Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
The emu is the second-largest living bird by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich. It is endemic to Australia where it is the largest native bird and the only extant member of the genus Dromaius; the emu's range covers most of mainland Australia, but the Tasmanian, Kangaroo Island and King Island subspecies became extinct after the European settlement of Australia in 1788. The bird is sufficiently common for it to be rated as a least-concern species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Emus are soft-feathered, flightless birds with long necks and legs, can reach up to 1.9 metres in height. Emus can travel great distances, when necessary can sprint at 50 km/h, they take in copious amounts of water when the opportunity arises. Breeding takes place in May and June, fighting among females for a mate is common. Females can lay several clutches of eggs in one season; the male does the incubation. The eggs hatch after around eight weeks, the young are nurtured by their fathers.
They reach full size after around six months, but can remain as a family unit until the next breeding season. The emu is an important cultural icon of Australia, appearing on the coat of various coins; the bird features prominently in Indigenous Australian mythology. Emus were first reported as having been seen by Europeans when explorers visited the western coast of Australia in 1696; the birds were known on the eastern coast before 1788. The birds were first mentioned under the name of the "New Holland cassowary" in Arthur Phillip's Voyage to Botany Bay, published in 1789 with the following description: This is a species differing in many particulars from that known, is a much larger bird, standing higher on its legs and having the neck longer than in the common one. Total length seven feet two inches; the bill is not different from that of the common Cassowary. The plumage in general consists of a mixture of brown and grey, the feathers are somewhat curled or bent at the ends in the natural state: the wings are so short as to be useless for flight, indeed, are scarcely to be distinguished from the rest of the plumage, were it not for their standing out a little.
The long spines which are seen in the wings of the common sort, are in this not observable,—nor is there any appearance of a tail. The legs are stout, formed much as in the Galeated Cassowary, with the addition of their being jagged or sawed the whole of their length at the back part; the species was named by ornithologist John Latham in 1790 based on a specimen from the Sydney area of Australia, a country, known as New Holland at the time. He collaborated on Phillip's book and provided the first descriptions of, names for, many Australian bird species. In his original 1816 description of the emu, the French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot used two generic names, first Dromiceius and Dromaius, it has been a point of contention since as to which name should be used. Most modern publications, including those of the Australian government, use Dromaius, with Dromiceius mentioned as an alternative spelling; the etymology of the common name "emu" is uncertain, but is thought to have come from an Arabic word for large bird, used by Portuguese explorers to describe the related cassowary in Australia and New Guinea.
Another theory is that it comes from the word "ema", used in Portuguese to denote a large bird akin to an ostrich or crane. In Victoria, some terms for the emu were Barrimal in the Dja Dja Wurrung language, myoure in Gunai, courn in Jardwadjali; the birds were known as murawung or birabayin to the local Eora and Darug inhabitants of the Sydney basin. The emu was long classified, with its closest relatives the cassowaries, in the family Casuariidae, part of the ratite order Struthioniformes. However, an alternate classification was proposed in 2014 by Mitchell et al. based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA. This splits off the Casuariidae into their own order, the Casuariformes, includes only the cassowaries in the family Casuariidae, placing the emus in their own family, Dromaiidae; the cladogram shown below is from their study. Two different Dromaius species were present in Australia at the time of European settlement, one additional species is known from fossil remains; the insular dwarf emus, D. n. baudinianus and D. n. minor present on Kangaroo Island and King Island both became extinct shortly after the arrival of Europeans.
D. n. diemenensis, another insular dwarf emu from Tasmania, became extinct around 1865. However, the mainland subspecies, D. n. novaehollandiae, remains common. The population of these birds varies from decade to de
National Gallery of Australia
The National Gallery of Australia is the national art museum of Australia as well as one of the largest art museums in Australia, holding more than 166,000 works of art. Located in Canberra in the Australian Capital Territory, it was established in 1967 by the Australian government as a national public art museum. Prominent Australian artist Tom Roberts had lobbied various Australian prime ministers, starting with the first, Edmund Barton. Prime Minister Andrew Fisher accepted the idea in 1910, the following year Parliament established a bipartisan committee of six political leaders—the Historic Memorials Committee; the Committee decided that the government should collect portraits of Australian governors-general, parliamentary leaders and the principal "fathers" of federation to be painted by Australian artists. This led to the establishment of what became known as the Commonwealth Art Advisory Board, responsible for art acquisitions until 1973; the Parliamentary Library Committee collected paintings for the Australian collections of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library, including landscapes, notably the acquisition of Tom Roberts' Allegro con brio, Bourke St West in 1918.
Prior to the opening of the Gallery these paintings were displayed around Parliament House, in Commonwealth offices, including diplomatic missions overseas, State Galleries. From 1912, the building of a permanent building to house the collection in Canberra was the major priority of the Commonwealth Art Advisory Board. However, this period included two World Wars and a Depression and governments always considered they had more pressing priorities, including building the initial infrastructure of Canberra and Old Parliament House in the 1920s and the rapid expansion of Canberra and the building of government offices, Lake Burley Griffin and the National Library of Australia in the 1950s and early 1960s. In 1965 the Commonwealth Art Advisory Board was able to persuade Prime Minister Robert Menzies to take the steps necessary to establish the gallery. On 1 November 1967, Prime Minister Harold Holt formally announced that the Government would construct the building; the design of the building was complicated by the difficulty in finalising its location, affected by the layout of the Parliamentary Triangle.
The main problem was the final site of the new Parliament House. In Canberra's original Griffin 1912 plan, Parliament House was to be built on Camp Hill, between Capital Hill and the Provisional Parliament House and a Capitol was to be built on top of Capital Hill, he envisaged the Capitol to be "either a general administration structure for popular receptions and ceremony or for housing archives and commemorating Australian Achievements". In the early 1960s, the National Capital Development Commission proposed, in accordance with the 1958 and 1964 Holford plans for the Parliamentary Triangle, that the site for the new Parliament House be moved to the shore of Lake Burley Griffin, with a vast National Place, to be built on its south side, to be surrounded by a large mass of buildings; the Gallery would be built on Capital Hill, along with other national cultural institutions. In 1968, Colin Madigan of Edwards Madigan Torzillo and Partners won the competition for the design though no design could be finalised, as the final site was now in doubt.
Prime Minister John Gorton stated that, "The Competition had as its aim not a final design for the building but rather the selection of a vigorous and imaginative architect who would be commissioned to submit the actual design of the Gallery."Gorton proposed to Parliament in 1968 that it endorse Holford's lakeside site for the new Parliament House, but it refused and sites at Camp Hill and Capital Hill were investigated. As a result, the Government decided. In 1971, the Government selected a 17-hectare site on the eastern side of the proposed National Place, between King Edward Terrace and for the Gallery. Though it was now unlikely that the lakeside Parliament House would proceed, a raised National Place surrounded by national institutions and government offices was still planned. Madigan's brief included the Gallery, a building for the High Court of Australia and the precinct around them, linking to the raised National Place at the centre of the Land Axis of the Parliamentary Triangle, which led to the National Library on the western side.
Madigan's final design was based on a brief prepared by the National Capital Development Commission with input from James Johnson Sweeney and James Mollison. Sweeney was director of the Guggenheim Museum between 1952–1960 and director of The Museum of Fine Arts and had been appointed as a consultant to advise on issues concerning the display and storage of art. Mollison said in 1989 that "the size and form of the building had been determined between Colin Madigan and J. J. Sweeney, the National Capital Development Commission. I was not able to alter the appearance of the interior or exterior in any way... It's a difficult building in which to make art look more important than the space in which you put the art"; the construction of the building commenced in 1973, with the unveiling of a plaque by Prime Minister Gough Whitlam, it was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1982, during the premiership of Whitlam's successor, Malcolm Fraser. The building cost $82 million. In 1975, the NCDC abandoned the plan for the National Place, leaving the precinct five metres above the natural ground level, without the proposed connections to national institutions and next to a vast space only taken up by Reconciliation Place, which does not substitute for the grand ma
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea that form edible tubers. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical world regions; the tubers themselves are called "yams", having numerous cultivars and related species. In parts of the United States and Canada, "yam" is sometimes used to refer to varieties of the unrelated sweet potato; the name, appears to derive from Portuguese inhame or Canarian ñame, which derived from West African languages during trade. The main derivations borrow from verbs meaning "to eat". In various places other unrelated root vegetables are sometimes referred to as "yams", including: In the United States, the sweet potato those with orange flesh, are referred to as "yams" In Okinawa, purple sweet potatoes may be called "yams" In New Zealand, the oca is referred to as "yam" In Japan, konjac corms are colloquially referred to as "yams" In Malaysia and Singapore the taro is referred to as a "yam"Yam has various common names across multiple world regions.
A monocot related to lilies and grasses, yams are vigorous herbaceous vines, providing an edible tuber. They are native to Africa and the Americas; some yams are invasive plants considered a "noxious weed", outside cultivated areas. Yam tubers vary in size from that of a small potato to over 60 g; some 870 species of yams are known, 95% of these crops are grown in Africa. Yam tubers can grow up to 15 m in length and 7.6 to 15.2 cm high. The tuber may grow into the soil up to 1.5 metres deep. The plant disperses by seed; the edible tuber softens after heating. The skins vary in color from dark brown to light pink; the majority of the vegetable is composed of a much softer substance known as the "meat". This substance ranges in color from pink in mature yams. Yam crop begins when whole seed tubers or tuber portions are planted into mounds or ridges, at the beginning of the rainy season; the crop yield depends on how and where the sets are planted, sizes of mounds, interplant spacing, provision of stakes for the resultant plants, yam species, tuber sizes desired at harvest.
Small-scale farmers in West and Central Africa intercrop yams with cereals and vegetables. The seed yams are bulky to transport. Farmers who do not buy new seed yams set aside up to 30% of their harvest for planting the next year. Yam crops face pressure from a range of insect pests and fungal and viral diseases, as well as nematode, their growth and dormant phases correspond to the wet season and the dry season. For maximum yield, the yams require a humid tropical environment, with an annual rainfall over 1500 mm distributed uniformly throughout the growing season. White and water yams produce a single large tuber per year weighing 5 to 10 kg. Despite the high labor requirements and production costs, consumer demand for yam is high in certain subregions of Africa, making yam cultivation quite profitable to certain farmers. Many cultivars of yams are found throughout the humid tropics; the most economically important are discussed below. Dioscorea rotundata, the white yam, D. cayenensis, the yellow yam, are native to Africa.
They are the most important cultivated yams. In the past, they were considered as two separate species, but most taxonomists now regard them as the same species. Over 200 varieties between them are cultivated. White yam tuber is cylindrical in shape, the skin is smooth and brown, the flesh is white and firm. Yellow yam has yellow flesh, caused by the presence of carotenoids, it looks similar to the white yam in outer appearance. The yellow yam has a shorter dormancy than white yam. The'Kokoro' variety is important in making dried yam chips, they are large plants. The tubers most weigh about 2.5 to 5 kg each, but can weigh as much as 25 kg. After 7 to 12 months' growth, the tubers are harvested. In Africa, most are pounded into a paste to make the traditional dish of "pounded yam," known as Iyan. D. alata, called "white yam", winged yam, water yam, purple yam, was first cultivated in Southeast Asia. Although not grown in the same quantities as the African yams, it has the largest distribution worldwide of any cultivated yam, being grown in Asia, the Pacific islands and the West Indies.
In Africa, the popularity of water yam is second only to white yam. The tuber shape is cylindrical, but can vary. Tuber flesh is watery in texture. Uhi was brought to Hawaii by the early Polynesian settlers and became a major crop in the 19th century when the tubers were sold to visiting ships as an stored food supply for their voyages. D. polystachya, Chinese yam, is native to China. The Chinese yam plant is somewhat smaller with the vines about 3 m long, it can be grown in much cooler conditions than other yams. It is grown in Korea and Japan, it was introduced to Europe in the 19th century, when the potato crop there was falling victim to disease, is still grown in France for the Asian food market. The tubers are harvested after about 6 months of growth; some are eaten right after harvesting and some are used as ingredients for other dishes, including noodles, for traditional medicines. D. bulbifera, the air
The Powerhouse Museum is the major branch of the Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences in Sydney, the other being the historic Sydney Observatory. Although described as a science museum, the Powerhouse has a diverse collection encompassing all sorts of technology including decorative arts, communication, costume, media, computer technology, space technology and steam engines, it has existed in various guises for over 125 years, is home to some 400,000 artifacts, many of which are displayed or housed at the site it has occupied since 1988, for which it is named – a converted electric tram power station in the Inner West suburb of Ultimo constructed in 1902. It is well known, a popular Sydney tourist destination; the Powerhouse Museum may be relocated to Parramatta in the future. The Powerhouse Museum has its origins in a recommendation of the trustees of the Australian Museum in 1878 and the Sydney International Exhibition of 1879 and Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880; some exhibits from these events were kept to constitute the original collection of the new Technological and Sanitary Museum of New South Wales.
The museum was intended to be housed in the exhibition buildings known as the Garden Palace, which were destroyed by a fire in September 1882. A temporary home at the Agricultural Hall in the Domain served until relocated to new, purpose-built premises in Harris Street as the Technological Museum in August 1893, it incorporated the Sydney Observatory in 1982. The museum moved to its present location in March 1988, took its present name from this new location. In February 2015, the State Government controversially announced that the museum would be relocated to Parramatta, however this plan is now under review. On 18 July 2017, the Nine Network reported that the Powerhouse Museum would stay in its current location, an announcement from the NSW government in April 2017 suggested that the Powerhouse Museum may stay in its current location; the Powerhouse Museum houses a number of unique exhibits including the oldest operational rotative steam engine in the world, the Whitbread Engine. Dating from 1785, it is one of only a handful remaining, built by Boulton and Watt and was acquired from Whitbread's London Brewery in 1888.
This engine was named a Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1986. Another important exhibit is Locomotive No. 1, the first steam locomotive to haul a passenger train in New South Wales, built by Robert Stephenson & Company in 1854. The most popular exhibit is arguably "The Strasburg Clock Model", built in 1887 by a 25-year-old Sydney watchmaker named Richard Smith, it is a working model of the famous Strasbourg astronomical clock in Strasbourg Cathedral. Smith had never seen the original when he built it but worked from a pamphlet which described its timekeeping and astronomical functions; the museum hosts a number of permanent exhibitions, including many concerning different modes of transport and communication. The transport exhibition looks at transport through the ages, from horse-drawn carts through steam engines and planes to the latest hybrid technology. On display is Steam Locomotive No. 1243, which served for 87 years, oldest contractor built locomotive in Australia.
It stands beside a mock-up of a railway platform, on the other side of, the Governor of New South Wales's railway carriage, of the 1880s. In this exhibition is the original Central railway station destination board, relocated to the museum in the 1980s when the station was refurbished. Powerhouse Museum restored the locomotives 3830, restored to operational order in 1997 and 3265, restored in 2009 after 40 years off the rails. Sydney's last Hansom Cab was donated to the Museum by its driver, who left it at the gates of the Harris Street building. There is a horse-drawn bus and collection of motorbikes. Suspended aeroplanes, which can be better viewed from balconies, include the Catalina that Sir Patrick Gordon Taylor flew on the first flight from Australia to South America and in which he brought home 29 soldiers from New Guinea in 1945. There is a Queenair Scout, the first Flying Doctor Service plane. Among the cars is a 1913 Sheffield Simplex, one of only 8 in the world. A four-minute film shows old footage of public transport.
The Powerhouse Museum has Sydney trams C11, O805, R1738, steam tram motor 28A, hearse car 27s and Manly horse car 292. This exhibition is remarkable in that nearly all of the engines on display are operational and are demonstrated working on steam power. Together with the Boulton and Watt engine, the Museum's locomotives, steam truck and traction engines, they are a unique working collection tracing the development of steam power from the 1770s to the 1930s. Engines on display include an 1830s Maudslay engine, a Ransom and Jeffries agricultural engine and the Broken Hill Fire Brigade's horse-drawn pump-engine; the museum owns a collection of mechanical musical instruments, of which the fairground barrel organ is located in the steam exhibition, where it is powered by a small fairground engine. The Space exhibition looks at space and discoveries relating to it, it includes a life size model space-shuttle cockpit. It has a feature on Australian satellites and joins the Transport exhibit through an underground temporary exhibit walkway and two side entrances.
The "EcoLogic" exhibition focuses on the challenges facing the environment, human impact, ways and technologies to stop this effect. There is a house setup called Ecohouse where people toggle light variables to see the outcome as well as