George N. Parks
George N Parks was the director of the University of Massachusetts Minuteman Marching Band at University of Massachusetts Amherst from 1977 until 2010. He led the George N. Parks Drum Major Academy, a summer workshop program for high school drum majors that he founded in 1978. Parks was born on 23 May 1953 in Buffalo, New York and grew up in Newark, Delaware graduating from Christiana High School in 1971, along with being a Drum Major, he earned a bachelor's degree from West Chester University, where he was the drum major in the West Chester University Golden Rams Marching Band. At West Chester, Parks was initiated into the Rho Sigma chapter of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia. After college he earned a master's degree in tuba performance at Northwestern University. Parks made his first appearance on the national scene as Drum Major of the award-winning Reading Buccaneers Drum and Bugle Corps, he helped lead the Buccaneers to two DCA Championships, in 1979 and 1980, received numerous individual honors, including eight DCA Championship Drum Major Awards.
In 1976, while working as a graduate assistant under John P. Paynter at Northwestern University, he was instrumental in bringing the first color guard/flag corp to the Big Ten. In 1993, Parks was inducted into the World Drum Corps Hall of Fame, for recognition of his work in the field of drum corps and mace technique. Parks became the director of the University of Massachusetts Minuteman Marching Band in 1977 at the age of 24, built upon a strong program, headed by John Jenkins. Parks was a professor in the Department of Music and was the recipient of the university's Distinguished Teacher Award in 1989 and the Chancellor's Medal for Distinguished Service in 1997; the University's Alumni Association named him an honorary alumnus in 1997. At the time of his death, he was director of the band alongside Assistant Director Thom Hannum. Parks founded the George N. Parks Drum Major Academy, a summer program to train high school drum majors; each summer, over 3,000 students attend Drum Major Academy.
In addition to his work at UMass Amherst and with his Drum Major Academy, Parks worked with Bowl Games of America, where he assisted in the production of massed band halftime shows. He conducted BGA halftime shows at the Sugar Bowl, Orange Bowl, Gator Bowl, the BCS National Championship Game. In 2005 and 2009, he was the director of the Bands of America Honor Band in the Tournament of Roses Parade. Parks married Jeanne, in 1979 in Point Pleasant, New Jersey, they have two children and Kathryn. Parks died from a heart attack on the evening of September 16, 2010. After a performance with the marching band at a Cuyahoga Falls High School football game, he collapsed while getting into a van. Paramedics were called again, they transported him to Summa Western Reserve Hospital, where he was pronounced dead at 11:02 p.m. Earlier in the day, Parks had been complaining about neck pain, paramedics were called. According to Gary Guenther, chief investigator for the Summit County Medical Examiner, "When they got there, they checked him out," he said.
"Mr. Parks said he was feeling better and refused to go to the hospital." At the time of his death, he was en route to Ann Arbor, Michigan with the band for a football game on September 18 between UMass and the University of Michigan. He was honored on Homecoming Day on October 16, 2010 by staff; this included a performance by the alumni band, which included 1,300 participants, the largest the university had seen. Parks was inducted into the Massachusetts Instrumental and Choral Conductors Association Hall of Fame, the World Drum Corps Hall of Fame, The Bands of America Hall of Fame, the Buccaneers Hall of Fame. Additionally, he received the Kappa Kappa Psi National Honorary Band Fraternity Distinguished Service to Music Medal, in the field of marching band, in October 2008. Parks was initiated into the Epsilon Nu chapter of Kappa Kappa Psi National Honorary Band Fraternity as an Honorary Member and the Delta Delta chapter of Tau Beta Sigma National Honorary Band Sorority as an Honorary Member.
The George N. Parks Minuteman Marching Band Building at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, which opened on Homecoming Weekend in November 2011, was named in Parks' honor; the name was chosen a year before his death and announced in Parks' presence at the groundbreaking in October 2009. Following his death, Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick named October 16, 2010 "George N. Parks Day", delivered by proclamation through state Sen. Stanley Rosenberg, instructed University of Massachusetts President Jack M. Wilson that the state flags be lowered to half-staff in Parks' honor; the Dynamic Drum Major Biography on the Drum Major Academy website George N. Parks at Find a Grave
The position of at attention, or standing at attention, is a military posture which involves the following general postures: Standing upright with an assertive and correct posture: famously "chin up, chest out, shoulders back, stomach in". Arms fixed at the side, thumb or middle finger parallel to trouser or skirt seam, depending on military drill specifics. "Eyes front": head and eyes locked in a fixed forward posture. Ideally eyes unmoving fixated on a distant object. Blank facial expression. Keeping the heels together, with the toes apart No speech, facial or bodily movements except when as required by military drill; the above stance position is common in most military organizations throughout the world. It may be adopted by paramilitary organizations, law enforcement, other organizations requiring a loosely military structure such as Scouts, cadet programs, or police units, or the Salvation Army, it is used in common in civilian marching bands and drum corps and drum and bugle corps. To stand at attention is a means of saluting when a junior rank meets an officer or superior but he is not wearing a cover.
Finnish Army, the distance between the toes should equal the width of two fists. Polish Army and Turkish Army, the distance between the halluxes of the feet should equal the soldier's foot's length. Swiss Armed Forces, the feet are kept at a 60-degree angle with the heels together. Swedish Army and Air Force, the hands are kept clenched, as a sign of readiness to fight. In the United Kingdom, United States, New Zealand Defence Force and Australian Defence Force, feet are at a 45-degree angle with heels together. Scouts refer to this position as'at alert' In the Canadian forces, feet are at a 30-degree angle with heels together. Military parade Drill commands
In musical terminology, tempo is the speed or pace of a given piece. In classical music, tempo is indicated with an instruction at the start of a piece and is measured in beats per minute. In modern classical compositions, a "metronome mark" in beats per minute may supplement or replace the normal tempo marking, while in modern genres like electronic dance music, tempo will simply be stated in bpm. Tempo may be separated from articulation and meter, or these aspects may be indicated along with tempo, all contributing to the overall texture. While the ability to hold a steady tempo is a vital skill for a musical performer, tempo is changeable. Depending on the genre of a piece of music and the performers' interpretation, a piece may be played with slight tempo rubato or drastic accelerando. In ensembles, the tempo is indicated by a conductor or by one of the instrumentalists, for instance the drummer. While tempo is described or indicated in many different ways, including with a range of words, it is measured in beats per minute.
For example, a tempo of 60 beats per minute signifies one beat per second, while a tempo of 120 beats per minute is twice as rapid, signifying one beat every 0.5 seconds. The note value of a beat will be that indicated by the denominator of the time signature. For instance, in 44 the beat will be a crotchet; this measurement and indication of tempo became popular during the first half of the 19th century, after Johann Nepomuk Maelzel invented the metronome. Beethoven was one of the first composers to use the metronome. Instead of beats per minute, some 20th-century classical composers specify the total playing time for a piece, from which the performer can derive tempo. With the advent of modern electronics, bpm became an precise measure. Music sequencers use the bpm system to denote tempo. In popular music genres such as electronic dance music, accurate knowledge of a tune's bpm is important to DJs for the purposes of beatmatching; the speed of a piece of music can be gauged according to measures per minute or bars per minute, the number of measures of the piece performed in one minute.
This measure is used in ballroom dance music. In different musical contexts, different instrumental musicians, conductors, music directors or other individuals will select the tempo of a song or piece. In a popular music or traditional music group or band, the bandleader or lead singer may select the tempo. In popular and traditional music, whoever is setting the tempo counts out one or two bars in tempo. In some songs or pieces in which a singer or solo instrumentalist begins the work with a solo introduction, the tempo they set will provide the tempo for the group. In an orchestra or concert band, the conductor sets the tempo. In a marching band, the drum major may set the tempo. In a sound recording, in some cases a record producer may set the tempo for a song. In classical music it is customary to describe the tempo of a piece by one or more words, most in Italian, in addition to or instead of a metronome mark in beats per minute. Italian is used because it was the language of most composers during the time these descriptions became commonplace.
Some well-known Italian tempo indications include "Allegro", "Andante" and "Presto". This practice developed during the baroque and classical periods. In the earlier Renaissance music, performers understood most music to flow at a tempo defined by the tactus; the mensural time signature indicated. In the Baroque period, pieces would be given an indication, which might be a tempo marking, or the name of a dance, the latter being an indication both of tempo and of metre. Any musician of the time was expected to know how to interpret these markings based on custom and experience. In some cases, these markings were omitted. For example, the first movement of Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 has no tempo or mood indication whatsoever. Despite the increasing number of explicit tempo markings, musicians still observe conventions, expecting a minuet to be at a stately tempo, slower than a Viennese waltz. Genres imply tempos. Thus, Ludwig van Beethoven wrote "In tempo d'un Menuetto" over the first movement of his Piano Sonata Op. 54, though that movement is not a minuet.
Many tempo markings indicate mood and expression. For example and allegro both indicate a speedy execution, but allegro connotes joy. Presto, on the other hand indicates speed. Additional Italian words indicate tempo and mood. For example, the "agitato" in the Allegro agitato of the last movement of George Gershwin's piano concerto in F has both a tempo indication and a mood indication. Composers name movements of compositions after their tempo marking. For instance, the second movement of Samuel Barber's first String Quartet is an Adagio. A particular musical form or genre implies its own tempo, so composers need place no further explanation in the score. Popular music charts use terms such as bossa nova, ballad
Drill commands are used with a group, marching, most in military foot drill or marching band. Fall In. Have designated troops ground. Fall Out. Have designated troops to face the commander to be dismissed. Dismissed. Telling designated units to leave the parade square/ground. Attention Have the soldiers adopt the At Attention position Right Dress, - all personnel except the right marker bring up their right arms parallel to the ground. At the same time, all members of the formation snap their heads. After this, they pause, shuffle back to a new position, where their hand is close to the soldier's shoulder on their right, unless otherwise specified; the American version of this is called Dress Right, DRESS. Eyes Front, Right Dress, the front rank snaps their arms down and faces forward, while all other ranks face forward. Stand at Ease has the soldiers in a more relaxed position. Shoulder/Slope/Carry Arms: The rifle is brought on the left or right sides by the shoulder. Present Arms: The soldiers bring their weapons to the front of their bodies, move adjust their right foot position.
Soldiers without weapons use a salute appropriate for their headdress. In the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations, the command is preceded with a General Salute or Royal/Presidential/National Salute, when appropriate. Order Arms: Soldiers carrying a weapon will lower it to the ground. Drill team Exhibition drill Drill Military parade Drill Commands Handbook The Canadian Forces Manual of Drill and Ceremonial (archived copy, retrieved date=2012-02-16 – The Household Division of the British Army practicing drill for the trooping of the colour
Drum and bugle corps (modern)
A modern drum and bugle corps is a musical marching ensemble consisting of brass instruments, percussion instruments, color guard, choreographic movements. Operating as independent non-profit organizations, drum corps perform in competitions, parades and other civic functions. Participants of all ages are represented within the band activity, but the majority are between the ages of 13 and 22 and are members of corps within Drum Corps International or Drum Corps Associates. Competitive summer marching bands participate in summer touring circuits, such as Drum Corps International and Drum Corps Associates. Corps prepare a new show each year 8–12 minutes in length, refine it throughout the summer tour. Shows are performed on football fields and are judged in various musical and visual categories, or "captions". Musical repertoires vary among corps and include symphonic, big band, rock, wind band, rap and Latin music, among other genres. Competitive junior corps spend between 10 and 15 weeks on tour over the summer and performing full-time.
Drum and bugle corps stems from a rich American and Canadian military history, separate from other marching musical activities. Beginning after World War I through the 1970s, corps and competitions were sponsored by the VFW, Scout troops, the Royal Canadian Legion, the American Legion. Owing to many of these groups' roots, corps were traditionally militaristic. By the late 1960s, many corps wanted more creative freedom and better financial compensation than was offered by their sponsoring organizations; some felt the prize-money structures, based on competitive placement, were not compensating all corps for their appearances. Additionally, some felt the current judging rules were stifling musical and theatrical possibilities. At the peak of North American drum corps participation, several corps decided to "unionize", as stated by Don Warren, they formed their own organizations, which led to the formation of DCA in 1965 and DCI in 1972. By this time, many corps had lost their church or community sponsors.
For the corps that remained, longer travel times were necessary to attend the shrinking numbers of contests, further adding to the financial and time demands on the organizations and their individual members. At the same time costs for the complex field shows mounted and creative and instructional demands rose leading many competitive corps to falter and become inactive. By the late 1990s only a fraction of the corps that existed in the 60s and 70s remained, although several new corps, some of which have become successful, did start up along the way. Non-competitive classic-style corps saw a renaissance beginning in the mid-1980s and they continue to organize in the 21st Century. Freed from the traditional and more-restrictive judging rules of the late 1960s, corps began making innovative changes such as the use of Bb brass instruments, wide-ranging tempos, intricate asymmetric drill formations, elaborate guard costumes and props, the use of stationary orchestral percussion instruments. A common criticism of drum corps is that it has become too similar to marching band, but although the two activities are similar they are still distinct.
A few corps still utilize the traditional G Bugle, rarely found in DCI marching units. The competitive season for drum corps is in the summer rather than fall, with auditions and initial ensemble rehearsals beginning as early as late October of the previous year; the top-tier competitive corps are very complex and more professional than the average marching band, as members in full-time touring units have no distractions outside their organization during the season and membership is achieved only through competitive auditions. A typical show revolves around one genre of music, or sometimes melds separate genres together. Modern corps programs have become conceptual and programmatic, with overarching show themes rather than loosely related musical selections. Within classical selections, a single composer's material is featured. Corps have performed every genre of music that can be fit for on-field adaptation, including jazz, new age and rock music, it is becoming common to hear corps performing original music, composed for the corps by their musical staff or consultants.
The exclusive use of bell-front brass instrumentation is a defining musical element of drum corps. Throughout the years, the horns used in drum corps have evolved from true, single-valved bugles to modern Bb brass instruments; until 1999, drum and bugle corps hornlines within DCI were required to be pitched in the key of G. That year, the DCI rules congress passed a rule change to allow "brass bell-front valve instruments in any key with the exception of sousaphones and trombones." In World Class, the rule did not go into effect until the 2000 season, while Open Class opted for a two-year moratorium prior to implementation in 2002. Hornlines are now most pitched in B♭, with mellophones pitched in F. In 2014, the DCI Board of Directors passed a rule change that changed their definition of a bugle to allow the entire brass family, including trombones and concert French horns. Tuba and baritone/euphonium are pitched in Bb and a
The ball of the foot is the padded portion of the sole between the toes and the arch, underneath the heads of the metatarsal bones. In comparative foot morphology, the ball is most analogous to the metacarpal or metatarsal pad in many mammals with paws, serves the same functions; the ball is a common area in which people develop pain, known as metatarsalgia. People who wear high heels develop pain in the balls of their feet from the immense amount of pressure, placed on them for long periods of time, due to the inclination of the shoes. To remedy this, there is a market for ball-of-foot or general foot cushions that are placed into shoes to relieve some of the pressure. Alternately, people can have a procedure done in which a dermal filler is injected into the balls of the feet to add cushioning. Metatarsus Metatarsalgia Paw pad Tactile pad Fat pad
A marching band is a group in which instrumental musicians perform while marching for entertainment or competition. Instrumentation includes brass and percussion instruments. Most marching bands wear a uniform of a military style, that includes an associated organization's colors, name or symbol. Most high school marching bands, some college marching bands, are accompanied by a color guard, a group of performers who add a visual interpretation to the music through the use of props, most flags and sabres. Marching bands are categorized by function, age, marching style, type of show they perform. In addition to traditional parade performances, many marching bands perform field shows at sporting events and at marching band competitions. Marching bands perform indoor concerts that implement many songs and flair from outside performances. Percussion and wind instruments were used on the battlefield since ancient times. An Iron Age example would be the carnyx; the development of the military band from such predecessors was a gradual development of the medieval and early modern period.
A prototype of the Ottoman military band may be mentioned in the 11th-century Divânu Lügati't-Türk. The European tradition of military bands formed in the Baroque period influenced by the Ottoman tradition. 17th-century traveler Evliya Çelebi noted the existence of 40 guilds of musicians in Istanbul. In the 18th century, each regiment in the British Army maintained its own military band; until 1749 bandsmen were civilians hired at the expense of the colonel commanding a regiment. Subsequently, they became regular enlisted men who accompanied the unit on active service to provide morale enhancing music on the battlefield or, from the late nineteenth century on, to act as stretcher bearers. Instruments during the 18th century included fifes, the oboe, French horn and bassoon. Drummers summoned men from their ranches to muster for duty. In the chaotic environment of the battlefield, musical instruments were the only means of commanding the men to advance, stand or retire. In the mid 19th century each smaller unit had their own fifer and drummer, who sounded the daily routine.
When units massed for battle a band of musicians was formed for the whole. In the United States, modern marching bands are most associated with performing during American football games; the oldest American college marching band, the University of Notre Dame Band of the Fighting Irish, was founded in 1845 and first performed at a football game in 1887. Many American universities had marching bands prior to the twentieth century, which were associated with military ROTC programs. In 1907, breaking from traditional rank and file marching, the first pictorial formation on a football field was the "Block P" created by Paul Spotts Emrick, director of the Purdue All-American Marching Band. Spotts had seen a flock of birds fly in a "V" formation and decided that a band could replicate the action in the form of show formations on a field; the first halftime show at an American football game was performed by the University of Illinois Marching Illini in 1907, at a game against the University of Chicago.
Appearing at the same time as the field show and pictorial marching formations at universities was the fight song, which today are closely associated with a university's band. The first university fight song, For Boston, was created at Boston College. Many more recognizable and popular university fight songs are borrowed and played by high schools across the United States. Four such fight songs used by high schools are the University of Michigan's The Victors, the University of Illinois' Illinois Loyalty, the University of Notre Dame's Victory March, the United States Naval Academy's Anchors Aweigh. During the 20th century, many marching bands added further pageantry elements, including baton twirlers, dance lines, color guard. After World War I, the presence and quality of marching bands in the American public school system expanded as military veterans with service band experience began to accept music teaching positions within schools across the country bringing wind music and marching band into both educational curriculum and school culture.
With high school programs on the rise, marching bands started to become competitive organizations, with the first national contest being held in 1923 in Chicago, Illinois. State and national contests became common featuring parades and mass-band concerts featuring all participating groups. By 1938, competitive band programs had become numerous and widespread, making a national contest too large to manage and leading to multiple state and regional contests in its place. Today, state contests continue to be the primary form of marching band competition in the United States. Since the inception of Drum Corps International in the 1970s, many marching bands that perform field shows have adopted changes to the activity that parallel developments with modern drum and bugle corps; these bands are said to be corps-style bands. Areas where changes have been adopted from drum corps include: Marching: instead of a traditional high step, drum corps tend to march with a fluid glide step known as a roll step, to keep musicians' torsos still.
Auxiliaries: adaptation of the flag, rifle and sabre units into auxiliaries, who march with the band and provide visual flair by spinning and tossing flags or mock weapons and using dance in the performance. Percussion: moving marching timpani and keyboard percussion into a stationary sideline percussion section, or "pit", which has since incorporated many different types of percussion instruments such