Dorado is a constellation in the southern sky. It is now one of the 88 modern constellations, its name refers to the dolphinfish, known as dorado in Portuguese, although it has been depicted as a swordfish. Dorado contains most of the remainder being in the constellation Mensa; the South Ecliptic pole lies within this constellation. Though the name Dorado is not Latin but Portuguese, astronomers give it the Latin genitive form Doradus when naming its stars. Dorado was one of twelve constellations named by Petrus Plancius from the observations of Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser and Frederick de Houtman, it appeared: On Plancius's maps of 1592 and 1594, figured as an elderly bearded man named Polophylax. On a 35-centimeter-diameter celestial globe published in 1597 in Amsterdam by Plancius with Jodocus Hondius. First depiction in a celestial atlas, in Johann Bayer's Uranometria of 1603, where it was named Dorado. In Johannes Kepler's edition of Tycho Brahe's star list in the Rudolphine Tables of 1627: first time that it was named Xiphias, the swordfish.
Dorado has been represented as a dolphinfish and a swordfish. It has been represented as a goldfish; the constellation was known in the 17th and 18th century as Xiphias. The name Dorado become dominant and was adopted by the IAU. Alpha Doradus is a blue-white star of 176 light-years from Earth, it is the brightest star in Dorado. Beta Doradus is a notably bright Cepheid variable star, it is a yellow-tinged supergiant star that has a minimum magnitude of 4.1 and a maximum magnitude of 3.5. One thousand and forty light-years from Earth, Beta Doradus has a period of 20 hours. R Doradus is one of the many variable stars in Dorado. S Dor, 9.721 hypergiant in the Large Magellanic Cloud, is the prototype of S Doradus variable stars. The variable star R Doradus 5.73 has the largest known apparent size of any star other than the Sun. Gamma Doradus is the prototype of the Gamma Doradus variable stars. Supernova 1987A was the closest supernova. SNR 0509-67.5 is the remnant of an unusually energetic Type 1a supernova from about 400 years ago.
HE 0437-5439 is a hypervelocity star escaping from the Milky Way/Magellanic Cloud system. Dorado is the location of the South Ecliptic pole, which lies near the fish's head; the pole was called "Polus Doradinalis" by Willem Jansson Blaeu. Because Dorado contains part of the Large Magellanic Cloud, it is rich in deep sky objects; the Large Magellanic Cloud, 25,000 light-years in diameter, is a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way Galaxy, located at a distance of 179,000 light-years. It has been deformed by its gravitational interactions with the larger Milky Way. In 1987, it became host to SN 1987A, the first supernova of 1987 and the closest since 1604; this 25,000-light-year-wide galaxy contains over 10,000 million stars. All coordinates given are for Epoch J2000.0. N 180B is an emission nebula located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. NGC 1566 is a face-on spiral galaxy, it gives its name to the NGC 1566 Group of galaxies. NGC 1755 is a globular cluster. NGC 1763 is a bright nebula associated with three type B stars.
NGC 1820 is an open cluster. NGC 1850 is a globular cluster. NGC 1854 is a globular cluster. NGC 1869 is an open cluster. NGC 1901 is an open cluster. NGC 1910 is an open cluster. NGC 1936 is a bright nebula and is one of four NGC objects in close proximity, the others being NGC 1929, NGC 1934 and NGC 1935. NGC 1978 is an open cluster. NGC 2002 is an open cluster. NGC 2027 is an open cluster. NGC 2032 is a nebula complex that contains four NGC designations: NGC 2029, NGC 2032, NGC 2035 and NGC 2040. NGC 2074 is an emission nebula. NGC 2080 called the "Ghost Head Nebula", is an emission nebula, 50 light-years wide in the Large Magellanic Cloud, it is named for the two distinct white patches that it possesses, which are regions of recent star formation. The western portion is colored green from doubly ionized oxygen, the southern portion is red from hydrogen alpha emissions, the center region is colored yellow from both oxygen and hydrogen emissions; the western white patch, A1, has one massive formed star inside.
The eastern patch, A2, has several stars hidden in its dust. Tarantula Nebula is in the Large Magellanic Cloud, named for its spiderlike shape, it is designated 30 Doradus, as it is visible to the naked eye as a out-of-focus star. Larger than any nebula in the Milky Way at 1000 light-years in diameter, it is brighter, because it is illuminated by the open star cluster NGC 2070, which has at its center the star cluster R136; the illuminating stars are supergiants. NGC 2164 is a globular cluster. N44 is a superbubble in the Large Magellanic Cloud, 1,000 light-years wide, its overall structure is shaped by the 40 hot stars towards its center. Within the superbubble of N44 is a smaller bubbl
Capricornus is one of the constellations of the zodiac. Its name is Latin for "horned goat" or "goat horn" or "having horns like a goat's", it is represented in the form of a sea-goat: a mythical creature, half goat, half fish, its symbol is. Capricornus is one of the 88 modern constellations, was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy. Under its modern boundaries it is bordered by Aquila, Microscopium, Piscis Austrinus, Aquarius; the constellation is located in an area of sky called the Sea or the Water, consisting of many water-related constellations such as Aquarius and Eridanus. It is the smallest constellation in the zodiac. Capricornus is a faint constellation, with only one star above magnitude 3; the brightest star in Capricornus is δ Capricorni called Deneb Algedi, with a magnitude of 2.9, 39 light-years from Earth. Like several other stars such as Denebola and Deneb, it is named for the Arabic word for "tail". Deneb Algedi is a Beta Lyrae variable star.
It ranges by about 0.2 magnitudes with a period of 24.5 hours. The other bright stars in Capricornus range in magnitude from 3.1 to 5.1. Α Capricorni is a multiple star known as Algedi or Giedi. The primary, 109 light-years from Earth, is a yellow-hued giant star of magnitude 3.6.. The two stars are distinguishable by the naked eye, both are themselves multiple stars. Α1 Capricorni is accompanied by a star of magnitude 9.2. The traditional names of α Capricorni come from the Arabic word for "the kid", which references the constellation's mythology.β Capricorni is a double star known as Dabih. It is a yellow-hued giant star of 340 light-years from Earth; the secondary is a blue-white hued star of magnitude 6.1. The two stars are distinguishable in binoculars. Β Capricorni's traditional name comes from the Arabic phrase for "the lucky stars of the slaughterer," a reference to ritual sacrifices performed by ancient Arabs at the heliacal rising of Capricornus. Another star visible to the naked eye is γ Capricorni, sometimes called Nashira.
Π Capricorni is a double star with a blue-white hued primary of magnitude 5.1 and a white-hued secondary of magnitude 8.3. It is 670 light-years from Earth and the components are distinguishable in a small telescope. Several galaxies and star clusters are contained within Capricornus. Messier 30 is a globular cluster located 1 degree south of the galaxy group NGC 7103; the constellation harbors the wide spiral galaxy NGC 6907. M30 is a centrally-condensed globular cluster of magnitude 7.5. At a distance of 30,000 light-years, it has chains of stars extending to the north that are resolvable in small amateur telescopes. One galaxy group located in Capricornus is HCG 87, a group of at least three galaxies located 400 million light-years from Earth, it contains a large elliptical galaxy, a face-on spiral galaxy, an edge-on spiral galaxy. The face-on spiral galaxy is experiencing abnormally high rates of star formation, indicating that it is interacting with one or both members of the group. Furthermore, the large elliptical galaxy and the edge-on spiral galaxy, both of which have active nuclei, are connected by a stream of stars and dust, indicating that they too are interacting.
Astronomers predict that the three galaxies may merge millions of years in the future to form a giant elliptical galaxy. Despite its faintness, Capricornus has one of the oldest mythological associations, having been represented as a hybrid of a goat and a fish since the Middle Bronze Age. First attested in depictions on a cylinder-seal from around the 21st century BC, it was explicitly recorded in the Babylonian star catalogues as MULSUḪUR. MAŠ "The Goat-Fish" before 1000 BC; the constellation was a symbol of the god Ea and in the Early Bronze Age marked the winter solstice. In Greek mythology, the constellation is sometimes identified as Amalthea, the goat that suckled the infant Zeus after his mother, saved him from being devoured by his father, Cronos; the goat's broken horn was transformed into the horn of plenty. According to some ancient Greek myths, it started with the sea-goat Pricus, he was the father of the race of sea-goats, who were honourable creatures. They lived in the sea near the shore.
They could think according to Greek legend. They were favoured by the gods. Pricus is tied to the god of time. Chronos created the immortal Pricus, he had lots of children who lived near the seashore, when they found themselves on the dry land they turned into normal goats, losing their special ability to think and speak in the process. In an effort to prevent this, Pricus turns back time and again. Learning he cannot control their fate and not wanting to be the only Sea Goat prompts him to ask Chronos to let him die; because he is immortal instead, he must spend eternity in the sky as Capricorn. Capricornus is sometimes identified as Pan, the god with a goat's head, who saved himself from the monster Typhon by giving himself a fish's tail and diving into a river. Due to the precession of the equinoxes
Lyra is a small constellation. It is one of 48 listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, is one of the 88 constellations recognized by the International Astronomical Union. Lyra was represented on star maps as a vulture or an eagle carrying a lyre, hence is sometimes referred to as Vultur Cadens or Aquila Cadens, respectively. Beginning at the north, Lyra is bordered by Draco, Hercules and Cygnus. Lyra is visible from the northern hemisphere from spring through autumn, nearly overhead, in temperate latitudes, during the summer months. From the southern hemisphere, it is visible low in the northern sky during the winter months. Vega, Lyra's brightest star, is one of the brightest stars in the night sky, forms a corner of the famed Summer Triangle asterism. Beta Lyrae is the prototype of a class of stars known as Beta Lyrae variables; these binary stars are so close to each other that they become egg-shaped and material flows from one to the other. Epsilon Lyrae, known informally as the Double Double, is a complex multiple star system.
Lyra hosts the Ring Nebula, the second-discovered and best-known planetary nebula. In Greek mythology, Lyra represents the lyre of Orpheus. Made by Hermes from a tortoise shell, given to Apollo as a bargain, it was said to be the first lyre produced. Orpheus's music was said to be so great that inanimate objects such as trees and rocks could be charmed. Joining Jason and the Argonauts, his music was able to quell the voices of the dangerous Sirens, who sang tempting songs to the Argonauts. At one point, Orpheus married a nymph. While fleeing from an attack by Aristaeus, she stepped on a snake. To reclaim her, Orpheus entered the Underworld. Hades relented and let Orpheus bring Eurydice back, on the condition that he never once look back until outside. Near the end, Orpheus faltered and looked back, causing Eurydice to be left in the Underworld forever. Orpheus spent the rest of his life strumming his lyre while wandering aimlessly through the land, rejecting all marriage offers from women. There are two competing myths relating to the death of Orpheus.
According to Eratosthenes, Orpheus failed to make a necessary sacrifice to Dionysus due to his regard for Apollo as the supreme deity instead. Dionysus sent his followers to rip Orpheus apart. Ovid tells a rather different story, saying that women, in retribution for Orpheus's rejection of marriage offers, ganged up and threw stones and spears. At first, his music charmed them as well, but their numbers and clamor overwhelmed his music and he was hit by the spears. Both myths state that his lyre was placed in the sky by Zeus, Orpheus' bones buried by the muses. Vega and its surrounding stars are treated as a constellation in other cultures; the area corresponding to Lyra was seen by the Arabs as a vulture or an eagle carrying a lyre, either enclosed in its wings, or in its beak. In Wales, Lyra is known as King Arthur's Harp, King David's harp; the Persian Hafiz called it the Lyre of Zurah. It has been called the Manger of Praesepe Salvatoris. In Australian Aboriginal astronomy, Lyra is known by the Boorong people in Victoria as the Malleefowl constellation.
Lyra was worshipped as an animal deity. Lyra is bordered by Vulpecula to the south, Hercules to the east, Draco to the north, Cygnus to the west. Covering 286.5 square degrees, it ranks 52nd of the 88 modern constellations in size. It appears prominently in the northern sky during the Northern Hemisphere's summer, the whole constellation is visible for at least part of the year to observers north of latitude 42°S, its main asterism consists of six stars, 73 stars in total are brighter than magnitude 6.5. The constellation's boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a 17-sided polygon. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 18h 14m and 19h 28m, while the declination coordinates are between +25.66° and +47.71°. The International Astronomical Union adopted the three-letter abbreviation "Lyr" for the constellation in 1922. German cartographer Johann Bayer used the Greek letters alpha through nu to label the most prominent stars in the constellation.
Flamsteed observed and labelled two stars each as delta, zeta and nu. He added pi and rho, not using xi and omicron as Bayer used hese letters to denote Cygnus and Hercules on his map; the brightest and far the most well-known star in the constellation is Vega, a main-sequence star of spectral type A0Va. Only 7.7 parsecs distant, is a Delta Scuti variable, varying between magnitudes −0.02 and 0.07 over 0.2 days. On average, it is the second-brightest star of a northern hemisphere and the fifth-brightest star in all, surpassed only by Arcturus, Alpha Centauri and Sirius. Vega was the pole star in the year 12,000 BCE, will again become the pole star around 14,000 CE. Vega is one of the most-magnificent of all stars, has been called "arguably the next most important star in the sky after the Sun". Vega was the first star other than the Sun to be photographed, as well as the first to have a clear spectrum recorded, showing absorption lines for the first time; the star was the first single main-sequence star other than the Sun to be known to emit X-rays, is surrounded by a circumstellar debris disk, similar to the Kuiper Belt.
Vega forms one corner of the famous Summer Triangle asterism. Vega forms one vertex of a much s
Hot air balloon
A hot air balloon is a lighter-than-air aircraft consisting of a bag, called an envelope, which contains heated air. Suspended beneath is a gondola or wicker basket, which carries passengers and a source of heat, in most cases an open flame caused by burning liquid propane; the heated air inside the envelope makes it buoyant since it has a lower density than the colder air outside the envelope. As with all aircraft, hot air balloons cannot fly beyond the atmosphere. Unlike gas balloons, the envelope does not have to be sealed at the bottom, since the air near the bottom of the envelope is at the same pressure as the surrounding air. In modern sport balloons the envelope is made from nylon fabric and the inlet of the balloon is made from a fire resistant material such as Nomex. Modern balloons have been made in all kinds of shapes, such as rocket ships and the shapes of various commercial products, though the traditional shape is used for most non-commercial, many commercial, applications; the hot air balloon is the first successful human-carrying flight technology.
The first untethered manned hot air balloon flight was performed by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent d'Arlandes on November 21, 1783, in Paris, France, in a balloon created by the Montgolfier brothers. The first hot-air balloon flown in the Americas was launched from the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia on January 9, 1793 by the French aeronaut Jean Pierre Blanchard. Hot air balloons that can be propelled through the air rather than drifting with the wind are known as thermal airships. Early unmanned hot air balloons were used in China. Zhuge Liang of the Shu Han kingdom, during the Three Kingdoms era, used airborne lanterns for military signaling; these lanterns are known as Chinese lanterns. In the 18th century the Portuguese Jesuit priest Bartolomeu de Gusmão envisioned an aerial apparatus called Passarola, the predecessor of the hot air balloon; the purpose of Passarola was to serve as air vessel in order to facilitate communication and as a strategical device. In 1709 John V of Portugal decided to fund Bartolomeu de Gusmão's project following a petition made by the jesuit priest and an unmanned demonstration was performed at Casa da India in presence of John V, the queen Maria Anna of Austria, having as witnesses the Italian cardinal Michelangelo Conti, two members of the Portuguese Royal Academy of History, one Portuguese diplomat and one chronicler.
This event would bring some European attention to this project. A article dated on October 20, 1786 by the London Daily Universal Register would state that the inventor was able to raise himself by the use of his prototype. In 1709, the Portuguese jesuit wrote Manifesto summário para os que ignoram poderse navegar pelo elemento do ar. Persecuted by the Inquisition, he was prevented from continuing his research; the French brothers Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier developed a hot air balloon in Annonay, Ardeche and demonstrated it publicly on September 19, 1783, making an unmanned flight lasting 10 minutes. After experimenting with unmanned balloons and flights with animals, the first balloon flight with humans aboard, a tethered flight, performed on or around October 15, 1783, by Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier who made at least one tethered flight from the yard of the Reveillon workshop in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine; that same day, Pilatre de Rozier became the second human to ascend into the air, reaching an altitude of 26 m, the length of the tether.
The first free flight with human passengers was made a few weeks on November 21, 1783. King Louis XVI had decreed that condemned criminals would be the first pilots, but de Rozier, along with Marquis François d'Arlandes, petitioned for the honor; the first military use of a hot air balloon happened in 1794 during the battle of Fleurus, when the French used the balloon l'Entreprenant for observation. Modern hot air balloons, with an onboard heat source, were developed by Ed Yost, beginning during the 1950s; the first modern hot air balloon to be made in the United Kingdom was the Bristol Belle, built in 1967. Presently, hot air balloons are used for recreation. Hot air balloons are able to fly to high altitudes. On November 26, 2005 Vijaypat Singhania set the world altitude record for highest hot air balloon flight, reaching 21,027 m, he took off from downtown Mumbai and landed 240 km south in Panchale. The previous record of 19,811 m had been set by Per Lindstrand on June 1988, in Plano, Texas.
On January 15, 1991, the'Virgin Pacific Flyer' balloon completed the longest flight in a hot air balloon when Per Lindstrand and Richard Branson of the UK flew 7,671.91 km from Japan to Northern Canada. With a volume of 74,000 cubic meters, the balloon envelope was the largest built for a hot air craft. Designed to fly in the trans-oceanic jet streams, the Pacific Flyer recorded the fastest ground speed for a manned balloon at 245 mph; the longest duration record was set by Swiss psychiatrist Bertrand Piccard, Auguste Piccard's grandson. It was the first nonstop trip around the world by balloon; the balloon left Château-d'Oex, Switzerland, on March 1, 1999, landed at 1:02 a.m. on March 21 in the Egyptian de
Fornax is a constellation in the southern sky ringed by the celestial river Eridanus. Its name is Latin for furnace, it was named by French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in 1756. Fornax is one of the 88 modern constellations; the three brightest stars—Alpha, Beta and Nu Fornacis—form a flattened triangle facing south. With an apparent magnitude of 3.91, Alpha Fornacis is the brightest star in Fornax. Six star systems have been found to have exoplanets; the French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille first described the constellation in French as le Fourneau Chymique with an alembic and receiver in his early catalogue, before abbreviating it to le Fourneau on his planisphere in 1752, after he had observed and catalogued 10,000 southern stars during a two-year stay at the Cape of Good Hope. He devised fourteen new constellations in uncharted regions of the Southern Celestial Hemisphere not visible from Europe. All but one honoured instruments that symbolised the Age of Enlightenment. Lacaille Latinised the name to Fornax Chimiae on his 1763 chart.
The constellation Eridanus borders Fornax to the east and south, while Cetus and Phoenix gird it to the north and south respectively. Covering 397.5 square degrees and 0.964% of the night sky, it ranks 41st of the 88 constellations in size, The three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is'For'. The official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of 8 segments. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 01h 45m 24.18s and 03h 50m 21.34s, while the declination coordinates are between -23.76° and -39.58°. The whole constellation is visible to observers south of latitude 50°N. Lacaille gave Bayer designations to 27 stars now named Alpha to Omega Fornacis, labelling two stars 3.5 degrees apart as Gamma, three stars Eta, two stars Iota, two Lambda and three Chi. Phi Fornacis was added by Gould, Theta and Omicron were dropped by Gould and Baily respectively.
Upsilon, was found to be two stars and designated as such. Overall, there are 59 stars within the constellation's borders brighter than or equal to apparent magnitude 6.5. However, there are no stars brighter than the fourth magnitude; the three brightest stars form a flattish triangle, with Alpha and Nu Fornacis marking its eastern and western points and Beta Fornacis marking the shallow southern apex. Designated 12 Eridani by John Flamsteed, Alpha Fornacis was named by Lacaille as the brightest star in the new constellation, it is a binary star. With an apparent magnitude of 3.91, the primary is a yellow-white subgiant 1.21 times as massive as the Sun that has begun to cool and expand after exhausting its core hydrogen, having swollen to 1.9 times the Sun's radius. Of magnitude 6.5, the secondary star is 0.78 times as massive as the Sun. It has been identified as a blue straggler, has either accumulated material from, or merged with, a third star in the past, it is a strong source of X-rays. The pair is 46.4 ± 0.3 light-years distant from Earth.
Beta Fornacis is a yellow-hued giant star of spectral type G8IIIb of magnitude 4.5 that has cooled and swelled to 11 times the Sun's diameter, 169 ± 6 light-years from Earth. It is a red clump giant, which means it has undergone helium flash and is generating energy through the fusion of helium at its core. Nu Fornacis is 370 ± 10 light-years distant from Earth, it is a blue giant star of spectral type B9.5IIIspSi, 3.65 ± 0.18 times as massive and around 245 times as luminous as the Sun, with 3.2 ± 0.4 times its diameter. It varies in luminosity over a period of 1.89 days—the same as its rotational period. This is because of differences in abundances of metals in its atmosphere. Shining with an apparent magnitude of 5.89, Epsilon Fornacis is a binary star system located 105 ± 1 light-years distant from Earth. Its component stars orbit each other every 37 years; the primary star is around 12 billion years old and has cooled and expanded to 2.53 times the diameter of the Sun, while having only 91% of its mass.
Omega Fornacis is a binary star system composed of a blue main-sequence star of spectral type B9.5V and magnitude 4.96, a white main sequence star of spectral type A7V and magnitude 7.88. LP 944-20 is a brown dwarf of spectral type M9. 21 light-years distant from Earth, it is a faint object with an apparent magnitude of 18.69. Observations published in 2007 showed that the atmosphere of LP 944-20 contains much lithium and that it has dusty clouds. Smaller and less luminous still is 2MASS 0243-2453, a T-type brown dwarf of spectral type T6. With a surface temperature of 1040–1100 K, it has 2.4–4.1% the mass of the Sun, a diameter 9.2 to 10.6% of that of the Sun, an age of 0.4–1.7 billion years. Six star systems in Fornax have been found to have planets: Lambda2 Fornacis is a star about 1.2 times as massive as the Sun with a planet about as massive as Neptune, discovered by doppler spectroscopy in 2009. The planet has an orbit of around 17.24 days. HD 20868 is an orange dwarf with a mass around 78% that of the Sun, 151 ± 10 light-years away from Earth.
It was found to have an orbiting planet double the mass of Jupiter with a period of 380 days. WASP-72 is a star around 1.4 times as massive that has begun to cool and expand off the main sequence, reaching double the Sun's diameter. It has a planet around as massive as Jupiter orbiting it every 2.2 days. HD 20781 and HD 20782 are a pair of sunlike yellow main sequence stars that or
Cygnus is a northern constellation lying on the plane of the Milky Way, deriving its name from the Latinized Greek word for swan. Cygnus is one of the most recognizable constellations of the northern summer and autumn, it features a prominent asterism known as the Northern Cross. Cygnus was among the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, it remains one of the 88 modern constellations. Cygnus contains Deneb -which is one of the brightest stars in the night sky and is the most distant first-magnitude star- as its "tail star" and one corner of the Summer Triangle, it has some notable X-ray sources and the giant stellar association of Cygnus OB2. Cygnus is known as the Northern Cross. One of the stars of this association, NML Cygni, is one of the largest stars known; the constellation is home to Cygnus X-1, a distant X-ray binary containing a supergiant and unseen massive companion, the first object held to be a black hole. Many star systems in Cygnus have known planets as a result of the Kepler Mission observing one patch of the sky, an area around Cygnus.
In addition, most of the eastern part of Cygnus is dominated by the Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall, a giant galaxy filament, the largest known structure in the observable universe, covering most of the northern sky. In Greek mythology, Cygnus has been identified with several different legendary swans. Zeus disguised himself as a swan to seduce Leda, Spartan king Tyndareus's wife, who gave birth to the Gemini, Helen of Troy, Clytemnestra; the Greeks associated this constellation with the tragic story of Phaethon, the son of Helios the sun god, who demanded to ride his father's sun chariot for a day. Phaethon, was unable to control the reins, forcing Zeus to destroy the chariot with a thunderbolt, causing it to plummet to the earth into the river Eridanus. According to the myth, Phaethon's brother, grieved bitterly and spent many days diving into the river to collect Phaethon's bones to give him a proper burial; the gods were so touched by Cygnus's devotion to his brother that they turned him into a swan and placed him among the stars.
In Ovid's Metamorphoses, there are three people named Cygnus, all of whom are transformed into swans. Alongside Cygnus, noted above, he mentions a boy from Tempe who commits suicide when Phyllius refuses to give him a tamed bull that he demands, but is transformed into a swan and flies away, he mentions a son of Neptune, an invulnerable warrior in the Trojan War, defeated by Achilles, but Neptune saves him by transforming him into a swan. Together with other avian constellations near the summer solstice, Vultur cadens and Aquila, Cygnus may be a significant part of the origin of the myth of the Stymphalian Birds, one of The Twelve Labours of Hercules. In Hinduism, the period of time or the Muhurta which lasts from 4:24 AM to 5:12 AM is called the "Brahma Muhurta" translating to "The moment of the Universe" and the Star system in correlation is the Cygnus constellation; this is a auspicious time to do any task or start the day. In Polynesia, Cygnus was recognized as a separate constellation. In Tonga it was called Tuula-lupe, in the Tuamotus it was called Fanui-tai.
Deneb was often given a name. The name Deneb comes from the Arabic name dhaneb, meaning "tail", from the phrase Dhanab ad-Dajājah, which means “the tail of the hen”. In New Zealand it was called Mara-tea, in the Society Islands it was called Pirae-tea or Taurua-i-te-haapa-raa-manu, in the Tuamotus it was called Fanui-raro. Beta Cygni was named in New Zealand. Gamma Cygni was called Fanui-runga in the Tuamotus. A large constellation, Cygnus is bordered by Cepheus to the north and east, Draco to the north and west, Lyra to the west, Vulpecula to the south, Pegasus to the southeast and Lacerta to the east; the three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the IAU in 1922, is'Cyg'. The official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined as a polygon of 28 segments. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 19h 07.3m and 22h 02.3m, while the declination coordinates are between 27.73° and 61.36°. Covering 804 square degrees and around 1.9% of the night sky, Cygnus ranks 16th of the 88 constellations in size.
Cygnus culminates at midnight on 29 June, is most visible in the evening from the early summer to mid-autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. Cygnus is depicted with Delta and Epsilon Cygni as its wings. Deneb, the brightest in the constellation is at its tail, Albireo as the tip of its beak. There are several asterisms in Cygnus. In the 17th-century German celestial cartographer Johann Bayer's star atlas the Uranometria, Alpha and Gamma Cygni form the pole of a cross, while Delta and Epsilon form the cross beam; the nova P Cygni was considered to be the body of Christ. Bayer catalogued many stars in the constellation, giving them the Bayer designations from Alpha to Omega and using lowercase Roman letters to g. John Flamsteed were dropped by Francis Baily. There are several bright stars in Cygnus. Alpha Cygni, called Deneb, is the brightest star in Cygnus, it is a white supergiant star of spectral type A2Iae that varies between magnitudes 1.21 and 1.29, one of the largest and most luminous A-class stars known.
It is located about 3200
Caelum is a faint constellation in the southern sky, introduced in the 1750s by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille and counted among the 88 modern constellations. Its name means “chisel” in Latin, it was known as Caelum Scalptorium, it is the eighth-smallest constellation, subtends a solid angle of around 0.038 steradians, just less than that of Corona Australis. Due to its small size and location away from the plane of the Milky Way, Caelum is a rather barren constellation, with few objects of interest; the constellation's brightest star, Alpha Caeli, is only of magnitude 4.45, only one other star, γ 1 Caeli, is brighter than magnitude 5. Other notable objects in Caelum are RR Caeli, a binary star with one known planet 20.13 parsecs away. Caelum was first introduced in the eighteenth century by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, a French astronomer who introduced thirteen other southern constellations at the same time. Lacaille gave the constellation the French name Burin, Latinized to Caelum Scalptorium. Francis Baily shortened this name to Caelum.
In Lacaille's original chart, the constellation was shown both as a burin and an échoppe, although it has come to be recognized as a chisel. Johann Elert Bode stated the name as plural with a singular possessor, Caela Scalptoris – in German Grabstichel – but this did not stick. Caelum is bordered by Dorado and Pictor to the south and Eridanus to the east, Lepus to the north, Columba to the west. Covering only 125 square degrees, it ranks 81st of the 88 modern constellations in size, it appears prominently in the southern sky during the Southern Hemisphere's summer, the whole constellation is visible for at least part of the year to observers south of latitude 41°N. Its main asterism consists of four stars, twenty stars in total are brighter than magnitude 6.5. The constellation's boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a 12-sided polygon. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 04h 19.5m and 05h 05.1m, while the declination coordinates are between −27.02° and −48.74°.
The International Astronomical Union adopted the three-letter abbreviation “Cae” for the constellation in 1922. Caelum is a faint constellation: It has no star brighter than magnitude 4 and only two stars brighter than magnitude 5. Lacaille gave six stars Bayer designations, labeling them Alpha to Zeta in 1756, but omitted Epsilon and designated two adjacent stars as Gamma. Bode extended the designations to Rho for other stars. Caelum is too far south for any of its stars to bear Flamsteed designations; the brightest star, α Caeli, is a double star, containing an F-type main-sequence star of magnitude 4.45 and a red dwarf of magnitude 12.5, 20.17 parsecs from Earth. Β Caeli, another F-type star of magnitude 5.05, is further away, being located 28.67 parsecs from Earth. Unlike α, β Caeli is a subgiant star evolved from the main sequence. Δ Caeli of magnitude 5.05, is a B-type subgiant and is much farther from Earth, at 216 parsecs. Γ 1 Caeli is a double-star with a red giant primary of magnitude 4.58 and a secondary of magnitude 8.1.
The primary is 55.59 parsecs from Earth. The two components are difficult to resolve with small amateur telescopes because of their difference in visual magnitude and their close separation; this star system forms an optical double with the unrelated X Caeli, a Delta Scuti variable located 98.33 parsecs from Earth. These are a class of short-period pulsating stars that have been used as standard candles and as subjects to study astroseismology. X Caeli itself is a binary star a contact binary, meaning that the stars are so close that they share envelopes; the only other variable star in Caelum visible to the naked eye is RV Caeli, a pulsating red giant of spectral type M1III, which varies between magnitudes 6.44 and 6.56. Three other stars in Caelum are still referred to by their Bayer designations, although they are only on the edge of naked-eye visibility. Ν Caeli is another double star, containing a white giant of magnitude 6.07 and a star of magnitude 10.66, with unknown spectral type. The system is 52.55 parsecs away.
Λ Caeli, at magnitude 6.24, is much redder and farther away, being a red giant around 227 parsecs from Earth. Ζ Caeli is fainter, being only of magnitude 6.36. This star, located 132 parsecs away, is a K-type subgiant of spectral type K1; the other twelve naked-eye stars in Caelum are not referred to by Bode's Bayer designations anymore, including RV Caeli. One of the nearest stars in Caelum is the eclipsing binary star RR Caeli, at a distance of 20.13 parsecs. This star system consists of a white dwarf. Despite its closeness to the Earth, the system's apparent magnitude is only 14.40 due to the faintness of its components, thus it cannot be seen with amateur equipment. In 2012, the system was found to contain a giant planet, there is evidence for a second substellar body; the system is a post-common-envelope binary and is losing angular momentum over time, which will cause mass transfer from the re