Luverne is a city in and the county seat of Crenshaw County, United States. The city describes itself ais "The Friendliest City in the South", a slogan that appears on its "welcome" signs. At the 2010 census the population was 2,800. Luverne was one of numerous towns developed in the state as a result of railroad construction, it was founded in 1889 in the central part of Crenshaw County, near the Patsaliga River, in association with the construction of the Montgomery and Florida Railroad. The new railroad station attracted the town grew, it incorporated in 1891. This was a center of timbering in the Piney Woods of southern Alabama, as the land was not fertile enough to be suitable for large-scale cotton plantation agriculture. In 1893, the citizens of Crenshaw County voted to move the county seat from Rutledge to the more populous Luverne. By the late 1930s, lynchings of African Americans were conducted in small groups or in secret, rather than in the former mass public displays. On June 22, 1940, an African-American man named Jesse Thornton was lynched in Luverne for failing to address a white man with the title of "Mister".
He was fatally shot and his body was found in the Patsaliga River. The Equal Justice Initiative documented that the white man Thornton had offended by his Jim Crow infraction was a police officer; this was the only lynching recorded in the county. Luverne is located at 31°42′52″N 86°15′48″W; the town of Rutledge lies along Luverne's western border. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.7 square miles, of which 15.6 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.17%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,635 people, 1,107 households, 710 families residing in the city; the population density was 212.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,249 housing units at an average density of 100.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 70.25% White, 28.43% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.11% from other races, 0.95% from two or more races. 0.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 1,107 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.7% were married couples living together, 19.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.8% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.85. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 23.4% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 23.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 77.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 71.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,457, the median income for a family was $30,950. Males had a median income of $30,680 versus $17,813 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,244. About 19.2% of families and 22.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.3% of those under age 18 and 18.9% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2010, there were 2,800 people, 1,135 households, 729 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 62.6% White, 29.6% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 5.5% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. 1.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,135 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.7% were married couples living together, 19.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.8% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 22.4% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 19.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.6 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,602, the median income for a family was $51,500. Males had a median income of $43,464 versus $19,483 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,869. About 12.6% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.8% of those under age 18 and 20.6% of those age 65 or over. Primary and secondary educationPublic education for the city of Luverne is provided by the Crenshaw County School District. There are two schools in the city: Luverne High School and Crenshaw Christian Academy, a private, religiously oriented K-12 school. Post-secondary educationLurleen B. Wallace Community College offers certificate and two-year associate degrees at its Luverne location. Radio station WHLW 104.3 FM WSMX-FM 100.3 FM Newspaper Luverne Journal Television Hunt Channel TV Chester Adams, former American football guard Dorothy Bendross-Mindingall, former member of the Florida House of Representatives Wendell Mitchell, Served as a Democratic member of the Alabama Senate, representing the 30th District from 1974 to 2010 Ryan Waters, Singer/Songwriter Dante Hall, College basketball player for the University of Alabama City of Luverne official website Luverne Journal
Dozier is a town in Crenshaw County, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 329. Dozier was incorporated in 1907. Dozier is located in southern Crenshaw County at 31°29′43″N 86°22′0″W, its southern border is the Conecuh River, the Covington County line. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.0 square miles, of which 0.012 square miles, or 0.40%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 391 people, 167 households, 106 families residing in the town; the population density was 132.2 people per square mile. There were 196 housing units at an average density of 66.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 57.03% White, 39.64% Black or African American, 2.05% from other races, 1.28% from two or more races. 1.28% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 167 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.3% were married couples living together, 31.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.5% were non-families.
33.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.92. In the town, the population was spread out with 31.2% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 76.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 63.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $13,750, the median income for a family was $16,667. Males had a median income of $23,438 versus $18,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $8,964. About 42.6% of families and 49.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 76.1% of those under age 18 and 39.7% of those age 65 or over. Mal Moore, former American football player and athletic director for the University of Alabama Media related to Dozier, Alabama at Wikimedia Commons
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Brantley is a town in Crenshaw County, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 809. Brantley was incorporated in 1891. Brantley is located in southern Crenshaw County at 31°35'4" North, 86°15'24" West. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.16 square miles, of which 3.11 square miles is land and 0.050 square miles, or 1.60%, is water. The town is located on high ground north of the Conecuh River; as of the census of 2000, there were 920 people, 406 households, 261 families residing in the town. The population density was 291.1 people per square mile. There were 467 housing units at an average density of 147.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 59.35% White, 40.22% Black or African American and 0.43% Native American. 0.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 406 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 23.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.5% were non-families.
34.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.90. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 20.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 73.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 63.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $21,574, the median income for a family was $30,078. Males had a median income of $26,063 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,108. About 18.8% of families and 24.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.5% of those under age 18 and 25.6% of those age 65 or over. Brantley Public Schools are part of the Crenshaw County School District. Schools in the district include Highland Home School and Brantley High School.
Dr. Boyd English is the superintendent. In August 2017, a new Confederate monument was installed in the Confederate Veterans Memorial Park in Brantley; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Brantley has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Town of Brantley official website
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai