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Boathouse on the Lullwater of the Lake in Prospect Park

Boathouse on the Lullwater of the Lake in Prospect Park is located in the eastern part of Prospect Park in Brooklyn, New York City. It is situated on the northeast shore of the Lullwater, a waterway north of Prospect Park's Lake and southeast of the Ravine; the Boathouse on the Lullwater was built in 1905-07 to a classical design of Helmle and Huberty, protégés of McKim and White. It supplanted an older wooden boathouse further north; the classical design contains an arcade facing the Lullwater, with a canopy supported by columns of the Tuscan order. The entablature at the top of the columns contains triglyphs, a balustrade runs atop the canopy, surrounding it and forming a second-floor terrace; the interior of the Boathouse had double staircases that ascended to a second floor, merging at a landing in the middle. There was a boat-renting office at ground level, between the staircases; the second floor was composed of a dining room with doors opening outward onto the terrace. The terrace received a shed in 1915.

By the 1960s, the structure was underutilized. The boat concession only operated on weekends and the Boathouse was visited by fewer than ten people an hour on the busiest summer weekends. At one point in September 1964, the Parks Department was within forty-eight hours of demolishing the Boathouse; the Boathouse shared many features with McKim and White's original Pennsylvania Station, whose 1960s demolition had been controversial. The resulting historic preservation movement generated public pressure to save the Boathouse, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. Though the Boathouse was saved, restorations were deferred for several years; the interior renovations began under Commissioner August Heckscher. The Boathouse reopened to the public in 1974, but the exterior terracotta was not renovated until 1979. Further restorations were required in the 1980s under Commissioner Gordon Davis to repair damage from a leaking roof. After twenty years as a visitors center and park ranger headquarters, the Boathouse was restored for a third time in the late 1990s because of deterioration in the terracotta.

It now houses the Audubon Center, the Audubon Society's only urban interpretive center in the United States. The Boathouse was seen in the movie The Age Of Innocence, it was seen in the final scene of Going In Style List of New York City Landmarks Media related to Boathouse on the Lullwater of the Lake in Prospect Park at Wikimedia Commons

Galileo Galilei (opera)

Galileo Galilei is an opera based on excerpts from the life of Galileo Galilei which premiered in 2002 at Chicago's Goodman Theatre, as well as subsequent presentations at the Brooklyn Academy of Music's New Wave Music Festival and London's Barbican Theatre. Music by Philip Glass and original direction by Mary Zimmerman and Arnold Weinstein; the piece is presented in one act consisting of ten scenes without break. Galileo Galilei is Glass' 18th opera, draws from letters of Galileo and his family, various other documents, to retrospectively journey through Galileo's life. Opening with him as an old, blind man after the trial and Inquisition for his heresy, it explores his religiosity as well as his break with the church, expands into the greater, oscillating relationship of science to both religion and art, it reaches its end with Galileo — as a young boy — watching an opera composed by his father, Vincenzo Galilei, a member of the Florentine Camerata, an association of artists who are credited with creating the art form that came to be known as opera.

His father's opera is about the motions of the celestial bodies. The opera has been revived with new productions in 2012 by Portland Opera; the Portland Opera production was recorded by Orange Mountain Music. All genius meets with extreme resistance. In the case of Galileo, it was the mere hypothesis; the notion was considered blasphemous by scholars and clergy alike. Much was done to destroy Galileo's reputation, and since they could not do so through scientific proof, they did so through slander and threats of torture. It was not until that the Catholic Church admitted that they were wrong in persecuting Galileo, it took hundreds of years for them to admit the mistake. Galileo died believing, his books were banned, his name was disgraced. All of this, for suggesting a theory that turned out to be true. In addition to depicting Galileo's trials before the Inquisition, the opera allows us a glance into Galileo's more personal side. Namely, in showing us his relationship to his daughter Maria Celeste, a nun.

Maria Celeste shared her father's love of learning and science, but understood that he was a man of great faith. She recognized that science was the subject that served to deepen his faith, she encouraged him on this path; the two met rarely. They were separated not only by distance, but by Galileo's ailing health. Sadly, they were separated by her death at the age of 33, a source of incredible sadness for Galileo. However, their connection in this opera serves to give his story a more personal rendering; the story itself is told backwards through time. It begins with an aged Galileo, blinded from having looked at the Sun too and ends with him as a child; this is related to the function of a telescope. Much of the staging in this production is representative of Galileo's theories and follows the patterns of the discoveries and constellations that his inventions made known to the world. Scene 1Opening Song In the final days of his life, the now blind Galileo Galilei remembers the things in his life that he can no longer see.

Scene 2Recantation The officials of the Catholic Church rebuke the scientist for not relenting on his theory that the Earth revolves around the Sun. The Pope hands down his sentence, reminds Galileo of a time when they walked in the garden as friends. Scene 3Pears Marie Celeste, the daughter of Galileo, sends her intense devotion love and support through letters that are accompanied by elements of her garden at the convent. Scene 4Trial Galileo is summoned before two Cardinals of the Catholic Church to answer questions regarding his book "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World". Scene 5Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World As Galileo pens his book, the fictitious characters come alive to discuss the theories presented. Here, the Older Galileo becomes the Younger Galileo. Scene 6Incline Plane The theories and experiments are put to the test in Galileo's laboratory. Scene 7A Walk in the Garden Galileo and his great friend Cardinal Barberini discuss Galileo's newest book in the Garden.

After the Cardinal's feeble attempt at poetry, Galileo expresses his fear of his enemies. Barberini warns Galileo not to continue with his theories regarding the planets. Scene 8Lamps While at mass with his daughter, Galileo observes the swinging of a lamp suspended from the ceiling moving in pendulum fashion and explains his theory to Marie. Scene 9Presentation of the Telescope Galileo presents his invention to the Duchess and her Ladies in Waiting; the Duchess and Galileo reminisce about a time in their youth when they watched an opera together composed by Galileo's father, Vincenzo. Scene 10Opera within the Opera The Duchess and Galileo, now children, are in the audience as his father's opera is performed; the magical story of the planetary figures becomes the vehicle through which Galileo is reunited with his deceased daughter. Galileo Galilei, Boston University, James Marvel Galileo Galilei on Galileo Galilei, Orange Mountain Music recording liner notes

Flintlock mechanism

The flintlock mechanism is a type of lock used on muskets and rifles in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries. It is referred to as a "flintlock", though that term is commonly used for the weapons themselves as a whole, not just the lock mechanism; the flintlock mechanism known as the true flintlock, was developed in France in the early 17th century. It replaced earlier technologies, such as the matchlock and wheellock and the earlier flintlocks, it continued to be in common use for over two centuries, until it was replaced by the percussion lock. Flintlock firing mechanisms made their appearance in the 16th century in the form of the snaplock, the snaphance, the miquelet, the doglock; the so-called true flintlock was developed in France in the early 17th century. Though its exact origins are not known, credit for the development of the true flintlock is given to Marin le Bourgeoys, an artist, gunsmith and inventor from Normandy, France. Marin le Bourgeoys's basic design became the standard for flintlocks replacing most older firing mechanisms throughout Europe.

Flintlock weapons based on this design were used for over two centuries, until superseded by caplock mechanisms in the early 19th century. The key element added by Marin le Bourgeoys was the vertically acting sear; the sear is a "catch" or "latch". The sear, located within the lock, had acted through a hole in the lockplate to engage the cock on the outside of the plate; the vertically acting sear acted on a piece called the tumbler, on the inside of the lock, mounted on the same rotating shaft as the cock. This design proved to be the most efficient in terms of reliability. A typical flintlock mechanism has a piece of flint, held in place in between a set of jaws on the end of a short hammer; this hammer is pulled back into the "cocked" position. When released by the trigger, the spring-loaded hammer moves forward, causing the flint to strike a piece of steel called the "frizzen". At the same time, the motion of the flint and hammer pushes the frizzen back, opening the cover to the pan, which contains the gunpowder.

As the flint strikes the frizzen it creates a spark which ignites the powder. Flame burns through a small hole into the barrel of the gun and ignites the main powder charge, causing the weapon to fire. Most hammers follow Marin le Bourgeoys's design, have a "half-cocked" position, the "safe" position since pulling the trigger from this position does not cause the gun to fire. From this position, the frizzen can be opened, powder can be placed in the pan; the frizzen is closed, the hammer is pulled back into the "full cocked" position, from which it is fired. The phrase "don't go off half cocked" originated with these types of weapons, which were not supposed to fire from the half cocked position of the hammer. A gun flint is a piece of flint, shaped, or knapped into a wedge-shape that fits in the jaws of a flintlock; the gun flints were wrapped in a small piece of lead or leather to hold them in place and were made in different sizes to suit different weapons. Pieces of the mineral agate could be used instead of flint, but this was difficult and expensive to shape and only used by countries such as Prussia that were without access to flint deposits.

The experience of modern flintlock shooters shows that a good quality flint can be used for hundreds of shots, although for reliable shooting it must be sharpened periodically. Despite this, it was the British practice to include a new flint in each box of twenty rounds for the Brown Bess musket. A skilled craftsman could make several thousand gun flints a day so they were individually quite cheap items. In times of war, millions of gun flints were needed and in the United Kingdom, mining flint and knapping it became a substantial cottage industry around Brandon, Suffolk, an area that saw large scale flint mining in the Neolithic area. In 1804, Brandon was supplying over 400,000 flints a month to the British military; however flint knappers suffered from Silicosis, known as Knappers Rot due to the inhalation of flint dust. It has been claimed this was responsible for the early death of three-quarters of Brandon gun flint makers. Brandon gun flints were well regarded as they had a lower rate of misfire than flints from other sources.

The industry reached its height during and after the Napoleonic Wars, when Brandon flints were exported worldwide with a near global monopoly. However it declined as flintlocks were replaced by percussion locks. Although it still supplied 11 million flints a year to the Turkish army during the Crimean War and was exporting flints to Africa as late as the 1960s. In France, gun flint production between the 17th and 19th centuries centered around the small towns of Meusnes and Couffy. Meusnes has a small museum dedicated to the industry. A different method of manufacture can allow archaeologists to distinguish between British-made and French made flints. In North America, imported French and British flints were both used, as well as flints from the Netherlands and Nordic countries. In the Eastern United States, Indigenous American people made their own gun flints by re-working stone spear heads. Small scale suppliers of gun flints still exist in the 21st century, supplying gun enthusiasts who continue to shoot flintlock firearms.

A gunlock was a flintlock mechanism. They were a significant innovation in naval gunnery an

Azad Hind Radio

Azad Hind Radio was a propaganda radio service, started under the leadership of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose in Germany in 1942 to encourage Indians to fight for freedom. Though based in Germany, its headquarters were shifted to Singapore, to Rangoon, following the course of the war in Southeast Asia. After Netaji's departure to Southeast Asia, the German operations were continued by A. C. N. Nambiar, the head of the Indian Legion in Germany and ambassador of the Arzi Hukumate Azad Hind in Germany; the station broadcast weekly news bulletins in English, Tamil, Marathi, Punjabi and Urdu, the languages spoken by most potential volunteers for the Indian Legion in Germany and the Indian National Army in southeast Asia. Azad Hind Radio aimed to counter the broadcasts of Allied radio stations. On Azad Hind Radio, Netaji referred to the British Broadcasting Corporation as the Bluff and Bluster Corporation and the All India Radio as the Anti-Indian Radio. Propaganda and India in World War II Netaji's speeches on Azad Hind Radio: Voice of Netaji from Tokyo in 1943 Speeches of Netaji on Azad Hind Radio

Sitwell Sitwell

Sir Sitwell Sitwell, 1st Baronet was a British politician and landowner. Sitwell was the son of Francis Hurt of Mount Pleasant, who changed his name to Sitwell in 1777, when he inherited the Renishaw Hall, Derbyshire estates of his mother's cousin, who in 1793 inherited Barmoor Castle from a Phipps relative. Sitwell came to his father's estates in 1793 and extended and improved Renishaw Hall between 1800 and 1803, he was Member of Parliament for West Looe from 1796 to 1802. In 1808 he was created a Baronet, of Renishaw in the County of Derby. Sitwell married twice, firstly to Alice Parke, daughter of Thomas Parke in 1791 and secondly to Sarah Stovin in 1798, he was succeeded by 2nd Baronet. His daughter Anne married Sir Frederick Stovin in 1815, his memorial is in St Paul's Church, Eckington. Sitwell family history Leigh Rayment's list of baronets