The Globular Amphora Culture, German Kugelamphoren-Kultur, ca. 3400–2800 BC, is a culture, thought to be of Indo-European origin. Somewhat to the south and west, it was bordered by the Baden culture, to the northeast was the Narva culture. It occupied much of the area as the earlier Funnelbeaker culture. The name was coined by Gustaf Kossinna because of the characteristic pottery and it was located in the area defined by the Elbe catchment on the west and that of the Vistula on the east, extending southwards to the middle Dniester and eastwards to reach the Dnieper. West of the Elbe, some globular amphorae are found in megalithic graves, the GAC finds in the Steppe area are normally attributed to a rather late expansion between 2950-2350 cal. BC from a centre in Wolhynia and Podolia, the economy was based on raising a variety of livestock, pigs particularly in its earlier phase, in distinction to the Funnelbeaker cultures preference for cattle. Settlements are sparse, and these normally just contain small clusters pits, no convincing house-plans have yet been excavated. It is suggested some of these settlements were not year-round. The GAC is primarily known from its burials, inhumation was in a pit or cist. A variety of offerings were left, including animal parts or even whole animals. Grave gifts include the typical globular amphorae and stone axes, there are also cattle-burials, often in pairs, accompanied by grave gifts. There are also burials in Megalithic graves. The inclusion of animals in the grave is seen as a cultural element by Marija Gimbutas. The practice of suttee, hypothesized by Gimbutas is also seen as an intrusive cultural element. The supporters of the Kurgan hypothesis point to these distinctive burial practices, in this context and given its area of occupation, this culture has been claimed as the underlying culture of a Germanic-Baltic-Slavic continuum. J. P. Mallory, Globular Amphora Culture, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, eastern exodus of the globular amphora people, 2950-2350 BC. Poznań, Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Prehistory 1996, Baltic-Pontic studies 4
Globular Amphora tomb
Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC).