Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, values and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, teaching and directed research. Education takes place under the guidance of educators and learners may educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational; the methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Formal education is divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and college, university, or apprenticeship. A right to education has been recognized by the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age. Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin word ēducātiō from ēducō, related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē- and dūcō. Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society.
In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge and skills from one generation to the next; as cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom. Plato founded the Academy in the first institution of higher learning in Europe; the city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476. In China, Confucius, of the State of Lu, was the country's most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.
The Aztecs had a well-developed theory about education, which has an equivalent word in Nahuatl called tlacahuapahualiztli. It means "the art of raising or educating a person" or "the art of strengthening or bringing up men." This was a broad conceptualization of education, which prescribed that it begins at home, supported by formal schooling, reinforced by community living. Historians cite that formal education was mandatory for everyone regardless of social class and gender. There was the word neixtlamachiliztli, "the act of giving wisdom to the face." These concepts underscore a complex set of educational practices, oriented towards communicating to the next generation the experience and intellectual heritage of the past for the purpose of individual development and his integration into the community. After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe; the church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education.
Some of these establishments evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe's modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School; the medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of inquiry, produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation, Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. Founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, the oldest continually operating university. Elsewhere during the Middle Ages, Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate, established across the Middle East, extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south.
The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly; the European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, religion and sciences spread out across the globe. Missionaries and scholars brought back new ideas from other civilizations – as with the Jesuit China missions who played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge and culture between China and Europe, translating works from Europe like Euclid's Elements for Chinese scholars and the thoughts of Confucius for European audiences; the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe. In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age. Due to this the proliferation of compulsory education, combined with population growth, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.
Formal education occurs in a structured environment. Formal education takes place in a school environme
Beyoncé Giselle Knowles-Carter is an American singer, actress, record producer and dancer. Born and raised in Houston, Beyoncé performed in various singing and dancing competitions as a child, she rose to fame in the late 1990s as lead singer of the R&B girl-group Destiny's Child. Managed by her father, Mathew Knowles, the group became one of the best-selling girl groups in history, their hiatus saw Beyoncé's theatrical film debut in Austin Powers in Goldmember and the release of her first solo album, Dangerously in Love. The album established her as a solo artist worldwide, debuting at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart and earning five Grammy Awards, featured the Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles "Crazy in Love" and "Baby Boy". Following the break-up of Destiny's Child in 2006, she released her second solo album, B'Day, which contained her fourth number-one single, "Irreplaceable", as well as the top ten singles "Déjà Vu", "Beautiful Liar". Beyoncé continued her acting career, with starring roles in The Pink Panther and Obsessed.
Her marriage to rapper Jay-Z and portrayal of Etta James in Cadillac Records influenced her third album, I Am... Sasha Fierce, which saw the introduction of her alter-ego Sasha Fierce and earned a record-setting six Grammy Awards in 2010, including Song of the Year for "Single Ladies". Beyoncé took over management of her career, her critically acclaimed eponymous album, released in 2013 with no prior announcement, was distinguished from previous releases by its experimental production and exploration of darker themes. Her sixth album, Lemonade received widespread critical acclaim, with many referring to it as her most personal and political work to date, subsequently became the best-selling album of 2016. In 2018, she released Everything Is a collaborative album with husband Jay-Z, as The Carters. Throughout her career, Beyoncé has sold over 100 million records worldwide as a solo artist, a further 60 million records with Destiny's Child, making her one of the best-selling music artists of all time.
She is a multi-platinum, Grammy-Award winning recording artist, acclaimed for her thrilling vocals and live concert shows. The Recording Industry Association of America recognized Beyoncé as the Top Certified Artist in America during the 2000s decade. In 2009, Billboard named her the Top Radio Songs Artist of the Decade and the Top Female Artist of the 2000s decade. Among numerous awards and accolades, Beyoncé has won 23 Grammy Awards and is the most nominated woman in the award's history, she is the most awarded artist at the MTV Video Music Awards, with 24 wins, including the Michael Jackson Video Vanguard Award. In 2008, she was awarded the Legend Award for Outstanding Contribution to the Arts at the World Music Awards. In 2011, Beyoncé was presented with the inaugural Millennium Award at the Billboard Music Awards. In 2014, she became the highest-paid black musician in history and was listed among Time's 100 most influential people in the world for a second year in a row. Forbes ranked her as the most powerful female in entertainment on their 2015 and 2017 lists, in 2016, she occupied the sixth place for Time's Person of the Year.
In 2016, she was awarded the Fashion Icon lifetime achievement award from the Council of Fashion Designers of America. With the release of Lemonade, Beyoncé became the first and only musical act in Billboard chart history to debut at number one with their first six solo studio albums. Beyoncé Giselle Knowles was born in Houston, Texas, to Celestine "Tina" Knowles, a hairdresser and salon owner, Mathew Knowles, a Xerox sales manager. Beyoncé's name is a tribute to her mother's maiden name. Beyoncé's younger sister Solange is a singer and a former backup dancer for Destiny's Child. Solange and Beyoncé are the first sisters to have both had No. 1 albums. Mathew is African American. Through her mother, Beyoncé is a descendant of Acadian leader Joseph Broussard. Beyoncé attended St. Mary's Montessori School in Houston, her singing talent was discovered when dance instructor Darlette Johnson began humming a song and she finished it, able to hit the high-pitched notes. Beyoncé's interest in music and performing continued after winning a school talent show at age seven, singing John Lennon's "Imagine" to beat 15/16-year-olds.
In fall of 1990, Beyoncé enrolled in Parker Elementary School, a music magnet school in Houston, where she would perform with the school's choir. She attended the High School for the Performing and Visual Arts and Alief Elsik High School. Beyoncé was a member of the choir at St. John's United Methodist Church as a soloist for two years; when Beyoncé was eight and childhood friend Kelly Rowland met LaTavia Roberson while at an audition for an all-girl entertainment group. They were placed into a group called Girl's Tyme with three other girls, rapped and danced on the talent show circuit in Houston. After seeing the group, R&B producer Arne Frager brought them to his Northern California studio and placed them in Star Search, the largest talent show on national TV at the time. Girl's Tyme failed to win, Beyoncé said the song they performed was not good. In 1995 Beyoncé's father resigned from his job to manage the group; the move reduced Beyoncé's family's income by half, her parents were forced to move into separated apartments.
Mathew cut the original line-up to four and the group conti
Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany with a population of over 1.8 million. One of Germany's 16 federal states, it is surrounded by Schleswig-Holstein to the north and Lower Saxony to the south; the city's metropolitan region is home to more than five million people. Hamburg lies on two of its tributaries, the River Alster and the River Bille; the official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League and a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a sovereign city state, before 1919 formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, north Sea flood of 1962 and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids, the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Hamburg is Europe's third-largest port. Major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm Gruner + Jahr and the newspapers Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are based in the city.
Hamburg is the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Aurubis and Unilever; the city hosts specialists in world economics and international law, including consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Both the former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg; the city is a major domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016; the Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the Laeiszhalle concert halls.
It paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's Reeperbahn is among the best-known European entertainment districts. Hamburg is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the northeast, it is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Bille. The city centre is around the Binnenalster and Außenalster, both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes; the islands of Neuwerk, Scharhörn, Nigehörn, 100 kilometres away in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are part of the city of Hamburg. The neighborhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres AMSL. Hamburg borders the states of Lower Saxony.
Hamburg has an oceanic climate, influenced by its proximity to the coast and marine air masses that originate over the Atlantic Ocean. The location north of Germany provides extremes greater than marine climates, but in the category due to the mastery of the western standards. Nearby wetlands enjoy a maritime temperate climate; the amount of snowfall has differed a lot during the past decades: while in the late 1970s and early 1980s, at times heavy snowfall occurred, the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall only on a few days per year. The warmest months are June and August, with high temperatures of 20.1 to 22.5 °C. The coldest are December and February, with low temperatures of −0.3 to 1.0 °C. Claudius Ptolemy reported the first name for the vicinity as Treva; the name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a castle which the Emperor Charlemagne ordered constructed in AD 808. It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster and the River Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion, acquired the name Hammaburg, burg meaning castle or fort.
The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain. In 834, Hamburg was designated as the seat of a bishopric; the first bishop, became known as the Apostle of the North. Two years Hamburg was united with Bremen as the Bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. Hamburg occupied several times. In 845, 600 Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. In 1030, King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland burned down the city. Valdemar II of Denmark raided and occupied Hamburg in 1201 and in 1214; the Black Death killed at least 60% of the population in 1350. Hamburg experienced several great fires in the medieval period. In 1189, by imperial charter, Frederick I "Barbarossa" granted Hamburg the status of a Free Imperial City and tax-free access up the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. In 1265, an forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg; this charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea made it a
Bandra Kurla Complex
Bandra-Kurla Complex is a planned business district in Bandra, India. It is the most prominent commercial hub in Maharashtra after Mumbai's Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade. According to MMRDA, the complex is the first of a series of "growth centres" created to "arrest further concentration" of offices and commercial activities in South Mumbai, it has aided to decongest the CBD in South Mumbai while seeding new areas of planned commercial real estate in the metropolitan region. The complex was built on marshy land on the north side of Mithi River and is bound by Bandra to the west, Kurla to the east and Dharavi across the river. BKC houses a number of commercial buildings including Jammu & Kashmir Bank National Business Centre, National Stock Exchange, SEBI, NABARD Head Office, IL&FS, Amazon.com, Asian Heart Institute, Dow Chemicals, ICICI Bank, Dena Bank, Bank of Baroda, State Bank of India, Bank of India, Kotak Mahindra Bank, Bharat Diamond Bourse, Unit Trust of India, Dhirubhai Ambani International School, American School of Bombay, Fortune 2000 & JioGarden.
It is home to the Mumbai Cricket Association's cricket ground, the United States Mumbai Consulate and the British Deputy High Commission. There are 400,000 people working in various offices throughout the BKC; the MMRDA was appointed as the "Special Planning Authority" for planning and developing the Bandra-Kurla complex in 1977. It covers 370 hectares of once low-lying land on either side of the Mithi river, Vakola Nalla and Mahim Creek; the area had poor surface drainage and was affected by pollution in the Mahim Creek. One of the important features of the channelisation of Mithi river and Vakola nalla was to improve water carrying capacity and reduce pollution. Mithi River for about 4.5 km of its length from Mahim Causeway to C. S. T. Road Bridge and its tributary Vakola Nalla, for 2.5 km of its length, have been channelised for an average 60 m and 40 m bed widths thereby improving the hydraulic features of these two important water courses in the BKC area. The commercial development in BKC includes private and government offices, wholesale establishments, etc. and will provide about 2,000,000 jobs in the area.
The MMRDA has so far developed 19 hectares of marshy land in the'E' Block where a number of office buildings have been constructed. These buildings together provide an office space of 174,000 square metres with a potential to accommodate 17,400 jobs. An Urban Plaza and Park named'CITY PARK' has been developed on an area of about 22,500 square metres in this block. In recent years, BKC overtook Bombay Central to become the third most-prominent business district in Maharashtra, after Mumbai's Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade. However, a lack of public transportation options in the area, in addition to the soft marshland on which BKC is based, have challenged the further development of the area, such as the construction of skyscrapers and high-rises. Despite this, it is expected by 2030 that BKC and Parel will be more prominent commercial hubs than Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade. Besides the development in'E' Block, the focus of development of activities has moved to the adjoining'G' Block where a new International Finance and Business Center is planned.
The main objective of International Finance and Business Centre planning is to create new office locations. In order to ensure some life in the area after offer office hours, a mix of activities has been envisaged; the basic consideration of the IFBC plan is accessibility to the area. The considerations of accessibility and orientation have shaped the overall master plan of IFBC, it is a part of the'G' Block of Bandra Kurla Complex, located between Bandra and Kurla, both of which are major railway stations and have railway terminal in their vicinity on the Western and Central lines of the Mumbai Suburban Railway. In addition to the suburban railway, the upcoming Line II of Phase 1 of the Mumbai Metro project will pass through the IFBC and will have 4 stations near and within BKC, other than Bandra and Kurla stations. Other than the above rail links, BKC can be accessed through the Western Express Highway, a major expressway in Mumbai, via the Kalanagar Junction and BKC Road, which passes through the IFBC.
And there is link road to connect Eastern express highway. About 42 per cent of the land area of the plan is earmarked for commercial use and 14 per cent for housing. One of the important features of the area is preservation of large open spaces surrounding various public centers; this is expected to be a major attraction of the area. A large utility complex is proposed to be developed, it will provide space for various public and commercial utilities, small offices for professionals, car parks, bus stands and taxi stands. Parking demand expected in the area is about 15,000. To provide for such parking requirement, two level basement parking is permitted for all buildings. Public parking is proposed in the form of multi-storied and underground garages. In order to provide space in terms of open grounds for arranging various exhibitions, events etc. open plots have been made available on rent. These open plots collectively known as'MMRDA Grounds' host most of the city's Trade Exhibitions, Music Concerts, Award Nights and Religious and Political Rallies.
International Artists that have performed at the MMRDA grounds include Akon, 50 Cent, Beyoncé, Guns N' Roses, INXS, Iron Maiden, Michael Learns to Rock, Roger Waters, Bryan Adams, Mark Knopfler and Shakira. BKC hosted Vodafone Speed Fest, an
Foo Fighters is an American rock band, formed in Seattle, Washington, in 1994. It was founded by Nirvana drummer Dave Grohl as a one-man project following the dissolution of Nirvana after the suicide of Kurt Cobain; the group got its name from the UFOs and various aerial phenomena that were reported by Allied aircraft pilots in World War II, which were known collectively as "foo fighters". Prior to the release of Foo Fighters' 1995 debut album Foo Fighters, which featured Grohl as the only official member, Grohl recruited bassist Nate Mendel and drummer William Goldsmith, both of Sunny Day Real Estate, as well as Nirvana touring guitarist Pat Smear to complete the lineup; the band began with performances in Oregon. Goldsmith quit during the recording of the group's second album, The Colour and the Shape, when most of the drum parts were re-recorded by Grohl himself. Smear's departure followed soon afterward, though he would appear as a guest with the band starting in 2006, would rejoin as an official full-time member in 2011.
They were replaced by Taylor Hawkins and Franz Stahl although Stahl was fired before the recording of the group's third album, There Is Nothing Left to Lose. The band continued as a trio until Chris Shiflett joined as the band's lead guitarist after the completion of There Is Nothing Left to Lose; the band released its fourth album, One by One, in 2002. The group followed that release with the two-disc In Your Honor, split between acoustic songs and heavier material. Foo Fighters released its sixth album, Silence, Patience & Grace, in 2007; the band's seventh studio album, Wasting Light, produced by Butch Vig, was released in 2011, in which Smear returned as a full member. In November 2014, the band's eighth studio album, Sonic Highways, was released as an accompanying soundtrack to the Grohl-directed 2014 miniseries of the same name. On September 15, 2017, the band released their ninth studio album and Gold, which became their second to reach number one in the United States and was the band's first studio album to feature longtime session and touring keyboardist Rami Jaffee as a full member.
Over the course of the band's career, four of its albums have won Grammy Awards for Best Rock Album. As of 2015, the band has sold 12 million copies in the United States alone. Foo Fighters frontman Dave Grohl joined the grunge group Nirvana as its drummer in 1990. During tours, he wrote songs. Grohl held back these songs from the rest of the band. I thought it was best that I kept my songs to myself." Grohl booked studio time to record demos and covers of songs he liked and issued a cassette of some of those songs called Pocketwatch under the pseudonym "Late!" in 1992. Frontman Kurt Cobain was found dead in his Seattle home on April 8, 1994, Nirvana subsequently disbanded. Grohl received offers to work with various artists. Grohl declined and instead entered Robert Lang Studios in October 1994 to record fifteen of the forty songs he had written. With the exception of a guitar part on "X-Static", played by Greg Dulli of the Afghan Whigs, Grohl played every instrument and sang every vocal on the tracks.
"I was supposed to just join another band and be a drummer the rest of my life," Grohl said. "I thought. I enjoy writing music and I enjoy trying to sing, there's nothing anyone can do to discourage me." Grohl completed an album's worth of material in five days and handed out cassette copies of the sessions to his friends for feedback. Grohl hoped to keep his anonymity and release the recordings in a limited run under the title "Foo Fighters", taken from the World War II term "foo fighter", used to refer to unidentified flying objects. "Around the time that I recorded the first FF tape, I was reading a lot of books on UFO's. Not only is it a fascinating subject, but there's a treasure trove of band names in those UFO books!" he said. "So, since I had recorded the first record by myself, playing all the instruments, but I wanted people to think that it was a group, I figured that FOO FIGHTERS might lead people to believe that it was more than just one guy. Silly, huh?" Continuing, Grohl insisted.
"Had I considered this to be a career, I would have called it something else, because it's the stupidest fucking band name in the world."However, the demo tape circulated in the music industry, creating interest among record labels. Grohl formed a band to support the album, he talked to former Nirvana bandmate Krist Novoselic about joining the group, but both decided against it. "For Krist and I, it would have felt natural and great", Grohl explained. "But for everyone else, it would have been weird, it would have left me in a bad position. I would have been under the microscope." Having heard about the disbanding of Seattle-based rock band Sunny Day Real Estate, Grohl drafted the group's bass player, Nate Mendel, drummer, William Goldsmith. Grohl asked Pat Smear, who served as a touring guitarist for Nirvana after the release of its 1993 album, In Utero, to join as the group's second guitarist. Grohl licensed the album to Capitol Records, releasing it on Roswell Records, his new record label.
Foo Fighters made its live public debut on February 23, 1995, at the Jambalaya Club in Arcata and March 3 at The Satyricon in Portland. They followed that with a show at the Velvet Elvis in
John Clayton Mayer is an American singer-songwriter and record producer. Born in Bridgeport, Mayer attended Berklee College of Music in Boston, but disenrolled and moved to Atlanta in 1997 with Clay Cook. Together, they formed. After their split, Mayer continued refining his skills and gaining a following. After his appearance at the 2001 South by Southwest Festival, he was signed to Aware Records, Columbia Records, which released his first EP, Inside Wants Out, his following two full-length albums—Room for Squares and Heavier Things —did well commercially, achieving multi-platinum status. In 2003, he won the Grammy Award for Best Male Pop Vocal Performance for the single "Your Body Is a Wonderland". By 2005, Mayer had moved away from the acoustic music that characterized his early records, begun performing the blues and rock music that had influenced him as a musician, he collaborated with blues artists such as B. B. King, Buddy Guy, Eric Clapton. Forming the John Mayer Trio, he released a live album in 2005 called Try!, his third studio album Continuum in 2006.
Both albums received critical acclaim, Continuum earned Mayer a 2007 Grammy Award for Best Pop Vocal Album. He won Best Male Pop Vocal Performance for "Waiting on the World to Change"; that album was followed by Battle Studies in 2009, a return to pop, with a Battle Studies World Tour. After having several controversial incidents with the media, Mayer withdrew from public life in 2010 and began work on his fifth studio album and Raised, which drew inspiration from the 1970s pop music of Laurel Canyon. However, the discovery of a granuloma on his vocal cords delayed the release of the album until May 2012, forced him to cancel the planned tour; the album received a favorable reception, though was less commercially successful than his previous work. Mayer began performing as a singer again in January 2013, that year released his sixth studio album, Paradise Valley, which incorporates country music influences. By 2014, he had sold a total of over 20 million albums worldwide. After developing an interest in the Grateful Dead and connecting with Bob Weir, Mayer formed Dead & Company with three former Grateful Dead musicians.
The band's performances have been well-received, with tours in 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018. Mayer's secondary career pursuits extend to television hosting and writing, he has performed at charity benefits. He is a watch aficionado, contributing to the watch site Hodinkee, has been on the jury at the Grand Prix d'Horlogerie de Genève. Mayer was born on October 1977, in Bridgeport, Connecticut, to Richard and Margaret Mayer, he grew up in nearby Fairfield, the middle child between older brother Carl and younger brother Ben. His father is Jewish, Mayer has said that he relates to Judaism; as a middle school student, Mayer became close friends with future tennis star James Blake, they played Nintendo together after school. He attended the Center for Global Studies at Brien McMahon High School in Norwalk for his junior year. After watching Michael J. Fox's guitar performance as Marty McFly in Back to the Future, Mayer became fascinated with the instrument; when he turned 13, his father rented one for him.
A neighbor gave Mayer a Stevie Ray Vaughan cassette. According to Mayer, his fascination with Vaughan started a "genealogical hunt" that led him to other blues guitarists, including Buddy Guy, B. B. King, Freddie King, Albert King, Otis Rush and Lightnin' Hopkins. Mayer started taking lessons from a local guitar-shop owner, Al Ferrante, soon became consumed, his singular focus concerned his parents, they twice took him to see a psychiatrist, who determined him to be healthy. Mayer says that his parents' contentious marriage led him to "disappear and create my own world I could believe in". After two years of practice, he started playing at bars and other venues, while still in high school. In addition to performing solo, he was a member of a band called Villanova Junction with Tim Procaccini, Joe Beleznay and Rich Wolf; when Mayer was seventeen, he was stricken with cardiac dysrhythmia and was hospitalized for a weekend. Reflecting on the incident, Mayer said, "That was the moment the songwriter in me was born", he penned his first lyrics the night he left the hospital.
Shortly thereafter, he began suffering from panic attacks, says he feared having to enter a mental institution. He continues to manage such episodes with anti-anxiety medication. Mayer considered skipping college to pursue his music, he enrolled in the Berklee College of Music in 1997 at age 19. At the urging of his college friend Clay Cook, they left Berklee after two semesters and moved to Atlanta. There, they formed a two-man band called LoFi Masters, began performing in local coffee houses and club venues such as Eddie's Attic. According to Cook, they experienced musical differences due to Mayer's desire to move more towards pop music; the two parted ways and Mayer embarked on a solo career. With the help of local producer and engineer Glenn Matullo, Mayer recorded the independent EP Inside Wants Out; the EP includes eight songs with Mayer on lead guitars. For the opening track, "Back To You", a full band was enlisted, including the EP's co-producer David "DeLa" LaBruyere on bass
Great Lawn and Turtle Pond
The Great Lawn and Turtle Pond are two connected features of Central Park which are located in Manhattan, New York City, United States. The lawn and pond occupy the flat site of the rectangular, thirty-five-acre Lower Reservoir constructed in 1842, an unalterable fixture of the location of Central Park as it was first designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux; the King Jagiello Monument stands at the Delacorte Theater on its west end. Within its schist walling, the reservoir filled the space between the 79th Street and 86th Street Transverse Roads; the Belvedere Castle, built in 1869, overlooked it from its southwest corner. In Egbert Viele's rejected plan for Central Park, whose design inadequacies prompted the design competition of 1857-58, the civil engineer "considered the reservoir worthy of attention as a major engineering feat, his plan emphasized it by adding a terrace to the walls, from which spectators could observe military drills". Proponents of the naturalistic plans in the competition "repeatedly recommended'planting out' the park boundaries and the'ugly','artificial','uncouth','horrid', and'discordant' distraction of the reservoirs in order to reinforce the sense of natural expanse".
As the Croton-Catskill Reservoir system was completed, to satisfy New York City's need for water, the Lower Reservoir came to be redundant. In spite of years of prodding, the commissioners of the Catskill Aqueduct were loath to make over their real estate to the city. Henry Fairfield Osborn lobbied instead for a formal carriage drive that would link his American Museum of Natural History with the Metropolitan Museum of Art. After the war Hastings recast his plan as a memorial to the soldiers of World War I; these plans were decried as intrusions by park preservationists protecting the Olmstedian rustic plan on the one hand, as elitist by populist champions of organized recreation facilities, who envisaged playing fields and bath houses for the city's urban poor. During the 1920s all projects were stymied as the issue became politicized during the land boom that filled Fifth Avenue and Central Park West with luxury apartment towers for the rich; the reservoir began to be drained in January 1930.
In June 1930 the city adopted a plan presented by the American Society of Landscape Architects, New York Chapter for a great oval of turf, its edges softened by trees planted in clumps within and outside the encircling pedestrian walkway. Two fenced playgrounds at the northern end were to be screened by trees; the drainage was collected in a small pond at the south end, the predecessor of the present Turtle Pond, which revealed its rectangular shape, in spite of mild waggles in its concrete curbing. Along its southern shore, the steep gradient that had impounded the reservoir was regraded and planted with trees and shrubs to mask its regularity. In the meantime, the city teetered on the edge of insolvency as the Great Depression put an end to grand plans. A "Hooverville" of improvised shacks developed in the dry bed of the reservoir, as the city began dumping fill. Robert Moses, who would see the ASLA Great Lawn to completion, took office with mayor Fiorello La Guardia in January 1934, two years the Great Lawn was completed and planted with pin oaks and European lindens, in the reduced range of trees in the current repertory.
With heavy use over the years, the Great Lawn, which received eight baseball diamonds constructed in the 1950s, had badly compacted soil. Advocates argue this compaction was aggravated by its use for outdoor concerts once the Sheep Meadow had been restored in 1979. Eroded topsoil that washed into Turtle Pond resulted in eutrophication that turned it to algal soup each summer. In October 1995 the Central Park Conservancy took up the joint project of rehabilitating fifty-five acres of the lawn and its surroundings, with improved tilefield drainage and sprinkler systems, draining, re-excavating and reconfiguring Turtle Pond, which had received its official name change in 1987, having been known until as Belvedere Lake; the reconfigured Turtle Pond, completed in 1997, was designed so that at no position can a viewer take in all its perimeter. Shoreline plants such as lizard's tail, bulrushes and blueflag iris were planted in submerged concrete shelving designed to offer each group of wetland plants their ideal water coverage.
A small island provides secure egg-laying sites for the turtles. Sightings of numerous species of dragon fly not noted in Central Park have been made; the 1980 Elton John concert drew 300,000 attendees, the 1981 Simon and Garfunkel reunion concert more than 500,000, the 1982 Anti-Nuclear Rally nearly 750,000. Other noted concerts in this place were Diana Ross' concerts in 1983: the first drew 800,000 and next 400,000 fans. More recent concerts have featured such acts as Plácido Domingo, Garth Brooks, the Dave Matthews Band, "Live Broadway", Bon Jovi during the 2008 MLB All-Star Weekend. Additionally, annual concerts by the Metropolitan Opera and the New York Philharmonic have become cultural fixtures. In 1995, the Great Lawn was the site for the New York opening of the Disney movie Pocahontas; that year, on October 7, 1