Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand
Electronic musical instrument
An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronic circuitry. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical, electronic or digital audio signal, plugged into a power amplifier which drives a loudspeaker, creating the sound heard by the performer and listener. An electronic instrument might include a user interface for controlling its sound by adjusting the pitch, frequency, or duration of each note. A common user interface is the musical keyboard, which functions to the keyboard on an acoustic piano, except that with an electronic keyboard, the keyboard itself does not make any sound. An electronic keyboard sends a signal to a synth module, computer or other electronic or digital sound generator, which creates a sound. However, it is common to separate user interface and sound-generating functions into a music controller and a music synthesizer with the two devices communicating through a musical performance description language such as MIDI or Open Sound Control.
All electronic musical instruments can be viewed as a subset of audio signal processing applications. Simple electronic musical instruments are sometimes called sound effects. In the 2010s, electronic musical instruments are now used in most styles of music. In popular music styles such as electronic dance music all of the instrument sounds used in recordings are electronic instruments. Development of new electronic musical instruments and synthesizers continues to be a active and interdisciplinary field of research. Specialized conferences, notably the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, have organized to report cutting-edge work, as well as to provide a showcase for artists who perform or create music with new electronic music instruments and synthesizers. In the 18th-century and composers adapted a number of acoustic instruments to exploit the novelty of electricity. Thus, in the broadest sense, the first electrified musical instrument was the Denis d'or keyboard, dating from 1753, followed shortly by the clavecin électrique by the Frenchman Jean-Baptiste de Laborde in 1761.
The Denis d'or consisted of a keyboard instrument of over 700 strings, electrified temporarily to enhance sonic qualities. The clavecin électrique was a keyboard instrument with plectra activated electrically. However, neither instrument used electricity as a sound-source; the first electric synthesizer was invented in 1876 by Elisha Gray. The "Musical Telegraph" was a chance by-product of his telephone technology when Gray accidentally discovered that he could control sound from a self-vibrating electromagnetic circuit and so invented a basic oscillator; the Musical Telegraph used steel reeds oscillated by electromagnets and transmitted over a telephone line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, which consisted of a diaphragm vibrating in a magnetic field. A significant invention, which had a profound effect on electronic music, was the audion in 1906; this was the first thermionic valve, or vacuum tube and which led to the generation and amplification of electrical signals, radio broadcasting, electronic computation, among other things.
Other early synthesizers included the Telharmonium, the Theremin, Jörg Mager's Spharophon and Partiturophone, Taubmann's similar Electronde, Maurice Martenot's ondes Martenot, Trautwein's Trautonium. The Mellertion used a non-standard scale, Bertrand's Dynaphone could produce octaves and perfect fifths, while the Emicon was an American, keyboard-controlled instrument constructed in 1930 and the German Hellertion combined four instruments to produce chords. Three Russian instruments appeared, Oubouhof's Croix Sonore, Ivor Darreg's microtonal'Electronic Keyboard Oboe' and the ANS synthesizer, constructed by the Russian scientist Evgeny Murzin from 1937 to 1958. Only two models of this latter were built and the only surviving example is stored at the Lomonosov University in Moscow, it has been used in many Russian movies -- like Solaris -- to produce "cosmic" sounds. Hugh Le Caine, John Hanert, Raymond Scott, composer Percy Grainger, others built a variety of automated electronic-music controllers during the late 1940s and 1950s.
In 1959 Daphne Oram produced a novel method of synthesis, her "Oramics" technique, driven by drawings on a 35 mm film strip. This workshop was responsible for the theme to the TV series Doctor Who, a piece created by Delia Derbyshire, that more than any other ensured the popularity of electronic music in the UK. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill patented. Using tonewheels to generate musical sounds as electrical signals by additive synthesis, it was capable of producing any combination of notes and overtones, at any dynamic level; this technology was used to design the Hammond organ. Between 1901 and 1910 Cahill had three progressively larger and more complex versions made, the first weighing seven tons, the last in excess of 200 tons. Portability was managed only with the use of thirty boxcars. By 1912, public interest had waned, Cahill's enterprise was bankrupt. Another development, which aroused the interest of many composers, occurred in 1919-1920. In Leningrad, Leon Theremin built and demonstrated his Etherophone, renamed the Theremin.
This led to the first composi
Michael Thomas Pinder is an English rock musician, is a founding member and original keyboard player of the British rock group the Moody Blues. He left the group following the recording of the band's ninth album Octave in 1978, he is noted for his technological contribution to music. In 2018, Pinder was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Moody Blues. Pinder was born to Bert and Gladys Pinder in Kingstanding, as a young adult played in El Riot and the Rebels, a rock band that achieved some regional success. Bandmates in El Riot included future Moody Blues members John Lodge. After a spell in the British Army and Thomas played together in a band called the Krew Cats. Pinder and Thomas, with no money, had to walk across northern Europe to get back home to England. Around this time, Pinder was employed by Streetly Electronics, a firm that manufactured the Mellotron. Pinder and members of other successful Birmingham bands formed The Moody Blues in 1964, their initial single, "Steal Your Heart Away" on Decca, failed to chart.
Their second release, "Go Now" however became UK No.1 in January 1965. The band went on to have a further UK hit with "I Don't Want To Go On Without You" and release their first album The Magnificent Moodies in mono only, on which Pinder took the lead vocal on a cover of James Brown's "I Don't Mind". "Bye Bye Bird" from this album was a big hit for the band in France. The album was released in the USA, retitled as Go Now on London Records. Pinder and guitarist/lead vocalist Laine began songwriting for the band, providing most B-sides over the 1965–66 period, including "You Don't", "And My Baby's Gone", "This Is My House" and "He Can Win", they progressed to writing A-sides, including the UK chart hits "Everyday", "From The Bottom of My Heart", "Boulevard De La Madeline", "Life's Not Life", before bassist/vocalist Warwick and frontman Laine left the group. A rare non-UK Pinder–Laine song from this era was "People Gotta Go", released on the France-only EP Boulevard De La Madeline and included as a bonus track on a CD release of The Magnificent Moodies in 2006.
The song is known as "Send the People Away". Pinder was instrumental in the selection of young Swindon guitarist/vocalist/songwriter Justin Hayward as Laine's replacement, it was Pinder who phoned Hayward and collected him at the railway station. Old friend John Lodge from the El Riot days came in to replace the temporary Rod Clarke as permanent bassist/vocalist, thus completing the'classic' Moodies line-up. After an initial abortive attempt to continue with R&B material, the band decided to drop all covers and record only original songs. Pinder and Hayward led the way: Hayward's "Fly Me High" was the first release from the revised line-up, released on Decca in early 1967 with Pinder's older-style rocker "Really Haven't Got The Time" as the B-side. A recorded but unreleased Pinder song from this time was the jazz-blues ballad "Please Think About It", which would be included on the Caught Live + 5 double album issued by Decca in 1977. Pinder obtained a secondhand Mellotron from Streetly and, after removing all the special effects tapes and doubling up the string section tapes, used it on numerous Moody Blues recordings.
This began with their single "Love and Beauty", a flower power song written and sung by Pinder, his only Moodies A-side after 1966. Pinder introduced the Mellotron to his friend John Lennon; the Beatles subsequently used the instrument on "Strawberry Fields Forever". Pinder's "Dawn" – with lead vocals by Hayward, Pinder singing the bridge section – began the Days of Future Passed album, on which Pinder contributed "The Sun Set" and narrated drummer Edge's opening and closing poems, "Morning Glory" and "Late Lament". Pinder, along with Moodies recording engineer Derek Varnals and longtime producer Tony Clarke managed to devise an innovative way of playing and recording the unwieldy Mellotron to make the sound flow in symphonic waves, as opposed to the sharp cutoff the instrument gave; this symphonic sound would characterise most of what were seen as the Moodies' seven major albums between 1967 and 1972. Pinder was one of the first musicians to use the Mellotron in live performance, relying on the mechanical skills he had gained from his time with Streetly to keep the unreliable instrument in working order.
Typical of his travails was the Moodies' first US concert. When the band struck their first harmony, the back of the Mellotron fell open and all of the tape strips cascaded out. Pinder grabbed his tool box and got the instrument back into working order in 20 minutes' time, while the light crew entertained the audience by projecting cartoons. In addition to the mellotron and piano, Pinder played harpsichord, Moog synthesizer, various forms of keyboards and percussion, tambura, cello and both acoustic and electric guitars on Moody Blues recordings from 1967 onwards, as well as providing key vocal harmonies and lead vocals from 1964 to 1978. Pinder acted as the group's main musical arranger up to 1978; the 1969 concert on the Caught Live + 5 album and the Live at the Isle of Wight Festival 1970 DVD show Pinder and Thomas acting as the group's onstage spokesmen. Pinder wrote and sang several of the Moodies' more progress
Clavia Digital Musical Instruments is a Swedish manufacturer of virtual analog synthesizers, virtual electromechanical pianos and stage pianos, founded in Stockholm, Sweden in 1983 by Hans Nordelius and Mikael Carlsson. In 1983, Hans Nordelius and Mikael Carlsson began to work in the basement of a home located in the southern suburbs of Stockholm, creating the world's first dedicated digital drum for the commercial market, called the'Digital Percussion Plate 1'. In 1984 an improved version that could play four sounds from an EPROM was released under the'ddrum' name with the now signature red coloring; the same year a drum system was released with several sound modules in a rack, each with its own EPROM. The pads used to trigger the sounds were unusual for the time, since they used real drum heads, whereas other electronic drum kits of the time used rubber pads. This, together with a separate trigger for the snare drum's rim, made for a more realistic playing experience; the ddrum brand and products were sold in 2005 to their US distributor Armadillo who continues to manufacture drum products under the name.
In 1995, Clavia released the Nord Lead. Called "a magic piece of electronics" by Sound on Sound it popularized the virtual analog type of synthesis. In 1997 the Nord Lead 2 was released, with many improvements, including increasing polyphony from 4 to 16 notes; the Nord Lead 3 was released in 2001, with a reworked sound engine, better D/A converters and monophonic aftertouch. The most striking aspect of the Nord Lead 3 was that all the sound editing knobs had been replaced with infinite rotary knobs, where the value of the parameter was indicated by a LED'collar' around the knob; the rotary knobs, LED collars and keyboard with aftertouch made the Nord Lead 3 an "absolute delight" but because of its higher price, the Nord Lead 2 remained in demand. And as some of the parts of the Nord Lead 3 were getting harder to source, Clavia released an updated version of the Nord Lead 2, called the Nord Lead 2x, with faster processors, better D/A converters and an upgraded polyphony to 20 voices; the Nord Lead 3 was discontinued in 2007.
In 1997 Clavia released a virtual analog modular synthesizer. Called a "landmark in synthesis" it allowed you to build your own virtual analog synthesizer, it too was upgraded with the 2004 release of the Nord Modular G2, that gave it the same endless rotary knobs as the Nord Lead 3 and a larger keyboard with aftertouch. In 2001 the Nord Electro was released, it was designed to emulate the classical electromechanical keyboards like Hammond organ, electric piano and Hohner Clavinet. The pianos are samples but the organs are modeled using a "digital simulation". Clavia's current models here are the Electro 5, emulating a Hammond B3, a Farfisa and a Vox organ and containing samples of different electric pianos, a Wurlitzer electric piano, a Hohner Clavinet and several acoustic grand and upright pianos. In October 2007 Clavia released the Nord Wave, which adds sample-player functionality to the virtual analog engine of the Nord Lead series and in March 2012 Clavia released the Nord Drum, a virtual analog drum synthesizer.
Nord Lead A1 - Performance synthesizer Nord Lead 2X - Virtual analog synthesizer Nord Rack 2X - Virtual analog MIDI module Nord Lead 4 - Performance synthesizer Nord Electro 6 - Virtual electromechanical keyboard instrument Nord Piano 3 - Stage piano Nord Stage 3 - Stage keyboard Nord Stage 2EX - Stage keyboard Nord C2D - Dual Manual Virtual Combo Organ Nord Pedal Keys 27 - MIDI organ pedalboard Nord Drum 3 - Modelling percussion synthesizer Discontinued products list: Ddrum series by Clavia - sold in 2005 Nord Piano - Stage piano Nord C1 - Dual Manual Virtual Combo Organ Nord Drum Virtual analog drum synthesizer Nord Electro - Virtual electromechanical keyboard instrument Nord Electro Rack - Virtual electromechanical MIDI module Nord Electro 2 - Virtual electromechanical keyboard instrument Nord Electro Rack 2 - Virtual electromechanical MIDI module Nord Electro 3 - Virtual electromechanical keyboard instrument Nord Wave - Performance Synthesizer & Sampler Nord Lead - Virtual analog synthesizer Nord Lead Rack - Virtual analog synthesizer Nord Lead 2 - Virtual analog synthesizer Nord Lead 3 - Virtual analog synthesizer Nord Rack - Virtual analog MIDI module Nord Rack 2 - Virtual analog MIDI module Nord Rack 3 - Virtual analog MIDI module Nord Stage - Stage keyboard Nord Stage EX - Stage keyboard Nord Modular - Software-based semi-modular synthesizer Nord Modular G2 - Software-based semi-modular synthesizer Nord Modular G2x - Software-based semi-modular synthesizer Nord Micro Modular - Software-based semi-modular synthesizer Nord Drum - Modelling percussion synthesizer Nord Drum 2 - Modelling percussion synthesizer Official Clavia website reKon audio VST Lead Editors 1, 2 and 3 for Mac and Windows
Circuit bending is the creative, chance-based customization of the circuits within electronic devices such as low-voltage, battery-powered guitar effects, children's toys and digital synthesizers to create new musical or visual instruments and sound generators. Emphasizing spontaneity and randomness, the techniques of circuit bending have been associated with noise music, though many more conventional contemporary musicians and musical groups have been known to experiment with "bent" instruments. Circuit bending involves dismantling the machine and adding components such as switches and potentiometers that alter the circuit. Circuit bending is experimenting with second-hand electronics in a DIY fashion. Inexpensive keyboards, drum machines, electronic children's toys are used; this is done with battery-powered devices. Random modifications to devices plugged into the wall can result in electrocution. Aesthetic value, immediate usability and randomized results are factors in the process of "bending" electronics.
Although the history of electronic music is associated with unconventional sonic results, innovators like Robert Moog and Léon Theremin were electrical engineers, were more concerned with the consistency of their instruments. In contrast, circuit bending is typified by inconsistencies in instruments built in an unscientific manner. While many pre-fitted circuit bent machines are sold on auction sites such as eBay, this somewhat contravenes the intention of most practitioners. Machines bent to a repeated configuration are more analogous to the well known practice of "mods", such as the Devilfish mod for the Roland TB-303, the famous Speak & Spell toys or various Analogman or Pedaldoc guitar pedal circuit modifications. Circuit bending an audio device involves removing the rear panel of the device and connecting any two circuit locations with a "jumper" wire, sending current from one part of the circuit into another. Results are monitored through either the device's internal speaker or by connecting an amplifier to the speaker output.
If an interesting effect is achieved, this connection would be marked for future reference or kept active by either soldering a new connection or bridging it with crocodile clips. Other components are inserted at these points such as pushbuttons or switches, to turn the effect on or off; this is repeated on a error basis. Other components added into the circuit can give the performer more expressiveness, such as potentiometers and pressure sensors; the simplest input, the one most identified with circuit bending, is the body contact, where the performer's touch causes the circuit to change the sound. Metal knobs, screws or studs are wired to these circuit points to give easier access to these points from the outside the case of the device. Since creative experimentation is a key element to the practice of circuit bending, there is always a possibility that short circuiting may yield undesirable results, including component failure. In particular, connecting the power supply or a capacitor directly to a computer chip lead can destroy the chip and make the device inoperable.
Before beginning to do circuit bending, a person should learn the basic risk factors about working with electrical and electronic products, including how to identify capacitors, how to avoid risks with AC power. For safety reasons, a circuit bender should have a few basic electronics tools, such as a multimeter, it is advised that beginner circuit benders should never "bend" any device that gets its power from mains electricity, as this would carry a serious risk of electrocution. Circuit bending can be carried out in interactive electronic audio games. People modify their electronic games to enhance the quality of recordings used for fan-made projects or to change the speed of the game which results in a pitch change; this makes the gameplay easier if the game gets impossibly fast. Adding a knob or a switch to change the pitch of the game can lead to some disadvantages which include the game can change its pitch when its lights are turned on, it can cause the batteries to drain out on high speeds.
Although similar methods were used by other musicians and engineers, this method of music creation is believed to have been pioneered by Reed Ghazala in the 1960s. Ghazala's experience with circuit-bending began in 1966 when a toy transistor amplifier, by chance, shorted-out against a metal object in his desk drawer, resulting in a stream of unusual sounds. While Ghazala says that he was not the first circuit bender, he coined the term Circuit Bending and whole-heartedly promoted the proliferation of the concept and practice through his writings and internet site, earning him the title "Father of Circuit Bending". Serge Tcherepnin, designer of the Serge modular synthesizers, discussed his early experiments in the 1950s with the transistor radio, in which he found sensitive circuit points in those simple electronic devices and brought them out to "body contacts" on the plastic chassis. Prior to Mark's and Reed's experiments other pioneers explored the body-contact idea, one of the earliest being Thaddeus Cahill whose telharmonium, it is reported, was touch-sensitive.
Since 1984, Swiss duo Voice Crack created music by manipulating common electronic devices in a practice they termed "cracked everyday electronics". The
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Ryoji Ikeda is a Japanese visual and sound artist who lives and works in Paris. Ikeda's music is concerned with sound in a variety of "raw" states, such as sine tones and noise using frequencies at the edges of the range of human hearing; the conclusion of his album +/- features just such a tone. Rhythmically, Ikeda's music is imaginative, exploiting beat patterns and, at times, using a variety of discrete tones and noise to create the semblance of a drum machine, his work encroaches on the world of ambient music. Ryoji Ikeda was born in Gifu, Japan in 1966. In addition to working as a solo artist, he has collaborated with, among others, Carsten Nicolai and the art collective Dumb Type, his work matrix won the Golden Nica Award in 2001. In 2004, the dormant Saarinen-designed TWA Flight Center at JFK Airport hosted an art exhibition called Terminal 5 curated by Rachel K. Ward and featuring the work of 18 artists including Ikeda; the show featured work and temporary installations drawing inspiration from the idea of travel — and the terminal's architecture.
The show was to run from October 1, 2004 to January 31, 2005 — though it closed abruptly after the building itself was vandalized during the opening party. In May – June 2011 a presentation of three of the artist's immersive audio/visual projects, The Transfinite, was exhibited at the Park Avenue Armory. In 2014, Ikeda was awarded the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN 2014; as a result, he began his residency at CERN in July 2014 until 2015, during which he developed supersymmetry and micro | macro. 1000 fragments +/- time and space 0 °C Mort Aux Vaches 99: Variations For Modulated 440 Hz Sinewaves matrix. Op. dataplex test pattern dataphonics id supercodex Live at White Cube The Solar System code name: A to Z music for percussion music for percussion S/N Teji Furuhashi / Dumb Type - 1985-1994 OR Memorandum Preamble, Silence Radio-Range, Zone 3, Zone 4, Zone 1 & Preamble, Document 02 - Sine Untitled, Statics Headphonics 1/1, Mesmer Variations Untitled 071295, A Fault in the Nothing What’s Wrong, Test No. 1 & Abstructures, Atomic Weight One Minute, Tulpas Headphonics 0/0, Touch Sampler 2 Untitled, RRR 500 Interference, Meme Interference 001, Chill Out Installation, Just About Now Interference 003, Modulation & Transformation 4 C::Coda, ONE:SOUND 001: 00:00-50:00 The Great American Broadcast, End ID Zero Degrees, Sonar 99 Zero Degrees, Microscopic Sound Zero Degrees, Prix Ars Electronica CyberArts 2000 Matrix, Touch 00 0*:: Zero Degrees, Sonic Boom: The Art of Sound Cyclo cycle, New Forms - Compilation Untitled, Disney Age @ D_100 Cafe ringtone_1 / ringtone_2 & unobtainable, Ringtones One Minute, An Anthology Of Noise & Electronic Music / First A-Chronology Spectra II, Frequenzen / Frequencies Untitled 020402, KREV X - The Kingdoms of Elgaland-Vargaland, 1992-2002 Abstructures, Ju-Jikan: 10 Hours of Sound From Japan 0’12’’32 & 0’12’’34, Raster-Noton.
Archiv 1 Spectra II Edit, Frequencies 3’33, Festival Voor Nieuwe Muziek > Happy New Ears 2004 Untitled #25, Touch 25 data.vortex, Mind The Gap Volume 62 0’12’’32 & 0’12’’34, Notations Archiv 1 Data. Syntax, Festival Voor Nieuwe Muziek > Hapy New Ears 2007 Headphonics 0/1, Dissonance Promo Back In Black, Recovery Test Pattern 0101, 14 Tracks: Between The Wires Dataphonics 10 Structure, Qwartz 7 Supercodex 20, 14 Tracks: Digital Diaspora tracks 1993-2011 formula V≠L +/- dataphonics book+cd id datamatics book Ryoji Ikeda: micro | macro, 2015. Exhibition Catalogue. Ryoji Ikeda | continuum 2002 db, NTT InterCommunication Center, Tokyo, JP 2007 data.tron, De Vle