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Global Biodiversity Information Facility

The Global Biodiversity Information Facility is an international organisation that focuses on making scientific data on biodiversity available via the Internet using web services. The data are provided by many institutions from around the world. Data available through the GBIF portal are distribution data on plants, animals and microbes for the world, scientific names data; the mission of the Global Biodiversity information Facility is to facilitate free and open access to biodiversity data worldwide to underpin sustainable development. Priorities, with an emphasis on promoting participation and working through partners, include mobilising biodiversity data, developing protocols and standards to ensure scientific integrity and interoperability, building an informatics architecture to allow the interlinking of diverse data types from disparate sources, promoting capacity building and catalysing development of analytical tools for improved decision-making. GBIF strives to form informatics linkages among digital data resources from across the spectrum of biological organisation, from genes to ecosystems, to connect these to issues important to science and sustainability by using georeferencing and GIS tools.

It works in partnership with other international organisations such as the Catalogue of Life partnership, Biodiversity Information Standards, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, the Encyclopedia of Life, GEOSS. From 2002–2014, GBIF awarded a prestigious global award in the area of biodiversity informatics, the Ebbe Nielsen Prize, valued at €30,000 annually; as at 2018, the GBIF Secretariat presents two annual prizes: the GBIF Ebbe Nielsen Challenge and the Young Researchers Award. ABCD Schema Atlas of Living Australia Australasian Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core Global biodiversity GBIF website Short description of GBIF GBIF network GBIF Data publishers

Adirondack Park

The Adirondack Park is a part of New York's Forest Preserve in northeastern New York, United States. The park's boundary corresponds with the Adirondack Mountains. Established in 1885, it was the first state preserve of its type in the nation. Unlike most preserves, about 52 percent of the land is owned inholdings regulated by the Adirondack Park Agency; this area contains 102 towns and villages, as well as numerous farms, an active timber harvesting industry. The year-round population is 132,000, with 200,000 seasonal residents; the inclusion of human communities makes the park one of the great experiments in conservation in the industrialized world. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1963; the park's 6.1 million acres include more than 10,000 lakes, 30,000 miles of rivers and streams, a wide variety of habitats including wetlands and old-growth forests. For the history of the area before the formation of the park, see The History of the Adirondack Mountains. Before the 19th century, the wilderness was viewed as desolate and forbidding.

As Romanticism developed in the United States, the view of wilderness became more positive, as seen in the writings of James Fenimore Cooper, Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. The 1849 publication of Joel Tyler Headley's Adirondack. William Henry Harrison Murray's 1869 wilderness guidebook depicted the area as a place of relaxation and pleasure rather than a natural obstacle. Financier and railroad promoter Thomas Clark Durant acquired a large tract of central Adirondack land and built a railroad from Saratoga Springs to North Creek. By 1875, there were more than two hundred hotels in the Adirondacks including Paul Smith's Hotel. About this time, the Great Camps were developed. Following the Civil War, Reconstruction Era economic expansion led to an increase in logging and deforestation in the southern Adirondacks. In 1870 Verplanck Colvin made the first recorded ascent of Seward Mountain during which he saw the extensive damage done by lumbermen, he wrote a report, read at the Albany Institute and printed by the New York State Museum of Natural History.

In 1872 he was named to the newly created post of Superintendent of the Adirondack Survey and given a $1000 budget by the state legislature to institute a survey of the Adirondacks. In 1873 he wrote a report arguing that if the Adirondack watershed was allowed to deteriorate, it would threaten the viability of the Erie Canal, vital to New York's economy, he was subsequently appointed superintendent of the New York state land survey. In 1873, he recommended the creation of a state forest preserve covering the entire Adirondack region. In 1884, a commission chaired by botanist Charles Sprague Sargent recommended establishment of a forest preserve, to be "forever kept as wild forest lands." And in 1885, New York State Legislature designated particular counties in the state as places where Forest Preserve could be acquired in the future. State land in these areas was to be conserved and never put up for lease. In 1894, Article VII, Section 7, of the New York State Constitution was adopted, which reads in part: The lands of the state, now owned or hereafter acquired, constituting the forest preserve as now fixed by law, shall be forever kept as wild forest lands.

They shall not be leased, sold or exchanged, or be taken by any corporation, public or private, nor shall the timber thereon be sold, removed or destroyed. In 1902, the legislature passed a bill defining the Adirondack Park for the first time in terms of the counties and towns within it. In 1912 the legislature further clarified that the park included the owned lands within as well as the public holdings; the restrictions on development and lumbering embodied in Article XIV have withstood many challenges from timber interests, hydropower projects, large-scale tourism development interests. Further, the language of the article, decades of legal experience in its defense, are recognized as having laid the foundation for the U. S. National Wilderness Act of 1964; as a result of the legal protections, many pieces of the original forest of the Adirondacks have never been logged and are old-growth forest. Early in the 1900s, recreational use increased dramatically; the State Conservation Department responded by building more facilities: boat docks, tent platforms, lean-tos, telephone and electrical lines.

With the building of the Interstate 87 in the 1960s, private lands came under great pressure for development. This growing crisis led to the 1971 creation of the Adirondack Park Agency to develop long-range land-use plans for both the public and private lands within the Blue Line. In consultation with the DEC, the APA formulated the State Land Master Plan, adopted into law in 1973; the plan is designed to channel much of the future growth in the Park around existing communities, where roads, utilities and supplies exist. Data compiled by the Adirondack Experience, Blue Mountain Lake, New York In 2008 The Nature Conservancy purchased Follensby Pond – about 14,600 acres of private land inside the park boundary – for $16 million; the group plans to sell the land to the state which will add it to the forest preserve once the remaining leases for recreational hunting and fishing on the property expire. The park is managed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and by the Adirondack Park Agency.

This system of management is distinctly different from New York's state park system, managed by the Office of Parks and Historic Preservation. According to the State Land Master Plan, state

Aïn Smara

Ain Smara is a municipality in Constantine, Algeria. Its original name is Aïn Smara, it is bordered by Ali Mendjeli, Oued el ethmania, Ibn Ziad and El Khroub. The Hricha Amar quarter of Ain Smara is one of the biggest Constantine quarters. Ain Smara has a population of about 37,000 people with 175 km² land area. Ain Smara was founded in 1854, its popularity was due to the existence of the Chettaba mountains. During the Ottoman era it was close to Turc baylek Constantine, it was colonized by the French from 1830–1962 and remained a quarter of Oued el ethmania until the administrative division of 1984 when Ain Smara became a municipality. Football is the most popular sport; the two main football clubs are Mouloudia Beladiat Aïn Smara. They play in sand stadiums. Several other sports use Bachiri Mokhtar complex, including judo, karate and volleyball. There are five primary schools.