Pulp and paper industry
The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper and other cellulose-based products. The pulp is fed to a paper machine where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying. Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. Once the water is forced from the sheet, a special kind of felt, not to be confused with the traditional one, is used to collect the water. Whereas, when making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used instead. Drying involves using heat to remove water from the paper sheets. In the earliest days of paper making, this was done by hanging the sheets like laundry. In more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used. On the paper machine, the most common is the steam heated can dryer; the commercial planting of domesticated mulberry trees to make pulp for papermaking is attested as early as the 6th century. Due to advances in printing technology, the Chinese paper industry continued to grow under the Song dynasty to meet the rising demand for printed books.
Demand for paper was stimulated by the Song government, which needed a large supply of paper for printing paper money and exchange certificates. The first mechanised paper machine was installed at Frogmore Paper Mill, Hertfordshire in 1803, followed by another in 1804; the site operates as a museum. The pulp and paper industry has been criticized by environmental groups like the Natural Resources Defense Council for unsustainable deforestation and clearcutting of old-growth forest; the industry trend is to expand globally to countries like Russia and Indonesia with low wages and low environmental oversight. According to Greenpeace, farmers in Central America illegally rip up vast tracts of native forest for cattle and soybean production without any consequences, companies who buy timber from private land owners contribute to massive deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest. On the other hand, the situation is quite different where forest growth has been on the increase for a number of years, it is estimated for instance that since 1990 forests have grown in Europe by a size equivalent to that of Switzerland, supported through the practice of sustainable forest management by the industry.
In Sweden, for every tree, felled, two are planted. The industry is dominated by northern European and East Asian countries. Australasia and Brazil have significant pulp and paper enterprises; the industry has a significant presence in a number of European countries including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland. The United States had been the world's leading producer of paper until it was overtaken by China in 2009. According to statistic data by RISI, main producing countries of paper and paperboard, not including pulp, in the world are as follows: The world's main paper and paperboard company groups are as follows.: In 2008, the top 10 forest and packaging products companies were, according to a report by PricewaterhouseCoopers: Leading manufacturers of capital equipment with over $1 billion in annual revenue for the pulp and paper industry include: Valmet Bellmer Andritz Metso Voith Kadant American Forest & Paper Association List of paper mills Converters Paper pollution Pulp and Paper Pulp and paper industry in Canada Pulp and paper industry in Europe Confederation of European Paper Industries Pulp and paper industry in Japan Pulp and paper industry in the United States Roll hardness tester Wood industry Forestry industry Environmental impact of paper Confederation of European Paper Industries American Forest & Paper Association Forest Products Association of Canada
The arms industry known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry which manufactures and sells weapons and military technology. It consists of a commercial industry involved in the research and development, engineering and servicing of military material and facilities. Arms-producing companies referred to as arms dealers, defence contractors, or as the military industry, produce arms for the armed forces of states and for civilians. Departments of government operate in the arms industry and selling weapons and other military items. An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition - whether or publicly owned - are made and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination. Products of the arms industry include guns, ammunition, military aircraft, military vehicles, electronic systems, night-vision devices, holographic weapon sights, laser rangefinders, laser sights, hand grenades and more; the arms industry provides other logistical and operational support. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute estimated military expenditures as of 2012 at $1.8 trillion.
This represented a relative decline from 1990, when military expenditures made up 4% of world GDP. Part of the money goes to the procurement of military hardware and services from the military industry; the combined arms-sales of the top 100 largest arms-producing companies amounted to an estimated $395 billion in 2012 according to SIPRI. In 2004 over $30 billion were spent in the international arms-trade. According to SIPRI, the volume of international transfers of major weapons in 2010–14 was 16 per cent higher than in 2005–2009; the five biggest exporters in 2010–2014 were the United States, China and France, the five biggest importers were India, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan. Many industrialized countries have a domestic arms-industry to supply their own military forces; some countries have a substantial legal or illegal domestic trade in weapons for use by their own citizens for self-defence, hunting or sporting purposes. Illegal trade in small arms occurs in many regions affected by political instability.
The Small Arms Survey estimates that 875 million small arms circulate worldwide, produced by more than 1,000 companies from nearly 100 countries. Governments award contracts to supply their country's military; the link between politics and the arms trade can result in the development of what U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower described in 1961 as a military-industrial complex, where the armed forces and politics become linked to the European multilateral defence procurement. Various corporations, some publicly held, others private, bid for these contracts, which are worth many billions of dollars. Sometimes, as with the contract for the international Joint Strike Fighter, a competitive tendering process takes place, with the decision made on the merits of the designs submitted by the companies involved. Other times, no bidding or competition takes place. During the early modern period, United Kingdom and some states in Germany became self-sufficient in arms production, with diffusion and migration of skilled workers to more peripheral countries such as Portugal and Russia.
The modern arms industry emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century as a product of the creation and expansion of the first large military-industrial companies. As smaller countries could no longer produce cutting-edge military equipment with their indigenous resources and capacity, they began to contract the manufacture of military equipment, such as battleships, artillery pieces and rifles to foreign firms. In 1854, the British government awarded a contract to the Elswick Ordnance Company of industrialist William Armstrong for the supply of his latest breech loading rifled artillery pieces; this galvanised the private sector into weapons production, with the surplus being exported to foreign countries. Armstrong became one of the first international arms dealers, selling his weapon systems to governments across the world from Brazil to Japan. In 1884, he opened a shipyard at Elswick to specialise in warship production—at the time, it was the only factory in the world that could build a battleship and arm it completely.
The factory produced warships for many navies, including the Imperial Japanese Navy. Several Armstrong cruisers played an important role in defeating the Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. In the American Civil War in 1861 the North had a distinct advantage over the south as it relied on using the breech-loading rifle against the muskets of the south; this began the transition to industrially produced mechanised weapons such as the Gatling gun. This industrial innovation in the defence industry was adopted by Prussia in 1866 & 1870-71 in its defeat of Austria and France respectively. By this time the machine gun had begun entering into the militaries; the first example of its effectiveness was in 1899 during the Boer War and in 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War. However, Germany were leaders in innovation of weapons and used this innovation nearly defeating the allies in World War I. In 1885, France decided to capitalize on this lucrative form of trade and repealed its ban on weapon exports.
The regulatory framework for the period up to the First World War was characterized by a laissez-faire policy that placed little obstruction in the way of weapons exports. Due to the carnage of World War I
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines with double decker airplanes. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, regional, or international, may be operated as scheduled services or charters; the largest airline is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft I was the world's first airline, it was founded on November 16, 1909, with government assistance, operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. Its headquarters were in Frankfurt; the first fixed wing scheduled airline was started on January 1, 1914, from St. Petersburg, Florida, to Tampa, Florida.
The four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands' KLM, Colombia's Avianca, Australia's Qantas, the Czech Republic's Czech Airlines. The earliest fixed wing airline in Europe was Aircraft Transport and Travel, formed by George Holt Thomas in 1916. Using a fleet of former military Airco DH.4A biplanes, modified to carry two passengers in the fuselage, it operated relief flights between Folkestone and Ghent. On 15 July 1919, the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, despite a lack of support from the British government. Flown by Lt. H Shaw in an Airco DH.9 between RAF Hendon and Paris – Le Bourget Airport, the flight took 2 hours and 30 minutes at £21 per passenger. On 25 August 1919, the company used DH.16s to pioneer a regular service from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Le Bourget, the first regular international service in the world. The airline soon gained a reputation for reliability, despite problems with bad weather, began to attract European competition.
In November 1919, it won the first British civil airmail contract. Six Royal Air Force Airco DH.9A aircraft were lent to the company, to operate the airmail service between Hawkinge and Cologne. In 1920, they were returned to the Royal Air Force. Other British competitors were quick to follow – Handley Page Transport was established in 1919 and used the company's converted wartime Type O/400 bombers with a capacity for 12 passengers, to run a London-Paris passenger service; the first French airline was Société des lignes Latécoère known as Aéropostale, which started its first service in late 1918 to Spain. The Société Générale des Transports Aériens was created in late 1919, by the Farman brothers and the Farman F.60 Goliath plane flew scheduled services from Toussus-le-Noble to Kenley, near Croydon, England. Another early French airline was the Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes, established in 1919 by Louis-Charles Breguet, offering a mail and freight service between Le Bourget Airport and Lesquin Airport, Lille.
The first German airline to use heavier than air aircraft was Deutsche Luft-Reederei established in 1917 which started operating in February 1919. In its first year, the D. L. R. Operated scheduled flights on routes with a combined length of nearly 1000 miles. By 1921 the D. L. R. Network was more than 3000 km long, included destinations in the Netherlands and the Baltic Republics. Another important German airline was Junkers Luftverkehr, which began operations in 1921, it was a division of the aircraft manufacturer Junkers, which became a separate company in 1924. It operated joint-venture airlines in Austria, Estonia, Hungary, Norway, Poland and Switzerland; the Dutch airline KLM made its first flight in 1920, is the oldest continuously operating airline in the world. Established by aviator Albert Plesman, it was awarded a "Royal" predicate from Queen Wilhelmina, its first flight was from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam, using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel DH-16, carrying two British journalists and a number of newspapers.
In 1921, KLM started scheduled services. In Finland, the charter establishing Aero O/Y was signed in the city of Helsinki on September 12, 1923. Junkers F.13 D-335 became the first aircraft of the company, when Aero took delivery of it on March 14, 1924. The first flight was between Helsinki and Tallinn, capital of Estonia, it took place on March 20, 1924, one week later. In the Soviet Union, the Chief Administration of the Civil Air Fleet was established in 1921. One of its first acts was to help found Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A. G. a German-Russian joint venture to provide air transport from Russia to the West. Domestic air service began around the same time, when Dobrolyot started operations on 15 July 1923 between Moscow and Nizhni Novgorod. Since 1932 all operations had been carried under the name Aeroflot. Early European airlines tended to favor comfort – the passenger cabins were spacious with luxurious interiors – over speed and efficiency; the basic navigational capabilities of pilots at the time meant that delays due to the weather were commonplace.
By the early 1920s, small airlines were struggling to compete, there was a movement towards increased rationalization and consolidation. In 1924, Imperial Airways was formed from the merger of Instone Air Line Company, British Marine Air Navigation, Daimler Airway and Handley Page Transport Co Ltd. to allow British airlines to compete with stiff competition from French and German airlines that were enjoying heavy government subsidies. The ai
In economics, a luxury good is a good for which demand increases more than proportionally as income rises, so that expenditures on the good become a greater proportion of overall spending. Luxury goods are in contrast to necessity goods, where demand increases proportionally less than income. Luxury goods is used synonymously with superior goods and Veblen goods; the word "luxury" originated from the Latin word “Luxus,” which means indulgence of the senses, regardless of cost. Luxury goods have high income elasticity of demand: as people become wealthier, they will buy proportionately more luxury goods; this means, that should there be a decline in income its demand will drop more than proportionately. Income elasticity of demand is not constant with respect to income, may change sign at different levels of income; that is to say, a luxury good may become a necessity good or an inferior good at different income levels. Some luxury products have been claimed to be examples of Veblen goods, with a positive price elasticity of demand: for example, making a perfume more expensive can increase its perceived value as a luxury good to such an extent that sales can go up, rather than down.
Although the technical term luxury good is independent of the goods' quality, they are considered to be goods at the highest end of the market in terms of quality and price. Classic luxury goods include haute couture clothing and luggage. Many markets have a luxury segment including, for example, yacht, bottled water, tea, watches, clothes and high fidelity. Luxuries may be services; the hiring of full-time or live-in domestic servants is a luxury reflecting disparities of income. Some financial services in some brokerage houses, can be considered luxury services by default because persons in lower-income brackets do not use them. Luxury goods have special luxury packaging to differentiate the products from mainstream competitors; the three dominant trends are the main factors that have accelerated the rapid growth of the industry, including the customer base and variations in the consumptions of different brands. The three dominant trends in the global luxury goods market are globalization and diversification.
Consolidation involves the growth of big companies and ownership of brands across many segments of luxury products. Examples include LVMH, Kering, which dominate the market in areas ranging from luxury drinks to fashion and cosmetics. Global consumer companies, such as Procter & Gamble, are attracted to the industry, due to the difficulty of making a profit in the mass consumer goods market; the customer base for various luxury goods continue to be more culturally diversified, this presents more unseen challenges and new opportunities to companies in this industry. The luxury goods market has been on an upward climb for many years. Apart from the setback caused by the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the industry has performed well in 2000. In that year, the world luxury goods market – which includes drinks, cosmetics, watches, luggage, handbags – was worth close to $170 billion and grew 7.9 percent. The United States has been the largest regional market for luxury goods and is estimated to continue to be the leading personal luxury goods market in 2013, with a value of 62.5 billion euros.
The largest sector in this category was luxury drinks, including premium whisky, Cognac. This sector was the only one; the watches and jewelry section showed the strongest performance, growing in value by 23.3 percent, while the clothing and accessories section grew 11.6 percent between 1996 and 2000, to $32.8 billion. North America is the largest regional market for luxury goods; the largest ten markets for luxury goods account for 83 percent of overall sales, include Japan, United States, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Brazil and Switzerland. In 2012, China surpassed Japan as the world's largest luxury market. China's luxury consumption accounts for over 25% of the global market; the Economist Intelligence Unit published a report on the outlook for luxury goods in Asia which explores the trends and forecasts for the luxury goods market across key markets in Asia. In 2014, the luxury sector is expected to grow over the next 10 years because of 440 million consumers spending a total of 880 billion euros, or $1.2 trillion.
Though verging on the meaningless in modern marketing, "luxury" remains a legitimate and current technical term in art history for objects that are highly decorated to high standards and use expensive materials. The term is used for medieval manuscripts to distinguish between practical working books for normal use, illuminated manuscripts, that were bound in treasure bindings with metalwork and jewels; these are much larger, with less text on each page and many illustrations, if liturgical texts were usually kept on the altar or sacristy rather any library that the church or monastery who owned them may have had. Secular luxury manuscripts were commissioned by the wealthy and differed in the same ways from cheaper books."Luxury" may be used for other applied arts where both utilitarian and luxury versions of the same types of objects were made. This might cover metalwork, glass and armour, a wide range of objects, it is much less used for objects with no function beyond being an artwork: paintings and sculpture though the disparity in cost between an expensive and cheap work may have been as large.
With increasing "democratization" of luxury goods, new product categories have be
Maritime transport, fluvial transport, or more waterborne transport is the transport of people or goods via waterways. Freight transport by sea has been used throughout recorded history; the advent of aviation has diminished the importance of sea travel for passengers, though it is still popular for short trips and pleasure cruises. Transport by water is cheaper than transport by air, despite fluctuating exchange rates and a fee placed on top of freighting charges for carrier companies known as the currency adjustment factor. Maritime transport can be realized over any distance by boat, sailboat or barge, over oceans and lakes, through canals or along rivers. Shipping may be for military purposes. While extensive inland shipping is less critical today, the major waterways of the world including many canals are still important and are integral parts of worldwide economies. Any material can be moved by water. Still, water transport is cost effective with regular schedulable cargoes, such as trans-oceanic shipping of consumer products – and for heavy loads or bulk cargos, such as coal, ores or grains.
Arguably, the industrial revolution took place best where cheap water transport by canal, navigations, or shipping by all types of watercraft on natural waterways supported cost effective bulk transport. Containerization revolutionized maritime transport starting in the 1970s. "General cargo" includes goods packaged in boxes, cases and barrels. When a cargo is carried in more than one mode, it is co-modal. A nation's shipping fleet consists of the ships operated by civilian crews to transport passengers or cargo from one place to another. Merchant shipping includes water transport over the river and canal systems connecting inland destinations and small. For example, during the early modern era, cities in the Hanseatic League began taming Northern Europe's rivers and harbors. And, for instance, the Saint Lawrence Seaway connects the port cities on the Great Lakes in Canada and the United States with the Atlantic Ocean shipping routes. Ores and grains can travel along the rivers of the American midwest to Pittsburgh, or Birmingham.
Professional mariners are merchant seaman, merchant sailor, merchant mariner, or seaman, sailor, or mariners. The terms "seaman" or "sailor" may refer to a member of a country's navy. According to the 2005 CIA World Factbook, the total number of merchant ships of at least 1,000 gross register tons in the world was 30,936. In 2010, it was 38,988, an increase of 26%; as of December 2018, a quarter of all merchant mariners were born in the Philippines. Statistics for individual countries are available at the list of merchant navy capacity by country. A ship's complement can be divided into four categories: the deck department, the engine department, the steward's department, other. Officer positions in the deck department include but not limited to: Master and his Chief and Third officers; the official classifications for unlicensed members of the deck department are Able Seaman and Ordinary Seaman. A common deck crew for a ship includes: Chief Officer/Chief Mate Second Officer /Second Mate Third Officer / Third Mate Boatswain Able Seamen Ordinary SeamenA deck cadet is a person, carrying out mandatory sea time to achieve their officer of the watch certificate.
Their time on board is spent learning the operations and tasks of everyday life on a merchant vessel. A ship's engine department consists of the members of a ship's crew that operate and maintain the propulsion and other systems on board the vessel. Engine staff deal with the "Hotel" facilities on board, notably the sewage, air conditioning and water systems, they deal with bulk fuel transfers, require training in firefighting and first aid, as well as in dealing with the ship's boats and other nautical tasks- with cargo loading/discharging gear and safety systems, though the specific cargo discharge function remains the responsibility of deck officers and deck workers. On LPG and LNG tankers however, a cargo engineer works with the deck department during cargo operations, as well as being a watchkeeping engineer. A common engine crew for a ship includes: Chief engineer Second engineer / first assistant engineer Third engineer / second assistant engineer Fourth engineer / third assistant engineer Fifth engineer / junior engineer Oiler Greaser Entry-level rating Many American ships carry a motorman.
Other possible positions include machinist, refrigeration engineer, tankerman. Engine cadets are engineer trainees who are completing sea time necessary before they can obtain a watchkeeping license. A typical Steward's department for a cargo ship would be composed of a Chief Steward, a Chief Cook, a Steward's Assistant. All three positions are filled by unlicensed personnel; the chief steward directs and assigns personnel performing such functions as preparing and serving meals. On large passenger vessels, the Catering Department is headed by the Chief Purser and managed by Assistant Pursers. Although they enjoy the benefits of having officer rank, they progress through the ranks to becom
S&P Global Inc. is an American publicly traded corporation headquartered in New York City. Its primary areas of business are analytics, it is the parent company of S&P Global Ratings, S&P Global Market Intelligence, S&P Global Platts, is the majority owner of the S&P Dow Jones Indices joint venture. The predecessor companies of S&P Global have history dating to 1888, when James H. McGraw purchased the American Journal of Railway Appliances, he continued to add further publications establishing The McGraw Publishing Company in 1899. John A. Hill had produced several technical and trade publications and in 1902 formed his own business, The Hill Publishing Company. In 1909 both men, having known each other's interests, agreed upon an alliance and combined the book departments of their publishing companies into The McGraw-Hill Book Company. John Hill served with James McGraw as Vice-President. In 1917, the remaining parts of each business were merged into The McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. In 1986, McGraw-Hill bought out competitor The Economy Company the United States' largest publisher of educational material.
The buyout made McGraw-Hill the largest educational publisher in the United States. In 1964, after Hill died, both McGraw-Hill Publishing Company and McGraw-Hill Book Company merged into McGraw-Hill, Inc. In 1966, McGraw-Hill purchased credit rating agency Poor's from, Paul Talbot Babson. In 1979, McGraw-Hill purchased Byte magazine from its owner/publisher Virginia Williamson who became a vice-president of McGraw-Hill. In 1995, McGraw-Hill, Inc. became Inc. as part of a corporate rebranding. In 2007, McGraw-Hill launched an online study network, GradeGuru.com, which gave McGraw-Hill an opportunity to connect directly with its end users, the students. The site closed on April 29, 2012. On October 3, 2011, McGraw-Hill announced it was selling its entire television station group to the E. W. Scripps Company for $212 million; the sale was completed on December 30, 2011. It had been involved in broadcasting since 1972, when it purchased four television stations from a division of Time Inc.. The sale included KZKC-LP Bakersfield.
McGraw Hill has produced the "Glencoe" series of books for decades. On November 26, 2012, McGraw-Hill announced it was selling its entire education division, known as McGraw-Hill Education to Apollo Global Management for $2.5 billion. On March 22, 2013, it announced. On May 1, 2013, shareholders of McGraw-Hill voted to change the company's name to McGraw Hill Financial. McGraw-Hill divested the subsidiary McGraw-Hill Construction to Symphony Technology Group for US$320 million on September 22, 2014; the sale included Engineering News-Record, Architectural Record and Sweet's. McGraw-Hill Construction has been renamed Dodge Analytics. In February 2016, it was announced that McGraw-Hill Financial would change its name to S&P Global Inc. by the end of April 2016. The company changed its name following a shareholder vote on April 27, 2016. In April 2016, the company announced it was selling J. D. Power and Associates to investment firm XIO Group for $1.1 billion. S&P Global now organizes its businesses in four units based on the market in which they are involved.
S&P Global Ratings provides independent investment research including ratings on various investment instruments. S&P Global Market Intelligence is a provider of multi-asset class and real-time data, research and analytics to institutional investors and commercial banks, investment advisors and wealth managers and universities. Subsidiaries include Leveraged Data. Launched on July 2, 2012, S&P Dow Jones Indices is the world's largest global resource for index-based concepts and research, it produces the Dow Jones Industrial Average. S&P Dow Jones Indices calculates over 830,000 indices, publishes benchmarks that provide the basis for 575 ETFs globally with $387 billion in assets invested, serves as the DNA for $1.5 trillion of the world’s indexed assets. Headquartered in London, S&P Global Platts is a provider of information and a source of benchmark price assessments for the commodities, petrochemicals and agriculture markets, it has offices in more than 15 cities, including major energy centres such as London, Dubai and Houston, international business centres such as São Paulo and New York City.
James H. McGraw Johnathan Heflin James McGraw, Jr. Curtis W. McGraw Donald C. McGraw Shelton Fisher Harold McGraw, Jr. Joseph Dionne Harold W. McGraw III Douglas L. Peterson During the course of its history, McGraw Hill and from 2016 S&P Global has expanded through acquisition, not just within the publishing industry but into other areas such as financial services and broadcasting. Please note that the publishing and education assets are a part of McGraw-Hill Education from the company separation in 2013. Note that this list only includes acquisitions made by McGraw-Hill, not its subsidiaries. McGraw-Hill does not release financial information regarding its acquisitions or divestitures. After acquiring a portfolio of diverse companies, McGraw Hill divested itself of many units to form McGraw Hill Fina
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. Central to the modern world economy, it converts raw materials into more than 70,000 different products; the plastics industry contains some overlap, as most chemical companies produce plastic as well as other chemicals. Various professionals are involved in the chemical industry including chemical engineers, lab chemists, etc; as of 2018, the chemical industry comprises 15% of the US manufacturing economic sector. Although chemicals were made and used throughout history, the birth of the heavy chemical industry coincided with the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in general. One of the first chemicals to be produced in large amounts through industrial processes was sulfuric acid. In 1736, the pharmacist Joshua Ward developed a process for its production that involved heating saltpeter, allowing the sulfur to oxidize and combine with water, it was the first practical production of sulphuric acid on a large scale.
John Roebuck and Samuel Garbett were the first to establish a large-scale factory in Prestonpans, Scotland, in 1749, which used leaden condensing chambers for the manufacture of sulfuric acid. In the early 18th century, cloth was bleached by treating it with stale urine or sour milk and exposing it to sunlight for long periods of time, which created a severe bottleneck in production. Sulfuric acid began to be used as a more efficient agent as well as lime by the middle of the century, but it was the discovery of bleaching powder by Charles Tennant that spurred the creation of the first great chemical industrial enterprise, his powder was made by reacting chlorine with dry slaked lime and proved to be a cheap and successful product. He opened a factory in St Rollox, north of Glasgow, production went from just 52 tons in 1799 to 10,000 tons just five years later. Soda ash was used since ancient times in the production of glass, textile and paper, the source of the potash had traditionally been wood ashes in Western Europe.
By the 18th century, this source was becoming uneconomical due to deforestation, the French Academy of Sciences offered a prize of 2400 livres for a method to produce alkali from sea salt. The Leblanc process was patented in 1791 by Nicolas Leblanc who built a Leblanc plant at Saint-Denis, he was denied his prize money because of the French Revolution. However, it was in Britain that the Leblanc process took off. William Losh built the first soda works in Britain at the Losh and Bell works on the River Tyne in 1816, but it remained on a small scale due to large tariffs on salt production until 1824; when these tariffs were repealed, the British soda industry was able to expand. James Muspratt's chemical works in Liverpool and Charles Tennant's complex near Glasgow became the largest chemical production centres anywhere. By the 1870s, the British soda output of 200,000 tons annually exceeded that of all other nations in the world combined; these huge factories began to produce a greater diversity of chemicals as the Industrial Revolution matured.
Large quantities of alkaline waste were vented into the environment from the production of soda, provoking one of the first pieces of environmental legislation to be passed in 1863. This provided for close inspection of the factories and imposed heavy fines on those exceeding the limits on pollution. Methods were soon devised to make useful byproducts from the alkali; the Solvay process was developed by the Belgian industrial chemist Ernest Solvay in 1861. In 1864, Solvay and his brother Alfred constructed a plant in the Belgian town of Charleroi and in 1874, they expanded into a larger plant in Nancy, France; the new process proved more economical and less polluting than the Leblanc method, its use spread. In the same year, Ludwig Mond visited Solvay to acquire the rights to use his process, he and John Brunner formed the firm of Brunner, Mond & Co. and built a Solvay plant at Winnington, England. Mond was instrumental in making the Solvay process a commercial success; the late 19th century saw an explosion in both the quantity of production and the variety of chemicals that were manufactured.
Large chemical industries took shape in Germany and in the United States. Production of artificial manufactured fertilizer for agriculture was pioneered by Sir John Lawes at his purpose-built Rothamsted Research facility. In the 1840s he established large works near London for the manufacture of superphosphate of lime. Processes for the vulcanization of rubber were patented by Charles Goodyear in the United States and Thomas Hancock in England in the 1840s; the first synthetic dye was discovered by William Henry Perkin in London. He transformed aniline into a crude mixture which, when extracted with alcohol, produced a substance with an intense purple colour, he developed the first synthetic perfumes. However, it was German industry that began to dominate the field of synthetic dyes; the three major firms BASF, Bayer and Hoechst produced several hundred different dyes, by 1913, the German industry produced 90 percent of the world supply of dyestuffs and sold about 80 percent of their production abroad.
In the United States, Herbert Henry Dow's use of electrochemistry to produce chemicals from brine was a commercial success that helped to promote the country's chemical industry. The petrochemical industry can be traced back to the oil works of James Young in Scotland and Abraham Pineo Gesne