The Illinois Senate is the upper chamber of the Illinois General Assembly, the legislative branch of the government of the State of Illinois in the United States. The body was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818; the Illinois Senate is made up of 59 senators elected from individual legislative districts determined by population. S. census each senator represents 217,468 people. Under the Illinois Constitution of 1970, senators are divided into three groups, each group having a two-year term at a different part of the decade between censuses, with the rest of the decade being taken up by two four-year terms; this ensures that the Senate reflects changes made when the General Assembly redistricts itself after each census. Depending on the election year one-third, two-thirds, or all Senate seats may be contested. In contrast, the Illinois House of Representatives is made up of 118 members with its entire membership elected to two-year terms. House districts are formed by dividing each Senate district in half, with each senator having two "associated" representatives.
The Illinois Senate convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Illinois. Its first official working day is the second Wednesday of January each year, its primary duties are to pass bills into law, approve the state budget, confirm appointments to state departments and agencies, act on federal constitutional amendments and propose constitutional amendments for Illinois. It has the power to override gubernatorial vetoes through a three-fifths majority vote; the Illinois Senate tries impeachments made by the House of Representatives, can convict impeached officers by a two-thirds vote. Voting in the Illinois Senate is done by members pushing one of three buttons. Unlike most states, the Illinois Senate allows members to present, it takes 30 affirmative votes to pass legislation during final action. The number of negative votes does not matter. Therefore, voting present has the same effect on the tally as voting no. President of the Senate: John Cullerton Majority Leader: Kimberly A. Lightford Assistant Majority Leaders: David Koehler Terry Link Iris Martinez Don Harmon Antonio Munoz Majority Caucus Chair: Mattie Hunter Majority Caucus Whips: Jacqueline Collins Linda Holmes Martin Sandoval Minority Leader: Bill Brady Deputy Minority Leader: Dave Syverson Assistant Minority Leaders: Jason Barickman Michael Connelly Sue Rezin Chapin Rose Minority Caucus Chair: Dale Righter Minority Caucus Whips: Jim Oberweis Jill Tracy Secretary of the Senate: Tim Anderson Assistant Secretary of the Senate: Scott Kaiser Sergeant-at-Arms: Joe Dominguez Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms: Dirk R. Eilers In 1924, Florence Fifer Bohrer became the body's first female member and Adelbert H. Roberts became its first African American member.
In 1977, Earlean Collins became the first African American woman to serve in the Illinois Senate. Barack Obama the President of the United States, served in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. Ɨ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois Senate during session. ƗƗ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois Senate after being elected, but prior to inauguration day of the General Assembly to which they were elected. Illinois General Assembly – Senate official government website Illinois Senate Republicans official party website Illinois Senate Democrats official party website Legislature of Illinois at Project Vote Smart Illinois campaign financing at FollowTheMoney.org Illinois Senate at Ballotpedia
Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Southern Illinois University is a public research university in Carbondale, United States. Founded in 1869, SIU is the oldest campus of the Southern Illinois University system; the university enrolls students from all 50 states as well as more than 100 countries. SIU offers 3 associate's, 100 bachelor's, 73 master's, 36 Ph. D programs in addition to professional degrees in architecture and medicine. An Act of the Twenty-sixth General Assembly of Illinois, approved March 9, 1869, created Southern Illinois Normal College, the second state-supported normal school in Illinois. Carbondale held the ceremony of cornerstone laying, May 17, 1870; the first historic session of Southern Illinois Normal University was a summer institute, with a first faculty of eight members and an enrollment of 53 students. It was renamed Southern Illinois University in 1947; the university continued as a teacher's college until Delyte W. Morris took office as president of the university in 1948. Morris was SIU's longest-serving president.
During his presidency, Morris transformed SIU, adding Colleges of Law and Dentistry. Southern Illinois University grew in size from 3,500 to over 24,800 students between 1950 and 1991. In 1957, a second campus of SIU was established at Edwardsville; this school, now known as Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, is an independent university within the SIU system. SIU offered the first program to provide support to students with specific learning disabilities at a college level. "Project Achieve" was founded at SIU by Barbara Cordoni Kupiec in 1978. She pursued a career in the field to help her own children and has left behind a legacy that has assisted several thousand other students in earning their degrees. In 1983, Project Achieve became the Clinical Center Achieve program when SIUC decided to institutionalize the program, making it a permanent part of the university's structure. Randy Dunn was the eighth president of the Southern Illinois University System. Dr. Dunn served as president at two other state institutions and was the state superintendent of education, appointed to that role by the Illinois State Board of Education.
His career in education includes classroom teaching, serving as principal at two school districts, serving as superintendent for two Illinois school systems, holding the rank of professor at two universities including SIUC. Dr. Dunn has served on a number of committees and task forces, he contributes to a variety of scholarly publications. Dunn received his doctorate in educational administration from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1991, he graduated from Illinois State University with a master's in administration and foundations in 1983, the B. S. in education in 1980. Before coming to Southern Illinois, he served as president at two other state institutions — Murray State University in Kentucky and Youngstown State University in Ohio. Before that, Dunn was the state superintendent of education, appointed to that role by the Illinois State Board of Education, he is not a stranger to the SIU System, having held the rank of professor in the Department of Educational Administration and Higher Education at SIUC.
Dunn started at the Carbondale campus as an associate professor in 1995 and was named department chair in 2000, before leaving to assume the state superintendency. During his term as chair, he taught in the joint doctoral program in educational leadership at SIU Edwardsville. Dunn began his academic career as an assistant professor in the Department of Leadership at The University of Memphis for two years before taking his faculty post at Southern Illinois University. In July 2018, Randy Dunn stepped down as SIU system president, was replaced by J. Kevin Dorsey, as interim president. Dorsey was the former dean of the SIU school of medicine. Carlo Montemagno, a professor of engineering, became chancellor of SIU Carbondale on August 15, 2017, his appointment was approved by the university's Board of Trustees July 13, 2017, at the recommendation of SIU System President Randy Dunn. Dr. Montemagno was an internationally recognized expert in nanotechnology and biomedical engineering, focusing his work on linking multiple disciplines to solve problems in areas of health and the environment.
Prior to his appointment at SIU, he founded the interdisciplinary Ingenuity Lab based at the University of Alberta in Canada. In addition to leading the lab, which connects organizations and researchers from across the Province of Alberta, he served as director of the biomaterials program for the Canadian Research Council's National Institute for Nanotechnology as well as research chair in intelligent nanosystems for the Canadian National Research Council. Dr. Montemagno passed away on October 11, 2018. SIU offers more than 300 academic degree programs across all levels: bachelors and doctoral, it offers professional programs in architecture, business and medicine. Since 1989, SIU has offered an MD/JD dual degree program, leading to the concurrent award of both degrees after completion of six years of coursework; the Carnegie Foundation categorizes Southern as: "RU/H: Research Universities." In the academic year 2013-2014 the University was awarded over $278 million in research grants, the largest of which were to the School of Medicine and the College of Science.
SIU Carbondale ranked #96 overall as a "National University" in the 2019 edition of annual college rankings by US News. At SIU, 59% of the classes have 19 or fewer students; the ratio of students to faculty is 15 to 1 and the percentage of full-time faculty is 83 percent. Additionally, the National Scie
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
1998 Illinois gubernatorial election
The 1998 Illinois gubernatorial election resulted in Republican Secretary of State George Ryan defeating Democratic Congressman Glenn Poshard. Larry Burgess Jim Burns, former United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois Roland Burris, former Attorney General of Illinois, former Illinois State Comptroller, candidate for Governor in 1994 and independent candidate for Mayor of Chicago in 1995 Maurice Horton, perennial candidate Glenn Poshard, U. S. Representative John Schmidt, United States Associate Attorney General George Ryan, Secretary of State of Illinois Chad Koppie, perennial candidate and conservative activist Lawrence Redmond List of Governors of Illinois
Paul Simon (politician)
Paul Martin Simon was an American author and politician from Illinois. He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1975 to 1985, in the United States Senate from 1985 to 1997. A member of the Democratic Party, he unsuccessfully ran for the 1988 Democratic presidential nomination. After his political career, he founded the Public Policy Institute at Southern Illinois University Carbondale in Carbondale, named for him. There he taught classes on politics and journalism. Simon was famous for his distinctive appearance that included horn-rimmed glasses. Simon was born in Oregon, he was the son of Martin Simon, a Lutheran minister and missionary to China, Ruth, a Lutheran missionary as well. His family was of German descent. Simon attended a Lutheran school in Portland, he attended the University of Oregon and Dana College in Blair, but never graduated. After meeting with local Lions Club members, he borrowed $3,600 to take over the defunct Troy Call newspaper in 1948, becoming the nation's youngest editor-publisher, of the renamed Troy Tribune in Troy, Illinois building a chain of 14 weekly newspapers.
His activism against gambling and government corruption while at the Troy Tribune influenced the newly elected governor, Adlai Stevenson, to take a stand on these issues, creating national exposure for Simon that resulted in his testifying before the Kefauver Commission. In 1951, Simon enlisted in the United States Army, during the Korean War. During his military career, Simon served as intelligence officer, was honorably discharged in 1953, at the end of the war. Upon his discharge, Simon was elected to and began his political career in the Illinois House of Representatives; as a state representative, Simon was an advocate for civil rights, once hosted an event attended by former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. After a primary debate with two other candidates, a newspaper account of a debate stated "the man with the bowtie did well", he adopted his trademark bowtie and horned glasses. In 1963, Simon was elected to the Illinois State Senate, serving until 1969 when he became the Lieutenant Governor of Illinois.
As a Democrat, he served with Republican Governor, Richard B. Ogilvie, their bipartisan teamwork produced the state's first income tax and paved the way for the state's 1969 constitutional convention, which created the fourth and current Illinois Constitution. The Ogilvie-Simon administration was the only one in Illinois history in which the elected governor and lieutenant governor were from different political parties: The Illinois constitution now pairs the offices as running mates on a ticket. In 1972, Simon ran for the Democratic nomination for governor, while long seen as a political reformer, was supported by the Cook County Democratic machine, led by Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley, Simon lost to Dan Walker, who went on to win the general election. In the years between his gubernatorial defeat and political comeback, Simon taught at Sangamon State University and the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard Simon resumed his political career in 1974 when he was elected to Congress from Illinois's 24th congressional district, where he was re-elected four times.
He was redistricted to Illinois's 22nd congressional district In 1978, Simon was the first recipient of the Foreign Language Advocacy Award, presented by the Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages in recognition of his service on the President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies and his support for language study. According to the New York Times, Simon was never popular with his House colleagues. In 1984, he ran for, was elected to the US Senate, defeating three-term incumbent Charles H. Percy in an upset election, winning just 50% of the vote, he won re-election to the U. S. Senate in 1990 by defeating U. S. Representative Lynn Morley Martin with 65%, compared to Martin's 35%. While serving in the Senate, he co-authored an unsuccessful Balanced Budget Amendment with Republican Senator Orrin Hatch of Utah. Simon gained national prominence after criticizing President George H. W. Bush during the 1992 presidential campaign, after Bush claimed a central role in causing the collapse of the Eastern bloc of the Soviet Union.
During a speech at Chicago's Taste of Polonia, Bush had aggressively promoted the success of his own presidency and his importance as Vice President in the Reagan administration's role in Eastern Europe. This was an attempt by Bush to carry Chicago's Polish community in order to win Illinois during the election. Bush's claims were roundly denounced by Simon, Bush lost the state in the general election due to Simon's remarks. Simon did not seek reelection in 1996. Simon sought the Democratic nomination for President in 1988. Unknown outside of Illinois and in low single digits in national polls after his March 1987 announcement, Simon made a name for himself as the oldest, some thought old-fashioned, with horn rimmed glasses and bow tie, one who proudly associated himself with the New Deal liberalism associated with Presidents Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman. Simon surged ahead in Iowa in October, was, by December, the clear front-runner in that state. However, in February 1988, Simon narrowly lost the Iowa caucus to Representative Dick Gephardt of Missouri, finished third in the New Hampshire primary the following week, with weak showings in Minnesota and South Dakota a week later.
Out of money and momentum, Simon skipped the key Southern "Super Tuesday" primaries on March 8, concentrating
Cairo is the southernmost city in the U. S. state of Illinois, is the county seat of Alexander County. Cairo is located at the confluence of the Mississippi rivers. Fort Defiance, a Civil War camp, was built at the confluence in 1862 by Union General Ulysses S. Grant to control strategic access to the river. Cairo has the lowest elevation of any location in Illinois and is the only Illinois city to be surrounded by levees, it is in the area of Southern Illinois known as Little Egypt. Several blocks in the town comprise the Cairo Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Old Customs House is on the NRHP. The city is part of the Cape Girardeau -- MO -- IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Being bypassed by transportation changes and industrial restructuring cost many jobs: the population at the 2010 census was 2,831; the city's peak population was 15,203 in 1920. The entire city was evacuated during the 2011 Mississippi River Floods, after the Ohio River rose higher than the 1937 flood levels, with the possibility of 15 feet of water inundating Cairo.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers breached levees in the Mississippi flood zone below Cairo in Missouri to prevent flooding in Cairo and other more populous areas further upstream along both the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. The first municipal charter for Cairo and for the Bank of Cairo were issued in 1818, but without any settlement and without any depositors. A second and successful effort to establish a town was made by the Cairo City and Canal Company in 1836–37, with a large levee built to encircle the site. However, this effort collapsed with few settlers remaining. Charles Dickens visited Cairo in 1842, was unimpressed; the city would serve as his prototype for the nightmare City of Eden in his novel Martin Chuzzlewit. In 1846, 10,000 acres in Cairo were purchased by the trustees of the Cairo City Property Trust, a group of investors who planned to make it the terminus of the projected Illinois Central Railroad, which arrived there in 1855. Cairo had been growing as an important river port for steamboats, which traveled all the way south to New Orleans.
The city had been designated as a port of delivery by Act of Congress in 1854. A new city charter was written in 1857, Cairo flourished as trade with Chicago to the north spurred development. By 1860, the population exceeded 2,000. In January 1862, during the Civil War, General Ulysses S. Grant occupied the city, he and Admiral Andrew Hull Foote made it their headquarters, they had Fort Defiance constructed to protect the confluence. Cairo became an important Union supply training center for the remainder of the war, but Grant's military occupation caused much of the city's trade to be diverted by railroad to Chicago. Cairo failed to regain this important trade after the war, as more railroads converged on Chicago and it developed at a rapid pace, attracting stockyards, meat processing, heavy industries. Instead, agriculture and sawmills now dominated the Cairo economy; the strategic importance of Cairo's geographic location during the Civil War sparked prosperity in the town. Several banks were founded during the war years, the growth in banking and steamboat traffic continued after the war.
In 1869 construction began on the United States Custom House and Post Office, designed by Alfred B. Mullet, the Supervising Architect; the custom house was completed in 1872. It served as a custom house, post office, United States Court; the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of Illinois met at the building until 1905. From 1905 to 1942, the Custom House was used for the U. S. District Court for the Eastern District of Illinois; the building housed the U. S. Circuit Court for the Eastern District of Illinois from 1905 to 1912. At the height of Cairo's prosperity, the post office in the building was the third busiest in the United States, it is one of only seven of Mullet's Victorian structures remaining in the nation, the building has been converted for use as a museum. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. After the Civil War, the city became a hub for railroad shipping in the region, which added to its economy. By 1900 several railroad lines branched from Cairo. In addition to shipping and railroads, a major industry in Cairo was the operation of ferries.
Into the late 19th century, nearly 250,000 railroad cars could be ferried across the river in as little as six months. Vehicles were ferried, as there were no automobile bridges in the area in the early 20th century; the ferry industry created numerous jobs in Cairo to handle large amounts of cargo and numerous passengers through the city. Wealthy merchants and shippers built numerous fine mansions in the 19th and early 20th century, including the Italianate Magnolia Manor, completed in 1872, the Second Empire Riverlore Mansion, built by Capt. William P. Halliday in 1865. Across the street from the customs house, the Cairo Public Library was constructed in 1883 of Queen Anne-style architecture, finished with stained glass windows and ornate woodwork; the library was dedicated on July 19, 1884 as the A. B. Safford Memorial Library. Anna E. Safford donated it to the city; these and other significant buildings are listed on the National Register. For protection from seasonal flooding, Cairo is enclosed by a series of levees and flood walls, due to its low elevation between the rivers.
Several buildings, including the old custom house, were designed to be built to a higher street level, to be at the same height as the top of the levees. That plan was scrapped as the cost of fill to raise the streets and surrounding land to that height proved to be impractical. In 1914 a large flood gate was co
Capital punishment known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, they include offences such as murder, mass murder, treason, offenses against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, drug trafficking, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 106 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, eight have abolished it for ordinary crimes, 28 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region.
In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. The Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, has sought to abolish the use of the death penalty by its members through Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. However, this only affects those member states which have signed and ratified it, they do not include Armenia and Azerbaijan; the United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, the United States, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, among all Islamic countries, as is maintained in Japan, South Korea and Sri Lanka. China is believed to execute more people than all other countries combined.
Execution of criminals and dissidents has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth. Until the nineteenth century, without developed prison systems, there was no workable alternative to insure deterrence and incapacitation of criminals. In pre-modern times the executions themselves involved torture with cruel and painful methods, such as the breaking wheel, sawing, hanging and quartering, brazen bull, burning at the stake, slow slicing, boiling alive, schwedentrunk, blood eagle, scaphism; the use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning and execution. Compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice; the response to crimes committed by neighbouring tribes, clans or communities included a formal apology, blood feuds, tribal warfare.
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion, it may result from land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished." However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. In most countries that practise capital punishment, it is now reserved for murder, war crimes, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, incest and bestiality carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as Hudud and Qisas crimes, such as apostasy, moharebeh, Fasad, Mofsed-e-filarz and witchcraft. In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is a capital offence.
In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption and financial crimes are punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion and mutiny. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution; the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the social system was based on tribes and clans, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Norsemen things. Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts.
One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. In certain parts of the world, n