The Beta C-Mag is a 100-round capacity drum magazine manufactured by the Beta Company. It was designed by Jim Sullivan and first patented in 1987 and has been adapted for use in numerous firearms firing the 5.56×45mm NATO, 7.62×51mm NATO, 9×19mm Parabellum cartridges. C-Mag is short for century magazine, referring to its hundred-round capacity, it has two drum units. The latest version of the magazine is available with a transparent backing to allow the user to see the number of rounds remaining in the magazine. A C-Mag loaded with 5.56×45mm NATO ammunition weighs about 2.1 kg. A version adapted for the M16 rifle is used by the U. S. military. The magazine design, including drawings, is covered in detail in U. S. Patent 4,658,700; the C-MAG is a compact twin-drum magazine design. It consists of two main components: the twin-drum storage housing and an interchangeable feed clip assembly; the storage housing fits any like-caliber weapon. The feed clip assembly serves as an adapter for the specific weapon.
Before loading and after firing, the feed clip is filled with spacer rounds that are an integral part of the magazine. The upper half of the top spacer round is tapered to allow the weapon bolt to close after the last round is fired; the length of the string-set depends on the customized feed clip for the individual weapon. During loading, cartridges are inserted on top of the spacer rounds, through the feed clip and into the drums; the cartridge column splits at the juncture of the feed clip and the housing to distribute the ammunition evenly into the drums in two concentric rows. During firing, spring-driven rotors advance the cartridges in both drums until they meet at a cam blade that merges the cartridges into a single column that feeds up through the feed clip and into the weapon. 9×19mm Parabellum Colt 9mm SMG Heckler & Koch MP5 Uzi Glock 5.56×45mm NATO FN Minimi M249 light machine gun Ultimax 100 AR-15 Beretta ARX-160 FN SCAR Heckler & Koch G36 Heckler & Koch HK33 / 53 Heckler & Koch HK416 Heckler & Koch HK 93 Heckler & Koch XM8 M4 carbine M16 rifle PVAR rifle Ruger Mini-14 SA80 SIG SG550 / 551 / 552 / 553 / 556 Steyr AUG7.62×51mm NATO AR-10 FN FAL Heckler & Koch HK91 Heckler & Koch G3 M14 rifle A test in 2003 by U.
S. Army soldiers in Afghanistan found the C-Mag unreliable in simulated combat conditions and reported frequent failures to feed among the issues; the Beta C-Mag is not in widespread use by U. S. military forces, has not been type-classified. In November 2008, the U. S. Army Experimental Task Force at Fort Bliss, evaluated six BETA C-MAG magazines. Four magazines—two with black covers and two with clear covers—were used with M4 carbines in three firing scenarios: controlled pair, controlled burst, rapid fire. According to the memorandum summarizing the evaluation, the four magazines “performed flawlessly in all three scenarios without jams or stoppages.” Additionally, two magazines with black covers were evaluated with M249 light machine guns in controlled burst and rapid-fire scenarios. These performed without “issues,” according to the memo, which notes that soldiers “had only positive comments” about the C-MAG magazines during the After Action Review. Test-fired with a Heckler & Koch HK91, Heckler & Koch G3 and two other Heckler & Koch-based weapons, the 7.62mm C-Mag was found to operate without problems in either loading or firing at rates up to 1,000 rounds per minute.
Drum magazine Magazine
A rifle is a portable, long-barrelled firearm designed for long-range precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves cut into the bore walls. The term was rifled gun, with the word "rifle" referring to the machining process of creating grooving with cutting tools, is now used for any long handheld device designed for aimed discharge activated by a trigger, such as air rifles and the personnel halting and stimulation response rifle. Rifles are used in warfare, law enforcement and shooting sports. Like all typical firearms, a rifle's projectile is propelled by the contained deflagration of a combustible propellant compound, although other means such as compressed air are used in air rifles, which are popular for vermin control, hunting small game, formal target shooting and casual shooting; the raised areas of the rifling are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile, imparting a spin around the longitudinal axis of the barrel.
When the projectile leaves the barrel, this spin lends gyroscopic stability to the projectile and prevents tumbling, in the same way that a properly spirally thrown American football or rugby ball behaves. This thus improves range and accuracy. Rifles only fired a single projectile with each squeeze of the trigger. Modern rifles are classified as single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic, or automatic. Single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic rifles are limited by their designs to fire a single shot for each trigger pull. Only automatic rifles are capable of firing more than one round per trigger squeeze. Modern automatic rifles overlap to some extent in function with machine guns. In fact, many light machine guns are adaptations of existing automatic rifle designs. A military's light machine guns are chambered for the same caliber ammunition as its service rifles; the difference between an automatic rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight, cooling system, ammunition feed system. Rifles, with their lighter components and smaller capacity magazines, are incapable of sustained automatic fire in the way that machine guns are.
Modern military rifles are fed by magazines, while machine guns are belt-fed. Many machine guns allow the operator to exchange barrels in order to prevent overheating, whereas rifles do not. Most machine guns fire from an open bolt in order to reduce the danger of "cook-off", while all rifles fire from a closed bolt for accuracy. Machine guns are crewed by more than one soldier; the term "rifle" is sometimes used to describe larger rifled crew-served weapons firing explosive shells, for example, recoilless rifles and naval rifles. In many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing if the weapon is not rifled or does not fire solid projectiles; the origins of rifling are difficult to trace, but some of the earliest practical experiments seem to have occurred in Europe during the 15th century. Archers had long realized that a twist added to the tail feathers of their arrows gave them greater accuracy. Early muskets produced large quantities of smoke and soot, which had to be cleaned from the action and bore of the musket either through the action of repeated bore scrubbing, or a deliberate attempt to create "soot grooves" that would allow for more shots to be fired from the firearm.
This might have led to a perceived increase in accuracy, although no one knows for sure. True rifling dates from the mid-15th century, although military commanders preferred smooth bore weapons for infantry use because rifles were much more prone to problems due to powder fouling the barrel and because they took longer to reload and fire than muskets. Rifles were created as an improvement in the accuracy of smooth bore muskets. In the early 18th century, Benjamin Robins, an English mathematician, realized that an elongated bullet would retain the momentum and kinetic energy of a musket ball, but would slice through the air with greater ease; the black powder used in early muzzle-loading rifles fouled the barrel, making loading slower and more difficult. Their greater range was considered to be of little practical use, since the smoke from black powder obscured the battlefield and made it impossible to target the enemy from a distance. Since musketeers could not afford to take the time to stop and clean their barrels in the middle of a battle, rifles were limited to use by sharpshooters and non-military uses like hunting.
Muskets were smoothbore, large caliber weapons using ball-shaped ammunition fired at low velocity. Due to the high cost and great difficulty of precision manufacturing, the need to load from the muzzle, the musket ball was a loose fit in the barrel. On firing the ball bounced off the sides of the barrel when fired and the final direction on leaving the muzzle was unpredictable; the performance of early muskets defined the style of warfare at the time. Due to the lack of accuracy, soldiers were deployed in long lines to fire at the opposing forces. Precise aim was thus not necessary to hit an opponent. Muskets were used for comparatively rapid, imprecise
A handgun is a short-barrelled firearm that can be held and used with one hand. The two most common handgun sub-types in use today are semi-automatic pistols. In the days before mass production, handguns were considered a badge of office, much the same as a sword; as they had limited utility and were more expensive than the long-guns of the era, handguns were carried only by the few who could afford to purchase them. However, in 1836, Samuel Colt patented the Colt Paterson, the first practical mass-produced revolver, it was capable of firing 5 shots in rapid succession and quickly became a popular defensive weapon, giving rise to the saying "God created men, but Colt made them equal." Today, in most of the world, handguns are considered self-defence weapons used by police and military officers. However, in the United States and many other countries around the world, handguns are widely available to civilians and carried for self-defence. Firearms first appeared in China; the oldest known bronze barrel handgun is the Heilongjiang hand cannon, dated to 1288.
It weighs 3.55 kg. The diameter of the interior at the end of the barrel is 2.5 cm. The barrel is 6.9 inches long. The hand cannon has a bulbous base at the breech called the yaoshi or gunpowder chamber, where the explosion that propels the projectile occurs; the diameter of the Heilongjiang hand-gun's powder chamber is 6.6 cm. The walls of the powder chamber are noticeably thicker to better withstand the explosive pressure of the gunpowder; the powder chamber has a touch hole, a small hole for the fuse that ignites the gunpowder. Behind the gunpowder chamber is a socket shaped like a trumpet where the handle of the hand cannon is inserted; the bulbous shape of the base gave the earliest Chinese and Western cannons a vase-like or pear-like appearance, which disappeared when advancements in metallurgical technology made the bulbous base obsolete. The matchlock appeared in Europe in the mid-15th century; the matchlock was the first mechanism invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm.
The classic European matchlock gun held a burning slow match in a clamp at the end of a small curved lever known as the serpentine. Upon the pulling of a lever protruding from the bottom of the gun and connected to the serpentine, the clamp dropped down, lowering the smoldering match into the flash pan and igniting the priming powder; the flash from the primer traveled through the touch hole igniting the main charge of propellant in the gun barrel. On release of the lever or trigger, the spring-loaded serpentine would move in reverse to clear the pan. For obvious safety reasons the match would be removed before reloading of the gun. Both ends of the match were kept alight in case one end should be accidentally extinguished; the wheellock was the next major development in firearms technology after the matchlock and the first self-igniting firearm. Its name is from its rotating steel wheel to provide ignition. Developed in Europe around 1500, it was used alongside the matchlock; the wheellock works by spinning a spring-loaded steel wheel against a piece of pyrite to generate intense sparks, which ignite gunpowder in a pan, which flashes through a small touchhole to ignite the main charge in the firearm's barrel.
The pyrite is clamped in vise jaws on a spring-loaded arm. When the trigger is pulled, the pan cover is opened, the wheel is rotated, with the pyrite pressed into contact. A close modern analogy of the wheellock mechanism is the operation of a cigarette lighter, where a toothed steel wheel is spun in contact with a piece of sparking material to ignite the liquid or gaseous fuel. A wheellock firearm had the advantage that it can be readied and fired with one hand, in contrast to the then-common matchlock firearms, which must have a burning cord of slow match ready if the gun might be needed and demanded the operator's full attention and two hands to operate. On the other hand, wheellock mechanisms were complex to make, making them expensive. A flintlock is a general term for any firearm; the term may apply to a particular form of the mechanism itself, introduced in the early 17th century, replaced earlier firearm-ignition technologies, such as the matchlock and the wheellock. Flintlock pistols were used as a military arm.
Their effective range was short, they were used as an adjunct to a sword or cutlass. Pistols were smoothbore although some rifled pistols were produced. Flintlock pistols came in a variety of sizes and styles which overlap and are not well defined, many of the names we use having been applied by collectors and dealers long after the pistols were obsolete; the smallest were less than 15 cm long and the largest were over 51 cm. From around the beginning of the 1700s the larger pistols got shorter, so that by the late 1700s the largest would be more like 41 cm long; the smallest would fit into a typical pocket or a hand warming muff and could be carried. The largest sizes would be carried in holsters across a horse's back just ahead of the saddle. In-between sizes included the coat pocket pistol, or coat pistol, which would fit into a large pocket, the coach pistol, meant to be carried on or under the seat of a coach in a bag or box, belt pistols, sometimes equipped with a hook designed to slip over a belt or waistband.
Larger pistols were called horse pistols. Arguably the most elegant of the p
IGN is an American video game and entertainment media website operated by IGN Entertainment Inc. a subsidiary of Ziff Davis, itself wholly owned by j2 Global. The company is located in San Francisco's SOMA district and is headed by its former editor-in-chief, Peer Schneider; the IGN website was the brainchild of media entrepreneur Chris Anderson and launched on September 29, 1996. It focuses on games, television, comics and other media. A network of desktop websites, IGN is now distributed on mobile platforms, console programs on the Xbox and PlayStation, FireTV, via YouTube, Twitch and Snapchat. IGN was the flagship website of IGN Entertainment, a website which owned and operated several other websites oriented towards players' interests and entertainment, such as Rotten Tomatoes, GameSpy, GameStats, VE3D, TeamXbox, Vault Network, FilePlanet, AskMen, among others. IGN was sold to publishing company Ziff Davis in February 2013 and now operates as a j2 Global subsidiary. Created in September 1996 as the Imagine Games Network, the IGN content network was founded by publishing executive Jonathan Simpson-Bint and began as five individual websites within Imagine Media: N64.com, PSXPower, Next-Generation.com and Ultra Game Players Online.
Imagine expanded on its owned-and-operated websites by creating an affiliate network that included a number of independent fansites such as PSX Nation.com, Sega-Saturn.com, Game Sages, GameFAQs. In 1998, the network launched a new homepage that consolidated the individual sites as system channels under the IGN brand; the homepage exposed content from more than 30 different channels. Next-Generation and Ultra Game Players Online were not part of this consolidation. G. P. O. Dissolved with the cancellation of the magazine, Next-Generation was put "on hold" when Imagine decided to concentrate on launching the short-lived Daily Radar brand. In February 1999, PC Magazine named IGN one of the hundred-best websites, alongside competitors GameSpot and CNET Gamecenter; that same month, Imagine Media incorporated a spin-off that included IGN and its affiliate channels as Affiliation Networks, while Simpson-Bint remained at the former company. In September, the newly spun-out standalone internet media company, changed its name to Snowball.com.
At the same time, small entertainment website The Den merged into IGN and added non-gaming content to the growing network. Snowball shed most of its other properties during the dot-com bubble. IGN prevailed with growing audience numbers and a newly established subscription service called IGN Insider, which led to the shedding of the name "Snowball" and adoption of IGN Entertainment on May 10, 2002. In June 2005, IGN reported having 24,000,000 unique visitors per month, with 4.8 million registered users through all departments of the site. IGN is ranked among the top 200 most-visited websites according to Alexa. In September 2005, IGN was acquired by Rupert Murdoch's multi-media business empire, News Corporation, for $650 million. IGN celebrated its 10th anniversary on January 12, 2008. IGN was headquartered in the Marina Point Parkway office park in Brisbane, until it relocated to a smaller office building near AT&T Park in San Francisco on March 29, 2010. On May 25, 2011, IGN sold its Direct2Drive division to Gamefly for an undisclosed amount.
In 2011, IGN Entertainment acquired its rival UGO Entertainment from Hearst Corporation. News Corp. planned to spin off IGN Entertainment as a publicly traded company, continuing a string of divestitures for digital properties it had acquired. On February 4, 2013, after a failed attempt to spin off IGN as a separate company, News Corp. announced that it had sold IGN Entertainment to the publishing company Ziff Davis, acquired by J2 Global. Financial details regarding the purchase were not revealed. Prior to its acquisition by UGO, 1UP.com had been owned by Ziff Davis. Soon after the acquisition, IGN announced that it would be laying off staff and closing GameSpy, 1UP.com, UGO in order to focus on its flagship brands, IGN.com and AskMen. The role-playing video game interest website Vault Network was acquired by IGN in 1999. GameStats, a review aggregation website, was founded by IGN in 2004. GameStats includes a "GPM" rating system which incorporates an average press score and average gamer score, as well as the number of page hits for the game.
However, the site is no longer being updated. The Xbox interest site, TeamXbox, the PC game website VE3D were acquired in 2003. IGN Entertainment merged with GameSpy Industries in 2005; the merger brought the game download site FilePlanet into the IGN group. IGN Entertainment acquired the online male lifestyle magazine AskMen.com in 2005. In 2004, IGN acquired film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes and in 2010, sold the website to Flixster. In October 2017, Humble Bundle announced that it was being acquired by IGN. A member of the IGN staff writes a review for a game and gives it a score between 0.1 and 10.0, assigned by increments of 0.1 and determines how much the game is recommended. The score is given according to the "individual aspects of a game, like presentation, sound and lasting appeal." Each game is given a score in each of these categories, but the overall score for the game is an independent evaluation, not an average of the scores in each category. On August 3, 2010, IGN announced.
Instead of a 100-point s
Electronic Arts Inc. is an American video game company headquartered in Redwood City, California. It is the second-largest gaming company in the Americas and Europe by revenue and market capitalization after Activision Blizzard and ahead of Take-Two Interactive and Ubisoft as of March 2018. Founded and incorporated on May 27, 1982, by Apple employee Trip Hawkins, the company was a pioneer of the early home computer games industry and was notable for promoting the designers and programmers responsible for its games. EA published numerous games and productivity software for personal computers and experimented on techniques to internally develop games, leading to the 1987 release of Skate or Die!. The company would decide in favor of abandoning their original principles and acquiring smaller companies that they see profitable, as well as annually releasing franchises to stay profitable. EA develops and publishes games including EA Sports titles FIFA, Madden NFL, NHL, NBA Live, UFC. Other EA established franchises includes Battlefield, Need for Speed, The Sims, Medal of Honor, Command & Conquer, as well as newer franchises such as Dead Space, Mass Effect, Dragon Age, Army of Two and Star Wars: The Old Republic.
Their desktop titles appear on self-developed Origin, an online gaming digital distribution platform for PCs and a direct competitor to Valve's Steam. EA owns and operates major gaming studios, EA Tiburon in Orlando, EA Vancouver in Burnaby, BioWare in Edmonton as well as Austin, DICE in Sweden and Los Angeles. Trip Hawkins had been an employee of Apple Inc. since 1978, at a time when the company had only about fifty employees. Over the next four years, the market for home personal computers skyrocketed. By 1982, Apple had completed its initial public offering and become a Fortune 500 company with over one thousand employees. In February 1982, Trip Hawkins arranged a meeting with Don Valentine of Sequoia Capital to discuss financing his new venture, Amazin' Software. Valentine encouraged Hawkins to leave Apple, where Hawkins served as Director of Product Marketing, allowed Hawkins use of Sequoia Capital's spare office space to start the company. On May 27, 1982, Trip Hawkins incorporated and established the company with a personal investment of an estimated US$200,000.
For more than seven months, Hawkins refined his Electronic Arts business plan. With aid from his first employee, Rich Melmon, the original plan was written by Hawkins, on an Apple II in Sequoia Capital's office in August 1982. During that time, Hawkins employed two of his former staff from Apple, Dave Evans and Pat Marriott, as producers, a Stanford MBA classmate, Jeff Burton from Atari for international business development; the business plan was again refined in September and reissued on October 8, 1982. By November, employee headcount rose to 11, including Tim Mott, Bing Gordon, David Maynard, Steve Hayes. Having outgrown the office space provided by Sequoia Capital, the company relocated to a San Mateo office that overlooked the San Francisco Airport landing path. Headcount rose in 1983, including Don Daglow, Richard Hilleman, Stewart Bonn, David Gardner, Nancy Fong; when he incorporated the company, Hawkins chose Amazin' Software as their company name, but his other early employees of the company universally disliked the name.
He scheduled an off-site meeting in the Pajaro Dunes, where the company once held such off-site meetings. Hawkins had developed the ideas of treating software as an art form and calling the developers, "software artists". Hence, the latest version of the business plan had suggested the name "SoftArt"; however and Melmon knew the founders of Software Arts, the creators of VisiCalc, thought their permission should be obtained. Dan Bricklin did not want the name used. However, the name concept was liked by all the attendees. Hawkins had recently read a bestselling book about the film studio United Artists, liked the reputation that the company had created. Hawkins said everyone had a vote but they would lose it if they went to sleep. Hawkins liked the word "electronic", various employees had considered the phrases "Electronic Artists" and "Electronic Arts"; when Gordon and others pushed for "Electronic Artists", in tribute to the film company United Artists, Steve Hayes opposed, saying, "We're not the artists, they are..."
This statement from Hayes tilted sentiment towards Electronic Arts and the name was unanimously endorsed and adopted in 1982. He recruited his original employees from Apple, Xerox PARC, VisiCorp, got Steve Wozniak to agree to sit on the board of directors. Hawkins was determined to sell directly to buyers. Combined with the fact that Hawkins was pioneering new game brands, this made sales growth more challenging. Retailers wanted to buy known brands from existing distribution partners. Former CEO Larry Probst arrived as VP of Sales in late 1984 and helped expand the successful company; this policy of dealing directly with retailers gave EA higher margins and better market awareness, key advantages the company would leverage to leapfrog its early competitors. A novel approach to giving credit to its developers was one of EA's trademarks in its early days; this characterization was further reinforced with EA's packaging of most of their games in the "album cover" pioneered by EA because Hawkins thought that a record album style would both save costs and convey an artistic feeling.
EA referred to their developers as "artists" and gave them photo credits in their games and numerous full-page magazine ads. Their first such ad, accompanied by the slogan "We see far
Infrared thermography, thermal imaging, thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science. Thermographic cameras detect radiation in the long-infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum and produce images of that radiation, called thermograms. Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero according to the black body radiation law, thermography makes it possible to see one's environment with or without visible illumination; the amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature. When viewed through a thermal imaging camera, warm objects stand out well against cooler backgrounds; as a result, thermography is useful to the military and other users of surveillance cameras. Some physiological changes in human beings and other warm-blooded animals can be monitored with thermal imaging during clinical diagnostics. Thermography is used in veterinary medicine; some alternative medicine practitioners promote its use for breast screening, despite the FDA warning that "those who opt for this method instead of mammography may miss the chance to detect cancer at its earliest stage".
Government and airport personnel used thermography to detect suspected swine flu cases during the 2009 pandemic. Thermography has a long history, although its use has increased with the commercial and industrial applications of the past fifty years. Firefighters use thermography to see through smoke, to find persons, to localize the base of a fire. Maintenance technicians use thermography to locate overheating joints and sections of power lines, which are a sign of impending failure. Building construction technicians can see thermal signatures that indicate heat leaks in faulty thermal insulation and can use the results to improve the efficiency of heating and air-conditioning units; the appearance and operation of a modern thermographic camera is similar to a camcorder. The live thermogram reveals temperature variations so that a photograph is not necessary for analysis. A recording module is therefore not always built-in. Non-specialized CCD and CMOS sensors have most of their spectral sensitivity in the visible light wavelength range.
However, by utilizing the "trailing" area of their spectral sensitivity, namely the part of the infrared spectrum called near-infrared, by using off-the-shelf CCTV camera it is possible under certain circumstances to obtain true thermal images of objects with temperatures at about 280 °C and higher. Specialized thermal imaging cameras use focal plane arrays; the most common types are InSb, InGaAs, HgCdTe and QWIP FPA. The newest technologies use uncooled microbolometers as FPA sensors, their resolution is lower than that of optical cameras 160x120 or 320x240 pixels, up to 1024×768 for the most expensive models. Thermal imaging cameras are much more expensive than their visible-spectrum counterparts, higher-end models are export-restricted due to the military uses for this technology. Older bolometers or more sensitive models such as InSb require cryogenic cooling by a miniature Stirling cycle refrigerator or liquid nitrogen. Thermal images, or thermograms, are visual displays of the amount of infrared energy emitted and reflected by an object.
Because there are multiple sources of the infrared energy, it is difficult to get an accurate temperature of an object using this method. A thermal imaging camera is capable of performing algorithms to interpret that data and build an image. Although the image shows the viewer an approximation of the temperature at which the object is operating, the camera is using multiple sources of data based on the areas surrounding the object to determine that value rather than detecting the actual temperature; this phenomenon may become clearer upon consideration of the formula: Incident Radiant Power = Emitted Radiant Power + Transmitted Radiant Power + Reflected Radiant Power. Emitted radiant power is what is intended to be measured; this phenomenon occurs all the time. It is a process known as radiant heat exchange. However, in the case of infrared thermography, the above equation is used to describe the radiant power within the spectral wavelength passband of the thermal imaging camera in use; the radiant heat exchange requirements described in the equation apply at every wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum.
If the object is radiating at a higher temperature than its surroundings power transfer will be taking place and power will be radiating from warm to cold following the principle stated in the second law of thermodynamics. So if there is a cool area in the thermogram, that object will be absorbing the radiation emitted by the warm object; the ability of objects to emit is called emissivity. Under outdoor environments, convective cooling from wind may need to be considered when trying to get an accurate temperature reading; the thermal imaging camera would next employ a series of mathematical algorithms. Since the camera is onl