from North-Western Territory. In Inuktitut, the Northwest Territories are referred to as ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ, "beautiful land."There was some discussion of changing the name of the Northwest Territories after the splitting off of Nunavut to a term from an Aboriginal language. One proposal was "Denendeh", among others. One of the most popular proposals for a new name – one to name the territory "Bob" – began as a prank, but for a while it was at or near the top in the public-opinion polls. In the end, a poll conducted prior to division showed that strong support remained to keep the name "Northwest Territories"; this name arguably became more appropriate following division than it had been when the territories extended far into Canada's north-central and northeastern areas. Located in northern Canada, the territory borders Canada's two other territories, Yukon to the west and Nunavut to the east, three provinces: British Columbia to the southwest, Alberta and Saskatchewan to the south.
It meets Manitoba at a quadripoint to the extreme southeast, though surveys have not been completed. It has a land area of 1,183,085 km2. Geographical features include Great Bear Lake, the largest lake within Canada, Great Slave Lake, the deepest body of water in North America at 614 m, as well as the Mackenzie River and the canyons of the Nahanni National Park Reserve, a national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site. Territorial islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago include Banks Island, Borden Island, Prince Patrick Island, parts of Victoria Island and Melville Island, its highest point is Mount Nirvana near the border with Yukon at an elevation of 2,773 m. The Northwest Territories extends for more than 1,300,000 km2 and has a large climate variant from south to north; the southern part of the territory has a subarctic climate, while the islands and northern coast have a polar climate. Summers in the north are short and cool, with daytime highs of 14-17 Celsius, lows of 1-5 Celsius. Winters are long and harsh, daytime highs in the mid −20 °C and lows around −40 °C.
Extremes are common with summer highs in the south reaching 36 °C and lows reaching into the negatives. In winter in the south, it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −40 °C, but they can reach the low teens during the day. In the north, temperatures can reach highs of 30 °C, lows can reach into the low negatives. In winter in the north it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −50 °C but they can reach the single digits during the day. Thunderstorms are not rare in the south. In the north they are rare, but do occur. Tornadoes are rare but have happened with the most notable one happening just outside Yellowknife that destroyed a communications tower; the Territory has a dry climate due to the mountains in the west. About half of the territory is above the tree line. There are not many trees in the north islands; the present-day territory came under government authority in July 1870, after the Hudson's Bay Company transferred Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to the British Crown, which subsequently transferred them to Canada, giving it the name the North-west Territories.
This immense region comprised all of today's Canada except that, encompassed within the early signers of Canadian Confederation, that is, British Columbia, early forms of present-day Ontario and Quebec, the Maritimes, the Labrador coast, the Arctic Islands, except the southern half of Baffin Island. The first residential school opened in 1867 in Fort Resolution, followed by several others in regions across the territory, thus contributing to the Northwest Territories reaching the highest percentage of students in residential schools of any area in Canada. After the 1870 transfer, some of the North-west Territories was whittled away; the province of Manitoba was created on July 15, 1870, at first a small square area around Winnipeg