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Global warming controversy

The global warming controversy concerns the public debate over whether global warming is occurring, how much has occurred in modern times, what has caused it, what its effects will be, whether any action can or should be taken to curb it, if so what that action should be. In the scientific literature, there is a strong consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases. No scientific body of national or international standing disagrees with this view, though a few organizations with members in extractive industries hold non-committal positions, some have attempted to convince the public that climate change isn't happening, or if the climate is changing it isn't because of human influence, attempting to sow doubt in the scientific consensus; the controversy is, by now, political rather than scientific: there is a scientific consensus that global warming is happening and is caused by human activity.

Disputes over the key scientific facts of global warming are more prevalent in the media than in the scientific literature, where such issues are treated as resolved, such disputes are more prevalent in the United States than globally. Political and popular debate concerning the existence and cause of global warming includes the reasons for the increase seen in the instrumental temperature record, whether the warming trend exceeds normal climatic variations, whether human activities have contributed to it. Scientists have resolved these questions decisively in favour of the view that the current warming trend exists and is ongoing, that human activity is the cause, that it is without precedent in at least 2000 years. Public disputes that reflect scientific debate include estimates of how responsive the climate system might be to any given level of greenhouse gases, how the climate will change at local and regional scales, what the consequences of global warming will be. Global warming remains an issue of widespread political debate split along party political lines in the United States.

Many of the issues that are settled within the scientific community, such as human responsibility for global warming, remain the subject of politically or economically motivated attempts to downplay, dismiss or deny them—an ideological phenomenon categorised by academics and scientists as climate change denial. The sources of funding for those involved with climate science opposing mainstream scientific positions have been questioned. There are debates about the best policy responses to the science, their cost-effectiveness and their urgency. Climate scientists in the United States, have reported government and oil-industry pressure to censor or suppress their work and hide scientific data, with directives not to discuss the subject in public communications. Legal cases regarding global warming, its effects, measures to reduce it have reached American courts; the fossil fuels lobby has been identified as overtly or covertly supporting efforts to undermine or discredit the scientific consensus on global warming.

In the United States, the mass media devoted little coverage to global warming until the drought of 1988, James E. Hansen's testimony to the Senate, which explicitly attributed "the abnormally hot weather plaguing our nation" to global warming; the British press changed its coverage at the end of 1988, following a speech by Margaret Thatcher to the Royal Society advocating action against human-induced climate change. According to Anabela Carvalho, an academic analyst, Thatcher's "appropriation" of the risks of climate change to promote nuclear power, in the context of the dismantling of the coal industry following the 1984–1985 miners' strike was one reason for the change in public discourse. At the same time environmental organizations and the political opposition were demanding "solutions that contrasted with the government's". In May 2013 Charles, Prince of Wales took a strong stance criticising both climate change deniers and corporate lobbyists by likening the Earth to a dying patient.

"A scientific hypothesis is tested to absolute destruction. If a doctor sees a child with a fever, he can't wait for tests, he has to act on what is there."Many European countries took action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions before 1990. West Germany started to take action. All countries of the European Union ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Substantial activity by NGOs took place as well; the United States Energy Information Administration reports that, in the United States, "The 2012 downturn means that emissions are at their lowest level since 1994 and over 12% below the recent 2007 peak."The theory that increases in greenhouse gases would lead to an increase in temperature was first proposed by the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius in 1896, but climate change did not arise as a political issue until the 1990s. It took many years for this particular issue to attract any type of attention. In Europe, the notion of human influence on climate gained wide acceptance more than in the United States and other countries.

A 2009 survey found that Europeans rated climate change as the second most serious problem facing the world, between "poverty, the lack of food and drinking water" and "a major global economic downturn". 87% of Europeans considered climate change to be a serious or serious problem, while ten per cent did not consider it a serious problem. In 2007, the BBC announced the cancellation of a planned television special Planet Relief, which would have highlighted the global warming issue and included a mass electrical switch-off; the editor of BBC's Newsnight current affairs show said: "It is absolutely


Heteronema is a genus of phagotrophic, flagellated euglenoids that are most distributed in fresh water environments. This genus consists of two distinguishable morphogroups that are phylogenetically related; these morphogroups are deciphered based on shape and other ultrastructural traits. However, this genus does impose taxonomic problems due to the varying historical descriptions of Heteronema species and its similarity to the genus Paranema; the species H. exaratum, was the first heteronemid with a skidding motion to be sequenced, which led to the discovery that it was not related to H. scaphrum, contrary to what was assumed, but instead to a sister group of primary osmotrophs. This suggests that skidding heteronemids can be distinguished phylogenetically, being more related to Anisoma and Aphageae, than to other species within Heteronema; this genus was first described by Félix Dujardin, a French zoologist in 1841 as having variable shape typified in 1970 by Bourelly as an Anisonema. In 1970, Stein modified the description to include cells with two flagella and two new species’ descriptions with one containing ingestion rods.

There was difficulty separating this genus from Paranema. Now more than 25 species are described under the genus Heteronema. Heteronema is widespread and found in brackish pools and fresh water ponds; these euglenoids are phagotrophic, making them important in microbial food webs. This genus consists of colourless euglenoids that range in size from 8-75um. Individuals are assigned to this genus if they have characteristic such as an ingestion apparatus, a capacity for flagellar movement and a recurrent flagellum, not adpressed to the ventral side of the cell; the cells are covered with a large number of proteinaceous pellicle strips with microtubules lined underneath. These pellicle strips are a distinguishing feature of the euglenoids, that allows the cells to undergo metaboly, giving the cell flexibility and movement. Heteronema, under the light microscope, is morphologically similar to Paranema, where both groups are metabolic, have the ability to glide, have visible feedings rods and two different flagellum on opposite ends of the cell.

Heteronema is separated into two specific morphogroups, one consisting of elongate and flexible cells that move by gliding, holding the anterior flagellum out in front of the cell. This morphogroup includes the species H. scaphrum. In contrast, the second group consists of ovoid, more rigid cells that have a characteristic rapid “skidding” swimming behaviour. Examples of species within this group are H. exaratum. The skidding behaviour is similar to the primary osmotrophs, where the motion is powered by the beating of the anterior flagellum, positioned in a curve to the right of the cell, in a sinusoidal pattern; this may reflect the evolution of ancestral phagotrophic euglenoids, where all species swam poorly and relied on gliding instead of flagellar movement. The flagella are hollow with heteromorphic paraxonemal rods, covered with sheaths of hairs. In accordance to its name, the anterior emergent flagella is longer and thicker, directed anteriorly and used for locomotion, the shorter, thinner flagellum is directed posteriorly.

The feeding apparatus is quite small, composed of separate microtubule rods and surrounded by spiral striations at the anterior end of the cell. There is no sexual reproduction observed in the euglenoids. After the duplication of the nucleus and cytoskeleton, a cleavage furrow appears, migrating from the flagellar pocket to the anterior opening, to the posterior end, separating the parent from the daughter cell. H. abrupta Skuja H. abruptum Skuja H. aciforme Z. X. Shi H. acus F. Stein H. acuta Wawrik H. acutissimum Lemmermann H. aquae Skvortzov H. bifurcata H. Silva H. capitatum Z. X. Shi H. citriformis Wawrik H. diaphana Skuja H. diaphanum Skuja H. discomorphum Skuja H. distigmoides Christen H. distigmoides Christen H. eneydae Skvortzov H. fidalgae Skvortzov H. fusiforme Skvortzov H. globuliferum F. Stein H. hexagonum Skuja H. invaginata Prowse H. klebsii Senn H. leptosoma Skuja H. leptosomum Skuja H. longiovata H. Silva H. marina Dujardin H. medusae Skvortzov H. metabolissimum Wawrik H. mutabile Lemmermann H. nebuloglabrum H.

Silva H. ovalis Kahl H. palmeri Skvortzov H. plicata Skuja H. plicatum Skuja H. polymorphum Deflandre H. proteus Christen H. punctato Skvortzov H. robusta Skvortzov H. rosae-mariae Skvortzov H. sacculus Skuja H. saopaulensis Skvortzov H. scabra Z. Cyrus H. shii D. Kapustin & Davydov H. similis Skvortzov Skvortzov H. spirale Klebs H. spiralis Klebs H. spirogyra Skuja H. splendens J. Larsen & D. J. Patterson H. subsucculus Z. Shi H. taurica Vetrova H. tortum Z. Shi H. tortuosa Christen H. tortuosum Christen H. trachelomonades Skvortzov H. tremulum Zacharias H. trispira Matvienko H. vetrovae D. Kapustin & Davydov H. vittatum J. Larsen & D. J. Patterson

Jo Boaler

Jo Boaler is a British education author and Nomellini-Olivier Professor of Mathematics Education at the Stanford Graduate School of Education. Boaler is involved in promoting mathematics education reform and equitable mathematics classrooms, she is the co-founder and faculty director of youcubed, a Stanford centre that provides mathematics education resources to teachers and parents. She is the author of nine books, including Limitless Mind, Mathematical Mindsets, What's Math Got To Do With It? and The Elephant in the Classroom, all written for teachers and parents with the goal of improving mathematics education in both the US and UK. Her 1997/2002 book, Experiencing School Mathematics, won the "Outstanding Book of the Year" award for education in Britain. Jo Boaler began her career as a secondary mathematics teacher in urban London secondary schools, including Haverstock School, Camden. After her early career in secondary mathematics education, Boaler received a master's degree in Mathematics Education from King's College London with distinction in 1991.

She completed her PhD in mathematics education at the same university and won the award for best PhD in education from the British Educational Research Association in 1997. In 1998, Jo Boaler became an Assistant Professor of Mathematics Education at Stanford University in the Graduate School of Education, she gained tenure in 2001 and became a full professor there in 2006. From 2000 to 2004, Boaler served as the president of the International Organization of Women and Mathematics Education. In January 2007, she was awarded the Marie Curie Foundation Chair of Excellence at Sussex University. After three years in this post, in 2010 she returned to Stanford and resumed her position as Professor of Mathematics Education. In 2013, Boaler taught the first Massive Online Open Course on mathematics education, called "How to Learn Math", its purpose was to educate teachers and parents about a new way of teaching math to help students overcome their fear of math while improving their academic performance.

Over 40,000 teachers and parents participated, with about 25,000 completing the full 2-to-16-hour course. At the end of course, 95% of survey respondents indicated that they would modify their ways of teaching math. Boaler provides consultation to other Silicon Valley digital educational institutions, such as Novo-ed, Inner Tube Games, Udacity. In addition, she teaches workshops on teaching for a growth mindset, drawing upon the work of Carol Dweck and developer of the theory of growth mindset. During the early part of Boaler's career, she conducted longitudinal studies of students learning mathematics through different approaches, her first three-year study in England was published as "Experiencing School Mathematics: Teaching Styles and Setting." The book was released for an American audience entitled "Experiencing School Mathematics: Traditional and Reform Approaches to Teaching and their Impact on Student Learning". In 2000, she was awarded a presidential Early Career Award from the National Science Foundation.

This funded a four-year study of students learning mathematics through different approaches in three US high schools. Both of these studies found that students who were engaged in mathematics learning using problem solving and reasoning about methods achieved at higher levels and enjoyed math more than those who engaged passively by practising methods that a teacher had demonstrated In addition to focusing on inquiry-based learning, Boaler's work has focused on gender equity and mathematics. In addition, Boaler's research has highlighted the problems associated with ability grouping in England and the US. More Boaler has published research showing the links between timed testing and math anxiety. Boaler is conducting research on mathematics and growth mindset with Stanford University professors Carol Dweck and Greg Walton. In 2006, mathematician R. James Milgram accused Boaler of scientific misconduct, which prompted Stanford University to investigate claims challenging the validity of her research.

However, Stanford University declined to move forward with the investigation, stating that the allegations "do not have substance". Milgram, fellow mathematician Wayne Bishop and statistician Paul Clopton posted a 44-page online paper outlining their complaints about one particular study; the story was circulated on social media and picked up by the national press. Boaler issued a response in 2012, accusing Milgram, Bishop of harassment and suppression. Bishop and Milgram each issued rebuttals to Boaler's claims. 1997 Best PhD in Education, 1997, British Educational Research Association, United Kingdom 1998 Elected Fellow Royal Society of Arts Royal Society of Arts 1998 Outstanding Book of the Year Award in Education, Standing Conference for Studies in Education. 2000–2005 Presidential Early Career Award, National Science Foundation 2000 – 2004 President: International Organisation of Women and Mathematics Education 2004 Fellow: Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences 2007 Chair of Excellence: The Marie Curie Foundation 2010 Invited Lecture The Royal Society 2014 NCSM Equity Award 2016 California Math Council Leadership Award Books: Boaler, J..

Mathematical Mindsets. Unleashing Students' Potential through Creative Math, Inspiring Messages & Innovative Teaching. Wiley: San Francisco. Boaler, J.. The Elephant in the Classroom. Helping Children Learn & Love Maths. Souvenir Press: London. Boaler, J. What's Math Got To Do With It? How Parents and Teachers Can Help Children Learn to Love Their Least Favorite Subject. Peng

Rommel N. Angara

Rommel N. Angara is a Filipino poet and essayist, his poems saw print in a magazine for Filipino children. His essays saw print in a magazine for Filipino teachers, he was born in the town of Baler in the Philippine province of Aurora. He is the youngest of the sons of Rodolfo R. Angara, Sr. of Baler and Milagros D. Nazareno of Goa, Camarines Sur. During his childhood through early adolescence, he witnessed his father’s occasional violence toward his mother, who fled their house. During his childhood through early adulthood, he witnessed the former’s occasional drunkenness and regular smoking; as a young adult, he worked as a clerk and houseboy. In late December 2015, he was diagnosed with Ménière's disease, he graduated as high school valedictorian in 1997 and as a commended college student in 2013 with a Bachelor of Secondary Education degree from the Mount Carmel College of Baler, the oldest Catholic mission school in the province of Aurora. A member of a broken family in his early adolescence, he turned to poetry writing for consolation.

His first published poem was the children’s poem “Why Do They Cut Me, Lord?” which appeared in Pambata in 1998. He wrote some poems for Sipag Pinoy from 2000 to 2002 and for Liwayway between 2011 and 2012. Among the poems he wrote for Liwayway was the sonnet "En Su Incansable Labor" included in the National Library of the Philippines catalog in 2012, he wrote some essays for The Modern Teacher from 2016 to 2019. Among the essays he wrote for The Modern Teacher was "Is It Time for You to Say'I Do'?—An Open Letter to a Young Student in Love." His life story was featured in the Maalaala Mo Kaya? Episode “Pasa” aired on ABS-CBN on May 21, 2016, with child actor Raikko Mateo and actor and video jockey Diego Loyzaga playing the lead role. Kantar Media revealed that the MMK episode reached a 30.2% nationwide rating compared with the 15.0% and 1.5% ratings garnered by the Magpakailanman episode and the Wattpad Presents episode, respectively

Military occupations by the Soviet Union

During World War II, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed several countries handed over by Nazi Germany in the secret Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 1939. These included the eastern regions of Poland, as well as Latvia, Lithuania, part of eastern Finland and eastern Romania. Apart from the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and post-war division of Germany, the USSR occupied and annexed Carpathian Ruthenia from Czechoslovakia in 1945. Below is a lists of various forms of military occupations by the Soviet Union resulting from both the Soviet pact with Nazi Germany, the ensuing Cold War in the aftermath of Allied victory over Germany. Poland was the first country to be occupied by the Soviet Union during World War II; the secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact stipulated Poland to be split between Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. In 1939, the total area of Polish territories occupied by the Soviet Union, was 201,015 square kilometres, with a population of 13.299 million, of which 5.274 million were ethnic Poles and 1.109 million were Jews.

After the end of World War II, the Soviet Union kept most of the territories it occupied in 1939, while territories with an area of 21,275 square kilometers with 1.5 million inhabitants were returned to communist-controlled Poland, notably the areas near Białystok and Przemyśl. In 1944–1947, over a million Poles were resettled from the annexed territories into Poland. Soviet troops were stationed in Poland from 1945 until 1993, it was only in 1956 that official agreements between communist regime in Poland established by Soviets themselves and Soviet Union recognized the presence of those troops. Other scholars date the Soviet occupation until 1989; the Polish government-in-exile existed until 1990. After existing as independent countries for twenty years, the Baltic states were occupied and illegally annexed in June 1940. Given a free hand by Nazi Germany via the German–Soviet Nonaggression Pact and its secret additional protocol of August 1939, the Soviet Union pressured the three countries to accept its military bases in September 1939.

In the case of refusal, the USSR effected an air and naval blockade and threatened to attack with hundreds of thousands of troops massed upon the border. The military forces overtook the political systems of these countries and installed puppet regimes after rigged elections in June 1940; the sovietisation was interrupted by the German occupation in 1941–1944. The Baltic Offensive re-established the Soviet control in 1944–1945, resumed sovietisation completed by 1950; the forced collectivisation of agriculture began in 1947, was completed after the mass deportation in March 1949. Private farms were confiscated, farmers were made to join the collective farms. An armed resistance movement of'forest brothers' was active until the mid-1950s. Hundreds of thousands supported the movement; the Soviet authorities fighting the forest brothers suffered hundreds of deaths. Some innocent civilians were killed on both sides. In addition, a number of underground nationalist schoolchildren groups were active. Most of their members were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment.

The punitive actions decreased after Joseph Stalin's death in 1953. During the occupation, the Soviet authorities killed, politically arrested, unlawfully drafted, deported hundreds of thousands of people. Numerous other kind of crimes against humanity were committed all through the occupation period. Furthermore, trying to enforce the ideals of Communism, the authorities deliberately dismantled the existing social and economic structures, imposed new "ideologically pure" hierarchies; this retarded the Baltic economies. For example, Estonian scientists have estimated economic damages directly attributable to the post-World War II occupation to hundreds of billions of US dollars; the Soviet environmental damage to Estonia is estimated to about $4 billion. In addition to direct damages, the retarded economy led to severe inequality within the Northern Europe. After all, the attempt to integrate the Estonian society into the Soviet system failed. Although the armed resistance was defeated, the population remained anti-Soviet.

This helped the Estonians to organise a new resistance movement in the late 1980s, regain their independence in 1991, rapidly develop a modern society. Notwithstanding the annexation by the Soviet Union in 1940, it is therefore correct to speak of the occupation of the Baltic states, referring in particular to the absence of Soviet legal title; the prolonged occupation was an unorthodox one. Until 1991, the status of the three countries resembled the classical occupation in important ways: external control by an internationally unsanctioned force and a conflict of interest between the foreign power and the inhabitants. However, in other aspects the situation was different from a classical occupation. Both the fact of the incorporation of the Baltic states to the USSR as Soviet republics without qualification, the long duration of the Soviet rule challenge the applicability of all rules on occupation from the practical point of view. Despite the fact of annexa

MVP Colony

MVP Colony is an urban neighborhood in the Indian city of Visakhapatnam and Asia's largest township with more than 1 lakh population. The colony is divided into 16 sectors, it is a well developed colony in Visakhapatnam with many hotels, temples and hospitals. A modern auditorium, an amphitheatre and three convention halls worth ₹ 20 crore are being constructed here; the foundation stone for these was laid in February 2014. A track was laid along the foothills of Kailasgiri called the VMRDA Health Arena or Buddha Vanam, inaugurated in January 2016, it was developed by VUDA after spending nearly ₹8 crore. Buddha Vanam with a 31-foot Buddha statue raised on a three-foot pedestal is an important attraction for tourists, it turned into a popular rendezvous for the health conscious as well as tourists thronging the city for its impressive landscaping and magnificent grandeur. This is the only park in the city which has a long stretch for walking and cycling for which there is a dedicated track; the Buddha Vanam attracts several women and senior citizens for meditation.

Many visit the imposing statue area for yoga and laughing exercise. An ultra modern gym with facilities for regular workouts and aerobics is available too. Tenneti Park, at the intersection of Sector-9 and the beach road towards Bhimili, has views of the Bay of Bengal and the anchored ships in the harbour; the Shivaji Park is located adjacent to the colony. APS RTC operates bus services from MVP Colony bus station to every part of the city. MVP Double road and Beach road are major roads; the most important bus route is 540 which runs from MVP Complex to Simhachalam, 900 which runs from Maddilapalem to railway station via MVP Colony. 900K which runs from Bheemili to RTC Complex via Ushodaya Junction. APSRTC routes