The globins are a superfamily of heme-containing globular proteins, involved in binding and/or transporting oxygen. These proteins all incorporate the globin fold, a series of eight alpha helical segments. Two prominent members include hemoglobin. Both of these proteins reversibly bind oxygen via a heme prosthetic group, they are distributed in many organisms. Globin superfamily members share a common three-dimensional fold. This'globin fold' consists of eight alpha helices, although some proteins have additional helix extensions at their termini. Since the globin fold contains only helices, it is classified; the globin fold. The globin fold; the eight helices of the globin fold core share significant nonlocal structure, unlike other structural motifs in which amino acids close to each other in primary sequence are close in space. The helices pack together at an average angle of about 50 degrees steeper than other helical packings such as the helix bundle; the exact angle of helix packing depends on the sequence of the protein, because packing is mediated by the sterics and hydrophobic interactions of the amino acid side chains near the helix interfaces.
Globins evolved from a common ancestor and can be divided into three groups: single-domain globins, two types of chimeric globins, flavohaemoglobins and globin-coupled sensors. Bacteria have all three types of globins, while archaea lack flavohaemoglobins, eukaryotes lack globin-coupled sensors. Several functionally different haemoglobins can coexist in the same species. Eight globins are known to occur in vertebrates: androglobin, globin E, globin X, globin Y, hemoglobin and neuroglobin. Although the fold of the globin superfamily is evolutionarily conserved, the sequences that form the fold can have as low as 16% sequence identity. While the sequence specificity of the fold is not stringent, the hydrophobic core of the protein must be maintained and hydrophobic patches on the hydrophilic solvent-exposed surface must be avoided in order for the structure to remain stable and soluble; the most famous mutation in the globin fold is a change from glutamate to valine in one chain of the hemoglobin molecule.
This mutation creates a "hydrophobic patch" on the protein surface that promotes intermolecular aggregation, the molecular event that gives rise to sickle-cell anemia. Leghaemoglobin InterPro: IPR001032 Myoglobin InterPro: IPR002335 Erythrocruorin InterPro: IPR002336 Hemoglobin, beta InterPro: IPR002337 Hemoglobin, alpha InterPro: IPR002338 Myoglobin, trematode type InterPro: IPR011406 Globin, nematode InterPro: IPR012085 Globin, lamprey/hagfish type InterPro: IPR013314 Globin, annelid-type InterPro: IPR013316 Haemoglobin, extracellular InterPro: IPR014610 Human genes encoding globin proteins include: CYGB HBA1, HBA2, HBB, HBD, HBE1, HBG1, HBG2, HBM, HBQ1, HBZ, MBThe globins include: Haemoglobin Myoglobin Neuroglobin: a myoglobin-like haemprotein expressed in vertebrate brain and retina, where it is involved in neuroprotection from damage due to hypoxia or ischemia. Neuroglobin belongs to a branch of the globin family. Cytoglobin: an oxygen sensor expressed in multiple tissues. Related to neuroglobin.
Erythrocruorin: cooperative extracellular respiratory proteins found in annelids and arthropods that are assembled from as many as 180 subunit into hexagonal bilayers. Leghaemoglobin: occurs in the root nodules of leguminous plants, where it facilitates the diffusion of oxygen to symbiotic bacteriods in order to promote nitrogen fixation. Non-symbiotic haemoglobin: occurs in non-leguminous plants, can be over-expressed in stressed plants. Flavohaemoglobins: chimeric, with an N-terminal globin domain and a C-terminal ferredoxin reductase-like NAD/FAD-binding domain. FHb provides protection against nitric oxide via its C-terminal domain, which transfers electrons to haem in the globin. Globin E: a globin responsible for storing and delivering oxygen to the retina in birds Globin-coupled sensors: chimeric, with an N-terminal myoglobin-like domain and a C-terminal domain that resembles the cytoplasmic signalling domain of bacterial chemoreceptors, they bind oxygen, act to initiate an aerotactic response or regulate gene expression.
Protoglobin: a single domain globin found in archaea, related to the N-terminal domain of globin-coupled sensors. Truncated 2/2 globin: lack the first helix, giving them a 2-over-2 instead of the canonical 3-over-3 alpha-helical sandwich fold. Can be divided into three main groups based on structural features. HbN: a truncated haemoglobin-like protein that binds oxygen cooperatively with a high affinity and a slow dissociation rate, which may exclude it from oxygen transport, it appears to be involved in nitrosative stress. Cyanoglobin: a truncated haemoprotein found in cyanobacteria that has high oxygen affinity, which appears to serve as part of a terminal oxidase, rather than as a respiratory pigment. HbO: a truncated haemoglobin-like protein with a lower oxygen affinity than HbN. HbO associates with the bacterial cell membrane, where it increases oxygen uptake over membranes lacking this protein. HbO appears to interact with a terminal oxidase, could participate in an oxygen/electron-transfer process that facilitates oxygen transfer during aerobic metabolism.
Glb3: a nuclear-encoded truncated haemoglobin from plants that appears more related to HbO than HbN. Glb3 from Arabidopsis thaliana (Mous
Big Bag is an American children's television series created by Nina Elias-Bamberger for Cartoon Network. It was targeted at preschool viewers; the show was co-produced by Cartoon Network Studios and Sesame Workshop, with Muppet characters created by The Jim Henson Company. It aired from 1996 to 1998 alongside another program titled Small World. Localized versions of Big Bag aired on Canal J in France and Yorkshire Television in the UK; the principal Muppet character is Chelli, a puppet dog, joined by his best friend Bag. Chelli and Bag run a general store, they live on Main Street in an unidentified town with their human friend Molly and a variety of other animals named for their species. Two sock puppets named Lyle the Sock and Argyle McSock work as stockroom boys and interact with the main cast. In 1997, a humanoid Muppet character called; the first season features frequent interaction with a large cast of human regulars, including an assortment of child friends and colorful locals. Chelli – A patchwork dog, the main puppet character of the series.
In "Elmo's Visit," it is revealed. He was built by Rollie Krewson. Bag – An anthropomorphic cloth bag, Chelli's best friend. Argyle and Lyle – Two socks that are known for telling knock-knock jokes, which Lyle refers to as "sock-sock" jokes; when they are not hanging out in the store's sock bin, they can be found in a laundry hamper or in the storeroom. Lyle speaks with Brooklyn accent. Sofie – A girl who joins the cast in the second season. Additional puppets were performed by Jeff Conover, James Andrew Stone, Matt Vogel. Molly – A female human that Chelli and Bag live with. Kim – A human girl, a friend of Chelli and Bag. Joey – A human boy, a friend of Chelli and Bag. Bernard – A crossing guard who asks viewers if they have their telescope or hat as preludes to the "Troubles the Cat" and "Samuel and Nina" segments. Trudy – An exercise instructor. Martha – A shy woman. Josie – A female mail carrier who shows up to show "I did something nice today" video tapes to Chelli and Bag. Doc Furrball – A veterinarian.
Waldo Muckle – An egotistic inventor and handyman. In "One Little Lie," it is revealed that Waldo enjoys snorkeling. Neighborhood Kids – The Neighborhood Kids are friends of Molly and Bag who appear alongside the other humans. María Conchita Alonso – Troubles the Cat Ashleigh Ball – Mouse Fran Brill – Nina Ashley Carin – Sarah Kevin Clash – Avery Allen Enlow – Samuel Pam Lewis – Little Chick Andrew Sachs – Narrator James Spector – Slim Pig TBA – Ace The scenes with Chelli and friends served as frames for a variety of individual animated segments, which were rotated between seasons; as opposed to the shorter clips on Sesame Street, the animated segments ran 3 to 8 minutes each and were produced by various studios in New York City and Europe with consultation from Sesame Workshop and Cartoon Network. The shorts included: Troubles the Cat – This is the first original cartoon based on Latino characters to air in the United States, it was created by 5-year-old Marina Mendez and Karen Mendez Smith and developed for television by Nina Elias-Bamberger, Jim Martin, Marie Poe, Luis Santeiro, Nina Shelton.
The show was produced by R. O. Blechman at InkTank in New York, with character designs by Santiago Cohen; the group of kids includes a six-year-old Latina named her multicultural friends. Marina's cat Troubles uses a "troublescope" to sniff out problems that develop in the group's relationships. Troubles invites home viewers to do the same, using their cardboard tubes as troublescopes "to see what the kids are thinking and feeling". 24 episodes were made and it was the only other short, along with Koki, to be carried into the second season. William's Wish Wellingtons – William's magic boots called Wellingtons make any wish come true. They're a wonderful tool to solve problems with if he can only figure out the right thing to wish for; each story, whether it's about looking for buried treasure or William wishing himself invisible at his sister's wedding, sparks the imagination of viewers. 13 out of 26 episodes made were aired. Andrew Sachs provides the narration. Slim Pig – A two-dimensional pig who lives in a three-dimensional world named Slim Pig is a uniquely proportioned animal who can slide between the barriers that surround his farm and assume various shapes.
Slim Pig demonstrates that it can be fun to discover new things. Fellow farm animals like Duck, Little Chick and Horse admire Slim for his ability and desire to venture beyond their world. 13 episodes were made. Koki – In this claymation segment, a four-year-old chick named Koki has a life similar to that of a preschool child. Koki is l
Neville Edward Alexander was a proponent of a multilingual South Africa and a former revolutionary who spent ten years on Robben Island as a fellow-prisoner of Nelson Mandela. Alexander was born in Cradock, Eastern Cape, South Africa to David James Alexander, a carpenter, Dimbiti Bisho Alexander, a schoolteacher, his maternal grandmother, Bisho Jarsa was an Ethiopian from ethnic Oromo, rescued from slavery by the British. He was educated at Holy Rosary Convent and matriculated in 1952, he spent six years at the University of Cape Town obtaining a BA in German and History, completing his Honours in German a year and an MA in German, his thesis was on the Silesia Baroque drama of Andreas Gryphius and Daniel Caspar von Lohenstein. Having been awarded an Alexander von Humboldt Foundation fellowship place at the University of Tübingen he gained his PhD in 1961 for a dissertation on style change in the dramatic work of Gerhart Hauptmann. By 1957, Alexander was radicalised and a member of the Cape Peninsula Students' Union, an affiliate of The Non-European Unity Movement of South Africa.
He joined the African Peoples Democratic Union of Southern Africa, established in 1960. However he was ejected from APDUSA in 1961 and with Dulcie September, Ottilie Abrahams, Andreas Shipinga, among others, formed a study group of nine members in July 1962, known as the Yu Chi Chan Club; the YCCC disbanded in late 1962 and was replaced by the National Liberation Front, which Alexander co-founded. In July 1963, he, along with most members of the NLF, was arrested. In 1964, he was convicted of conspiracy to commit sabotage. From 1964–1974 he was imprisoned on Robben Island. After being released Alexander did pioneering work in the field of language policy and planning in South Africa from the early 1980s via organisations such as The Project for the Study of Alternative Education in South Africa, as well as the LANGTAG process, he was influential in respect to language policy development with various government departments, including Education. His most recent work was focused on the tension between multilingualism and the hegemony of English in the public sphere.
He founded and was director of PRAESA from 1992 until the end of 2011 and a member of the Interim Governing Board of the African Academy of Languages. In 1981, he was appointed Director of the South African Committee for Higher Education. At the time of his death, he had retired from being director of PRAESA at the University of Cape Town. In 1994, his Trotskyist Workers Organisation for Socialist Action contested the elections. Alexander received the Linguapax Prize for 2008; the prize is awarded annually in recognition of contributions to linguistic diversity and multilingual education. The citation noted that he had devoted more than twenty years of his professional life to defend and preserve multilingualism in the post-apartheid South Africa and had become one of the major advocates of linguistic diversity. Alexander died from cancer following a short period of ill-health on 27 August 2012, aged 75, his personal archive was donated to the University of Cape Town's Special Collections library.
The university has named a building on its upper campus after him. Project for the Study of Alternative Education in South Africa List of publications Neville Alexander obituary
Netta Aloni is a contemporary Israeli composer who composes for vocal and instrumental ensembles. He has written chamber and instrumental works for both solo and group performers. Aloni studied musical composition with the Israeli composer Andre Hajdu, continued his studies with Reuven Sarrousy, Betty Oliviero and Gideon Levinson Israeli composers, he took supplementary courses in composition during 2005-2007 at the Bar-Ilan Israel. Aloni's work is performed in Israel and abroad, his compositions were recorded by the Israeli Broadcasting Authority and were broadcast over the radio, on the Voice of Music station in Israel, devoted to broadcasting both classic and contemporary classical music by foreign and Israeli composers. His work I Have Told Myself Completely was chosen to represent the Israel Broadcasting Authority in the International Rostrum of Composers, he is one of six recipients of the 2013 Composition by Classical Composers Award sponsored by the Ministry of Culture and Sport and given by the Israeli Prime Minister.
Four full-length CDs of Netta Aloni compositions have been published: Moments with Myself, with compositions for piano and flute performed by Israelis Ora Rotem-Nelken and Edith Shemer on the respective instruments Five Vocal Pieces, with pieces sung by Mira Zakai accompanied by Rotem-Nelken, pieces for voice and instrumental ensemble sung by Esti Keinan and Avital Raz Breathless, pieces composed for the bayan The Empty Rooms, a double album collecting his compositions from the years 1999-2012, including a string quintet two song cycles for voice and piano chamber compositions for violin and piano and bayan, solo pieces. The works were recorded at the Jerusalem Music Center in Mishkenot Sha'ananim during the year 2012; the Day After, a double album collecting compositions from the years 2014-2017, including two pieces for choir pieces for solo piano a wind quintet pieces for cello and bayan two song cycles for voice and bayanThe works were recorded at the Tel-Aviv conservatory during the year 2017.
Aloni lives with his family in Jerusalem, he is a practicing psychoanalyst. Netta Aloni's Composer Page where many of his works can be listened to in streaming audio Netta Aloni's YouTube channel A full length video of a performance of "3 songs for Choir"
Alan Gallay is an American historian. He specializes in the Atlantic Early American history, including issues of slavery, he won the Bancroft Prize in 2003 for his The Indian Slave Trade: the Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717. He graduated from University of Florida, earned an M. A. and Ph. D. from Georgetown University. Gallay has taught at the University of Notre Dame, University of Mississippi, Western Washington University, Harvard University and University of Auckland, as a Fulbright Lecturer, he held the Warner R. Woodring Chair in Atlantic World and Early American History, was Director of The Center for Historical Research at The Ohio State University. Twice he taught for the American Heritage Association in London, he holds the Lyndon B. Johnson Chair of U. S. History at Texas Christian University. Twice National Endowment for the Humanities fellowships 2003 Bancroft Prize The Formation of a Planter Elite: Jonathan Bryan and the Southern Colonial Frontier. University of Georgia Press.
2007. ISBN 978-0-8203-3018-1. Alan Gallay, ed.. Voices of the Old South: Eyewitness Accounts, 1528-1861. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0-8203-1566-9. Alan Gallay. Alan Gallay, ed.. The Colonial Wars of North America, 1512-1763: An Encyclopedia. Garland. ISBN 978-0-8240-7208-7; the Indian Slave Trade: the Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717. Yale University Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-300-10193-5. Indian Slavery in Colonial America. University of Nebraska Press. 2010. ISBN 978-0-8032-2200-7. Colonial and Revolutionary America, Prentice Hall 2010, ISBN 978-0-205-80969-1 "Forgotten Story of Indian Slavery", Race and History, 2003 John B. Boles, ed.. "Planters and Slaves in the Great Awakening". Masters & Slaves in the House of the Lord: Race and Religion in the American South, 1740-1870. University Press of Kentucky. P. 19. ISBN 978-0-8131-0187-3. Alan Gallay. "Review of Books: The Indian Slave Trade, The William and Mary Quarterly, July 2003
Ernest J. Bohn was an American politician, he was a leading figure in public housing from the 1930s until his death. He spent the majority of his life promoting the creation of public housing in Ohio in Cleveland, his work created standards copied across the nation. Thanks to his efforts, Cleveland became a leader in public housing, creating the first public housing authority, Cleveland Metropolitan Housing Authority, creating some of the largest public housing developments in the nation. Ernest J. Bohn was born in Sannicolaul-Mare, Romania to parents Frank J. and Juliana Bohn. At the age of 10 he immigrated to Ohio with his father. In 1924 he graduated from Adelbert College and in 1926 he graduated from Case Western Reserve Law School. A confirmed Republican, Bohn soon became interested in politics and was elected for the Ohio House of Representatives in 1929 became a city council representative for the Hough area until 1940, his work in the city council drew Bohn's attention to the problems of The Depression and the slums expanding in Cleveland and other cities across the United States.
He was outraged by the state of housing in Hough and other slums, where multiple families crammed into single-family dwellings, sleeping in kitchens and living rooms. Bohn's conviction to public housing was inspired by his Catholic background, he believed in providing charity to the poor, believed that changing the environment would change residents' temperaments. Public housing was not only a philanthropy, but a means to eliminate delinquency and crime, but the majority perceived public housing as a socialist approach to a problem better left alone, Bohn had a hard time getting politicians and landlords to hear his views. Bohn drew attention to his cause by launching the study, “The Analysis of a Slum Area in Cleveland” by Father Robert Nevin; the slums of Cleveland's E. 21st street to 55th-Central-Woodland area were the focus of the study, which discovered that the cost of subsidizing residents in the slums cost the city 51 dollars per resident each year. This study was replicated across the nation with similar results and changed how America thought about public housing.
In 1933, Bohn authorized the nation's first public housing authority, the Cleveland Metropolitan Housing Authority. The CMHA authorized the first public housing developments built in Cleveland: Cedar Apartments, Outhwaite Homes, Lakeview Terrace, which set new advancements in public housing standards; when Bohn was unhappy with the limited resources provided by the government, he worked to change the laws to allow more the CMHA more freedom and responsibility. Thanks to the efforts of Ernest Bohn, Cleveland became the national leader in public housing, pushing for increased development and innovating existing practices. For example, most cities' public housing developments consisted of high-rise apartments that crammed people together. Bohn insisted that Cleveland housing projects were composed of low row-houses that were better suited for families, he did more than build cheap housing, he aspired to create communities. After World War II, Bohn switched his focus to creating public housing for the elderly.
Some of the older public housing units began to deteriorate, Bohn began receiving criticism for avoiding his obligation to the poor. Projects near the Central and Hough area were accused of destroying more housing than it created, leaving many families with no place to live When Carl B. Stokes was elected mayor in 1968, he forced Ernest Bohn into retirement and decided to reform the public housing system. Bohn taught classes on public housing at Case Western Reserve University until he died in 1975, never having married