Global warming

Global warming is the long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system. It is a major aspect of climate change and has been demonstrated by direct temperature measurements and by measurements of various effects of the warming. Global warming and climate change are used interchangeably. But, more global warming is the human-caused increase in global surface temperatures and its projected continuation, while climate change includes both global warming and its effects, such as changes in precipitation. While there have been prehistoric periods of global warming, observed changes since the mid-20th century have been unprecedented in rate and scale; the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report concluded, "It is likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century". The largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Fossil fuel burning is the dominant source of these gases, with agricultural emissions and deforestation playing significant roles.

These findings have been recognized by the national science academies of the major industrialized nations and are not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing. The effects of global warming include rising sea levels, regional changes in precipitation, more frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, expansion of deserts. Surface temperature increases are greatest in the Arctic, which have contributed to the retreat of glaciers and sea ice. Overall, higher temperatures bring more rain and snowfall, but for some regions droughts and wildfires increase instead. Climate change threatens to diminish crop yields, harming food security, rising sea levels may flood coastal infrastructure and force the abandonment of many coastal cities. Environmental impacts include the extinction or relocation of many species as their ecosystems change, most in coral reefs and the Arctic; some impacts, such as loss of snow cover, increased water vapour, melting permafrost, cause feedback effects that further increase the rate of global warming.

Ocean acidification caused by increased CO2 levels is grouped with these effects though it is not driven by temperature. Mitigation efforts to address global warming include the development and deployment of low carbon energy technologies, policies to reduce fossil fuel emissions, forest preservation, as well as the development of potential climate engineering technologies. Societies and governments are working to adapt to current and future global warming impacts, including improved coastline protection, better disaster management, the development of more resistant crops. Countries work together on climate change under the umbrella of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which entered into force in 1994 and has near-universal membership; the ultimate goal of the convention is to "prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system". Although the parties to the UNFCCC have agreed that deep cuts in emissions are required and that global warming should be limited to well below 2 °C in the Paris Agreement of 2016, the Earth's average surface temperature has increased by about half this threshold.

With current policies and pledges, global warming by the end of the century is expected to reach just over 2 °C to 4 °C, depending on how sensitive the climate is to emissions. The IPCC has stressed the need to keep global warming below 1.5 °C compared to pre-industrial levels in order to avoid irreversible impacts. At the current greenhouse gas emission rate of 42 gigatons per year, the carbon budget for staying below 1.5°C would be exhausted by 2028. Climate proxy records show that natural variations offset the early effects of the Industrial Revolution, so there was little net warming between the 18th century and the mid-19th century, when thermometer records began to provide global coverage; the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has adopted the baseline reference period 1850–1900 as an approximation of pre-industrial global mean surface temperature. Multiple independently produced instrumental datasets confirm that the 2009–2018 decade was 0.93 ± 0.07 °C warmer than the pre-industrial baseline.

Surface temperatures are rising by about 0.2 °C per decade. Since 1950, the number of cold days and nights have decreased, the number of warm days and nights have increased. Historical patterns of warming and cooling, like the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, were not as synchronous as current warming, but may have reached temperatures as high as those of the late-20th century in a limited set of regions. Past examples of climate change provide insight into modern climate change. Although the most common measure of global warming is the increase in the near-surface atmospheric temperature, over 90% of the additional energy stored in the climate system over the last 50 years has warmed ocean water; the remainder of the additional energy warmed the continents and the atmosphere. The warming evident in the instrumental temperature record is consistent with a wide range of observations, documented by many independent scientific groups. Further examples include sea level rise, widespread melting of snow and land ice, increased heat content of the oceans, increased humidity, the earlier timing of spring events, such as the flowering of plants.

Global warming refers with the amount of warming varying by region. Since the pre-industrial period, glo

Vladimir Konstantinov (politician)

Vladimir Andreyevich Konstantinov is a Crimean and Russian politician serving as Chairman of the State Council of the Republic of Crimea from 17 March 2014. Chairman of the Supreme Council in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea from 17 March 2010 until 17 March 2014. On March 5, 2014, the Shevchenko district court of Kyiv ruled on the detention of the self-proclaimed leaders Sergey Aksyonov and Vladimir Konstantinov; the Security Service of Ukraine was charged to bring them to court. On March 15, 2014 Ukrainian parliament dissolved the Supreme Council of CrimeaIn 2012 Konstantinov condemned calls for an incorporation of Crimea into Russia. On 20 February 2014, during a visit to Moscow, he stated that the 1954 transfer of Crimea from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic had been a mistake. Since March 2014 Konstantinov is a strong supporter of the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea, he was born in Vladimirovca in the Moldavian SSR on November 19, 1956.

In 1973, he graduated from Nauchnenskaya secondary school of Bakhchysarai Raion. He is a graduate of Simferopol branch of Sevastopol instrument-making institute, majoring in industrial and civil engineering. From 1979 to 1981 he served in the military service in the Armed Forces of USSR, he holds numerous awards and merits including the "Honored builder of Ukraine." He served as Deputy of the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea 1998–2002. Andriy Senchenko, member of Verkhovna Rada from Batkivshchyna party, has alleged that Vladimir Konstatinov has been involved in fraudulent real estate transactions and that he has worked since the 1990s with Prime Minister Sergey Aksyonov, who Senchenko alleged to be a member of organized crime


Jarler was Archbishop of Sweden from 1236 to 1255. Jarler was one of the two earliest known Swedish students at the University of Paris. During his time as archbishop, the Dominican and Franciscan friars settled in Sweden; these orders benefited the Christian awareness among the common populations through their preaching. In Sweden, the political climate was shaky. In 1247, the house of Folkung, revolted against the king, Eric XI of Sweden, resulting in the battle at Sparrsätra. In 1247, a vigorous delegate from the Pope, Vilhelm of Sabina, was sent to Sweden to investigate the recurring accusations of marriage among priests, other alleged problems. At a church meeting in Skänninge 1248, where Jarler participated, it was decided to consecrate the rule of celibacy, the Church's independence of the King, that the archbishop should be elected through a cathedral chapter and not as by the King personally; as these rules show, the Swedish Church was still in a rather unstable state. The rules established an important foundation though they were not always followed.

In 1254 Jarler sent a letter to the Pope. He was one of the few Swedish archbishops to have made this request; the reasons he gave were. The Pope granted his resignation, but before the message had arrived in 1255, Jarler had died; this article contains content from the Owl Edition of Nordisk familjebok, a Swedish encyclopedia published between 1904 and 1926, now in the public domain. Nordisk familjebok, article Vilhelm av Sabina In Swedish Nordisk familjebok, article Jarler In Swedish Svea Rikes Ärkebiskopar, 1935, Uppsala