Paintball is a competitive team shooting sport in which players eliminate opponents from play by hitting them with spherical dye-filled gelatin capsules that break upon impact. Paintballs are shot using a low-energy air weapon called a paintball marker, powered by compressed air or carbon dioxide and was designed for remotely marking trees and cattle; the game was developed in May 1981 for recreation, but now is played at a formal sporting level with organized competition that involves major tournaments, professional teams, players. Paintball technology is used by military forces, law enforcement and security organizations to supplement military or other training. Paintball markers can play nonlethal suppression of dangerous suspects. Games can be played on outdoor fields of varying sizes. A game field is scattered with artificial terrain, which players use for tactical cover. Game types and goals vary, but may include capture the flag, defending or attacking a particular point or area, or capturing objects of interest hidden in the playing area.
Depending on the variant played, games can last from minutes to hours, or days in "scenario play". The legality of paintball varies among regions. In most areas where regulated play is offered, players are required to wear protective masks, use barrel blocking safety equipment, safe game rules are enforced; the paintball equipment used may depend on the game type, for example: woodsball, speedball, or scenario. However every player will utilize three basic pieces of equipment: Paintball marker: known as a "paintball gun", this is the primary piece of equipment, used to mark the opposing player with paintballs; the paintball gun must have a loader or "hopper" or magazines attached to feed paint into the marker, will be either spring-fed, gravity-fed, or electronically force-fed. Modern markers require a compressed air CO2 tank. In contrast early bolt-action paintball markers used disposable silver capsules seen in pellet guns. In the mid to late 1980s, marker mechanics improved to include constant air pressure and semi-automatic operation.
Further improvements included increased rates of fire. The use of unstable CO2 causes damage to the low-pressure pneumatic components inside electronic markers, therefore the more stable compressed air is preferred by owners of such markers. Paintballs: Paintballs, the ammunition used in the marker, are spherical gelatin capsules containing polyethylene glycol, other non-toxic and water-soluble substances, dye; the quality of paintballs is dependent on the brittleness of the ball's shell, the roundness of the sphere, the thickness of the fill. The highest-grade paintballs incorporate cornstarch and metallic flake into the fill to leave a thick glittery "splat", obvious against any background color, hard to wipe off. All paintballs in use today are biodegradeable. All ingredients used in the making of a paintball are food-grade quality and are harmless to the participants and environment. Manufacturers and distributors have been making the effort to move away from the traditional oil-based paints and compressed CO2 gas propellant, to a more friendly water-based formula and compressed air in an effort to become more "eco-friendly".
Paintballs come including of 0.50 inches an 0.68 inches. Mask or goggles: Masks are safety devices players are required to wear at all times on the field, to protect them from paintballs; the original equipment used by players were safety goggles of the type used in labs and wood shops. Masks can feature throat guards. Modern masks have developed to be less bulky compared with older designs; some players may remove the mouth and/or ear protection for aesthetic or comfort reasons, but this is neither recommended nor allowed at commercial venues. Additional equipment seen among frequent players, tournament participants, professional players include: Pods and pod packs: The most common addition to the above "mandatory" equipment, pods are plastic containers with flip-open lids, that store paintballs in a ready-to-use manner. Pods are available in many sizes, including 10, 80, 100 and 140-round sizes, with the larger 140-round pods being most common among tournament players. Pods are carried by the player in pod packs or harnesses which facilitate easy access to the pods during play.
There are several designs of pod packs, from belt loops allowing a recreational player to carry one or two extra pods, to harness designs designed for either tournament-style or scenario-style players. Squeegee/swab – From time to time, a paintball will break inside the player's marker; when this happens it coats the inner surfaces of the marker with paint the barrel, which reduces accuracy. While speedball and tournament players have no time to clear this obstruction and instead "shoot thro
Sean Patrick Astin is an American actor, voice actor and producer. His acting roles include Samwise Gamgee in The Lord of the Rings trilogy, Mikey Walsh in The Goonies, Daniel "Rudy" Ruettiger in Rudy, Bob Newby in the second season of Stranger Things. Astin was born in Santa Monica, the son of actress Patty Duke. At the time, it was erroneously reported; when Michael Tell, a writer, music promoter and publisher of the newspaper The Las Vegas Israelite, came to sublet her apartment and offered to marry her as a way out of the scandal, Duke agreed. The marriage lasted only 13 days in 1970, ended long before Astin was born. On August 5, 1972, Duke married actor John Astin, after having been in a relationship with him for two years; when the wedding guests were invited to speak, 18-month-old Sean looked at John and cried, "Daddy!", to which the Episcopal priest performing the ceremony remarked, "Well, that about does it!" Astin subsequently adopted Sean. In 1973, Duke gave birth to Astin's brother, Mackenzie Astin, who became an actor.
Duke and John Astin divorced in 1985. Duke married Mike Pearce in 1986, they adopted a son, Kevin, in 1989; when Astin was 14, Duke told him that Arnaz was his father, the two developed a relationship. However, in his mid-20s, Astin met a relative of Michael Tell. Sean set out to find the truth about his biological father, underwent genetic tests which showed Tell was his biological father. Astin has maintained close relationships with all three, saying, "Desi Arnaz Jr. loves me, I love him. We are so close... Science tells me.... Science tells me that Mike Tell is." Astin considers John his father. Astin is close to his stepfather, Mike Pearce, saying, "I can call any of them on the phone any time I want to," says Sean. "John, Mike, or Papa Mike... my four dads."Astin is of German and Irish ancestry through his mother, Austrian-Jewish and Polish-Jewish through his biological father. He attended Catholic school and became a Protestant, attending a Presbyterian church in Bel Air, Los Angeles. Astin attended the Crossroads High School for the Arts and undertook master classes at the Stella Adler Conservatory in Los Angeles.
He graduated from UCLA with a B. A. in History and English. An alumnus of Los Angeles Valley College, Astin served on the school's board of directors of the Patrons Association and the Arts Council. Astin's first acting role was in a 1981 television movie titled Please Don't Hit Me, Mom, in which he played an 8-year-old child with an abusive mother, he made his film debut at age 13 as Mikey in The Goonies. After The Goonies, Astin appeared in several more films, including the Disney made-for-TV movie, The B. R. A. T. Patrol, opposite Nia Long, Tim Thomerson and Brian Keith. In 1994, Astin directed and co-produced the short film Kangaroo Court, which received an Academy Award nomination for Best Live Action Short Film. Astin continued to appear in films throughout the 1990s, including the Showtime science fiction film Harrison Bergeron, the Gulf War film Courage Under Fire, the Warren Beatty political satire Bulworth. In the early 2000s, Astin played Samwise Gamgee in Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, consisting of The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, The Return of the King.
Many awards were bestowed upon the trilogy its final installment, which earned eleven Academy Awards, including Best Picture. Astin received seven award nominations for his own performance, won five, including the Saturn Award, the Sierra Award, the Seattle Film Critics Award, the Utah Film Critics Award, the Visual Effects Society Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male or Female in an Effects Film; the Return of the King cast as an ensemble received awards from the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, the Screen Actors Guild, the Broadcast Film Critics Association, received a Gold Derby Award. Throughout the filming process, Astin became close friends with several cast members, became good friends with costar Elijah Wood. Astin's daughter, Alexandra, is in the closing scene of The Return of the King, she plays Elanor Gamgee, who runs out to him as he returns from the harbor. While working on The Lord of the Rings, Astin persuaded a number of fellow cast and crew members, including director Peter Jackson, to assist him in making his second short film, The Long and Short of It.
The film, which takes place on a street in Wellington, New Zealand, premiered at the 2003 Sundance Film Festival and can be found on the DVD for The Two Towers, along with a "making of" video. In 2004, Astin released There and Back Again, a memoir of his film career with emphasis on his experiences during production of The Lord of the Rings trilogy; the title is derived from the title of J. R. R. Tolkien's novel The Hobbit, as well as the fictional book written by Bilbo Baggins in The Lord of the Rings. Since Lord of the Rings, Astin has continued to work in film and telev
Michael Austin Cera is a Canadian actor, singer and musician. He started his career as a child actor, portraying a young Chuck Barris in Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, he is known for his role as George Michael Bluth on the sitcom Arrested Development and for his film roles as Evan in Superbad, as Paulie Bleeker in Juno, as Scott Pilgrim in Scott Pilgrim vs. the World, as a fictional version of himself in This Is the End, as the voice of Dick Grayson / Robin in The Lego Batman Movie. Cera made his Broadway debut in the 2014 production of Kenneth Lonergan's. For his performance in the 2018 production of Lonergan's Lobby Hero, Cera was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Play. In addition to acting, Cera is a musician, having released his debut album True That in 2014. Cera has acted as the touring bassist for indie rock supergroup Mister Heavenly. Cera was born in Ontario, he is Luigi Cera, a technician. His father is Sicilian, his mother has Irish, Dutch and English ancestry.
His parents both worked for Xerox. Cera has an older sister, a younger sister, Molly, he became interested in acting after viewing Ghostbusters when sick with the chicken pox at the age of three. He idolized Bill Murray, he took improvisation classes. Cera attended Conestoga Public School, Robert H. Lagerquist Senior Public School and Heart Lake Secondary School until grade nine, but completed school online through grade 12, his first role was an unpaid appearance in a Tim Hortons summer camp commercial. That appearance landed him a position in a Pillsbury commercial in which he poked the Pillsbury Doughboy, his first role with lines, he found not being cast in commercials after auditioning "really disheartening" but, in 1999, Cera was cast as Larrabe Hicks in the Canadian children's show I Was a Sixth Grade Alien, which ran for two seasons. That year, he appeared in the television films What Katy Did and Switching Goals starring the Olsen twins. Cera made his theatrical film debut in the science fiction film Frequency as the son of Noah Emmerich's character.
Cera appeared in the films Steal This Movie! and Ultimate G's: Zac's Flying Dream in 2000, the latter of which featured Cera in his first leading role and was presented in IMAX theaters. Cera appeared in several television films in 2001 including My Louisiana Sky and The Familiar Stranger and began voicing Josh Spitz in the animated series Braceface, continuing to do so until 2004. In 2002, Cera played the young Chuck Barris in the George Clooney-directed film Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, he provided the voice for Brother Bear – an anthropomorphic bear – in the 2003 The Berenstain Bears animated series, which aired for three seasons. Following a role in the critically panned unaired Fox pilot The Grubbs in 2002, Cera auditioned for a part in another Fox sitcom, Arrested Development, which began airing in November 2003; the show follows the wealthy and dysfunctional Bluth family, with Cera playing George Michael Bluth, the teenage son of Jason Bateman's character, Michael Bluth. After three seasons, Fox canceled the series in 2006 due to low viewership despite critical acclaim.
In 2006, he created and starred in a parody of Impossible is Nothing, a video résumé created by Aleksey Vayner. Cera and his Arrested Development co-star Alia Shawkat guest starred as a pair of college students in the teen noir drama Veronica Mars in the episode "The Rapes of Graff" in 2006. Along with best friend Clark Duke, Cera wrote and starred in a series of short videos released on their website; the idea came from Duke, enrolled at Loyola Marymount University and did it for his film school studies. In 2007, they signed a deal with CBS Television to write, produce and act in a short-form comedy series entitled Clark and Michael; the show featured guest stars such as David Cross, Andy Richter and Patton Oswalt, was distributed via CBS's internet channel, CBS Innertube. In May 2007, Cera appeared in a staged comedy video that shows him being fired from the lead role of the film Knocked Up after belittling and arguing with its director Judd Apatow, in a scene that mocks the David O. Russell blow up on the set of I Heart Huckabees.
Cera starred in the Apatow-produced teen comedy Superbad alongside Jonah Hill. Their characters in the film – two virgin teenagers about to graduate from high school whose party plans go awry – were based on its writers Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg. Superbad was released in cinemas in August 2007. Cera's performance was met with critical acclaim, with The Atlantic opining that the film "belongs to Michael Cera" for capturing "teenage sexual abashment as indelibly as he did in the role of George Michael", while The New York Times felt he was "excellent" and CNN praised Cera and Hill for playing "off each other beautifully". In November 2007, Cera hosted an untelevised live staged version of Saturday Night Live, not broadcast due to the then-ongoing 2007 Writers Guild of America Strike. In his second film of 2007, Cera co-starred in Juno as Paulie Bleeker, a teenager who impregnates his long-time school friend Juno. For Superbad and Juno, Cera won Breakthrough Artist in the Austin Film Critics Association Awards 2007 and was included in Entertainment Weekly's 30 Under 30 list in February 2008.
Cera starred alongside Kat Dennings in the romantic comedy-drama Nick & Norah's Infinite Playlist, in whic
Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which carries the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are found in the ocean, but can be found in lakes or rivers in the form of a standing wave or tidal bore. However, surfers can utilize artificial waves such as those from boat wakes and the waves created in artificial wave pools; the term surfing refers to the act of riding a wave, regardless of whether the wave is ridden with a board or without a board, regardless of the stance used. The native peoples of the Pacific, for instance, surfed waves on alaia and other such craft, did so on their belly and knees; the modern-day definition of surfing, most refers to a surfer riding a wave standing up on a surfboard. Another prominent form of surfing is body boarding, when a surfer rides a wave on a bodyboard, either lying on their belly, drop knee, or sometimes standing up on a body board. Other types of surfing include knee boarding, surf matting, using foils.
Body surfing, where the wave is surfed without a board, using the surfer's own body to catch and ride the wave, is common and is considered by some to be the purest form of surfing. Three major subdivisions within stand-up surfing are stand-up paddling, long boarding and short boarding with several major differences including the board design and length, the riding style, the kind of wave, ridden. In tow-in surfing, a motorized water vehicle, such as a personal watercraft, tows the surfer into the wave front, helping the surfer match a large wave's speed, a higher speed than a self-propelled surfer can produce. Surfing-related sports such as paddle boarding and sea kayaking do not require waves, other derivative sports such as kite surfing and windsurfing rely on wind for power, yet all of these platforms may be used to ride waves. With the use of V-drive boats, Wakesurfing, in which one surfs on the wake of a boat, has emerged; the Guinness Book of World Records recognized a 78 foot wave ride by Garrett McNamara at Nazaré, Portugal as the largest wave surfed.
For hundreds of years, surfing was a central part of ancient Polynesian culture. Surfing may have first been observed by British explorers at Tahiti in 1767. Samuel Wallis and the crew members of HMS Dolphin who were the first Britons to visit the island in June of that year. Another candidate is the botanist Joseph Banks being part of the first voyage of James Cook on HMS Endeavour, who arrived on Tahiti on 10 April 1769. Lieutenant James King was the first person to write about the art of surfing on Hawaii when he was completing the journals of Captain James Cook upon Cook's death in 1779; when Mark Twain visited Hawaii in 1866 he wrote, In one place we came upon a large company of naked natives, of both sexes and all ages, amusing themselves with the national pastime of surf-bathing. References to surf riding on planks and single canoe hulls are verified for pre-contact Samoa, where surfing was called fa'ase'e or se'egalu, Tonga, far pre-dating the practice of surfing by Hawaiians and eastern Polynesians by over a thousand years.
In July 1885, three teenage Hawaiian princes took a break from their boarding school, St. Mathew’s Hall in San Mateo, came to cool off in Santa Cruz, California. There, David Kawānanakoa, Edward Keliʻiahonui and Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole surfed the mouth of the San Lorenzo River on custom-shaped redwood boards, according to surf historians Kim Stoner and Geoff Dunn. George Freeth is credited as being the "Father of Modern Surfing", he is thought to have been the first modern surfer. In 1907, the eclectic interests of the land baron Henry E. Huntington brought the ancient art of surfing to the California coast. While on vacation, Huntington had seen Hawaiian boys surfing the island waves. Looking for a way to entice visitors to the area of Redondo Beach, where he had invested in real estate, he hired a young Hawaiian to ride surfboards. George Freeth decided to revive the art of surfing, but had little success with the huge 16-foot hardwood boards that were popular at that time; when he cut them in half to make them more manageable, he created the original "Long board", which made him the talk of the islands.
To the delight of visitors, Freeth exhibited his surfing skills twice a day in front of the Hotel Redondo. Another native Hawaiian, Duke Kahanamoku, spread surfing to both the U. S. and Australia, riding the waves after displaying the swimming prowess that won him Olympic gold medals in 1912 and 1920. In 1975, professional contests started; that year Margo Oberg became the first female professional surfer. Swell is generated when the wind blows over a large area of open water, called the wind's fetch; the size of a swell is determined by the strength of the wind and the length of its fetch and duration. Because of this, surf tends to be larger and more prevalent on coastlines exposed to large expanses of ocean traversed by intense low pressure systems. Local wind conditions affect wave quality since the surface of a wave can become choppy in blustery conditions. Ideal conditions include a light to moderate "offshore" wind, because it blows into the front of the wave, making it a "barrel" or "tube" wave.
Waves are Left Right Handed depending upon the breaking formation of the wave. Waves are recognized by the surfaces over which they break. For example, there are Reef breaks and Point breaks; the most important influence on
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were