Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction
Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction is a subgenre of science fiction, science fantasy or horror in which the Earth's technological civilization is collapsing or has collapsed. The apocalypse event may be climatic, such as runaway climate change; the story may involve attempts to prevent an apocalypse event, deal with the impact and consequences of the event itself, or it may be post-apocalyptic, set after the event. The time frame may be after the catastrophe, focusing on the travails or psychology of survivors, the way to maintain the human race alive and together as one, or later including the theme that the existence of pre-catastrophe civilization has been forgotten. Post-apocalyptic stories take place in a non-technological future world or a world where only scattered elements of society and technology remain. Various ancient societies, including the Babylonian and Judaic, produced apocalyptic literature and mythology which dealt with the end of the world and of human society, such as the Epic of Gilgamesh, written c.
2000–1500 BC. Recognizable modern apocalyptic novels had existed since at least the first third of the 19th century, when Mary Shelley's The Last Man was published. However, this form of literature gained widespread popularity after World War II, when the possibility of global annihilation by nuclear weapons entered the public consciousness; the apocalypse event may be climatic, such as runaway climate change. The story may involve attempts to prevent an apocalypse event, deal with the impact and consequences of the event itself, or may be post-apocalyptic, be set after the event; the time frame may be after the catastrophe, focusing on the travails or psychology of survivors, the way to maintain the human race alive and together as one, or later including the theme that the existence of pre-catastrophe civilization has been forgotten. Post-apocalyptic stories take place in a non-technological future world, or a world where only scattered elements of society and technology remain. Other themes may be cybernetic revolt, divine judgment, ecological collapse, resource depletion, supernatural phenomena, technological singularity, or some other general disaster.
The scriptural story of Noah and his Ark describes the end of the corrupted original civilization and its replacement with a remade world. Noah is assigned the task to build the Ark and save the lifeforms so as to reestablish a new post-flood world. Numerous other societies, including the Babylonian, had produced apocalyptic literature and mythology which dealt with the end of the world and of human society. Many of which included stories that refer back to the Biblical Noah or describe a similar flood; the Epic of Gilgamesh, written ca. 2000–1500 BC, details a myth where the angry gods send floods to punish humanity, but the ancient hero Utnapishtim and his family are saved through the intervention of the god Ea. A similar story about the Genesis flood narrative is found in Sura 71 of the Quran, where prophet Noah, Nūḥ, builds the ark and rebuilds humanity. In the Hindu Dharmasastra, the apocalyptic deluge plays a prominent part. According to the Matsya Purana, the Matsya avatar of Lord Vishnu, informed the King Manu of an all-destructive deluge which would be coming soon.
The King was advised to build a huge boat which housed his family, nine types of seeds, pairs of all animals and the Saptarishis to repopulate the Earth, after the deluge would end and the oceans and seas would recede. At the time of deluge, Vishnu appeared as a horned fish and Shesha appeared as a rope, with which Vaivasvata Manu fastened the boat to the horn of the fish. Variants of this story appear in Buddhist and Jain scriptures; the first centuries AD saw the recording of the Book of Revelation, filled with prophecies of destruction, as well as luminous visions. In the first chapter of Revelation, the writer St. John the Divine explains his divine errand: "Write the things which thou hast seen, the things which are, the things which shall be hereafter", he takes it as his mission to convey—to reveal—to God’s kingdom His promise that justice will prevail and that the suffering will be vindicated. The apocalyptist provides a beatific vision of Judgement Day, revealing God’s promise for redemption from suffering and strife.
Revelation describes a New Heaven and a New Earth, its intended Christian audience is enchanted and inspired, rather than terrified by visions of Judgment Day. These Christians believed themselves chosen for God’s salvation, so such apocalyptic sensibilities inspired optimism and nostalgia for the end times; such works feature the loss of a global perspective as protagonists are on their own with little or no knowledge of the outside world. Furthermore, they explore a world without modern technology whose rapid progress may overwhelm people as human brains aren't adapted to contemporary society but evolved to deal with issues that have become irrelevant such as immediate physical threats; such works depict worlds of less complexity, direct contact, primitive needs
Tyndale House is a publisher founded in 1962 by Kenneth N. Taylor, in order to publish his paraphrase of the Epistles, which he had composed while commuting to work at Moody Press in Chicago; the book appeared under the title Living Letters, received a television endorsement from Billy Graham. This ensured the book's great success, in 1971 Tyndale published Taylor's complete Living Bible. Taylor named the company after William Tyndale, whose English translation of the New Testament was first printed in 1526; the current president of Tyndale House is Mark D. Taylor. During the first nine years of Tyndale's history, Kenneth N. Taylor continued paraphrasing the text of the Bible. Living Letters was followed by The Living New Testament; the Living Bible was launched in 1971. According to Publishers Weekly, it was the bestselling book in the United States in the years 1972-74; the Living Bible was published in many different editions and binding styles, including a popular youth edition called The Way and a study edition called The Life Application Study Bible.
Today, Tyndale publishes a wide range of books by conservative Christian authors such as James Dobson, Charles Colson, Francine Rivers, Karen Kingsbury, Joel C. Rosenberg, its most successful publication in recent years has been the Left Behind series of novels by Tim LaHaye and Jerry Jenkins, one of the best-selling book series in history with more than 60 million copies in print. It has had a string of successful sports-related titles by such coaches and athletes as Tony Dungy, Joe Gibbs, Drew Brees, Kurt Warner, Emmitt Smith, Jim Tressel, Gene Chizik, Shawn Johnson, Deanna Favre. In 2007, Quiet Strength by Tony Dungy reached No. 1 on the New York Times hardcover, non-fiction list. It spent more than 30 weeks on either the primary or extended list, has sold well more than one million copies, it is one of the best-selling sports-related titles in history. Subsequent books by Dungy, including Uncommon, The Mentor Leader, The One Year Uncommon Life Daily Challenge, have all reached the New York Times best sellers list.
Tyndale's first non-fiction book to reach No. 1 on the New York Times hardcover, non-fiction list was Let's Roll, by Lisa Beamer. Beamer is the widow of Todd Beamer, a victim of the United Flight 93 crash as part of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States. In 1996 Tyndale House released a new English translation of the Bible under the title New Living Translation. While its predecessor, The Living Bible, was a paraphrase, the NLT is a translation, created by a team of 90 Hebrew and Greek scholars; the NLT copyright belongs to Tyndale House Foundation. A major revision of the NLT, aimed at making the translation more precise, was finished in 2004, editions published after this date are known as the NLTse — "se" standing for Second Edition. A third revision in 2007 made minor alterations, suggested by the Translation Committee. Tyndale developed a British branch, named Coverdale House Publishers. Coverdale co-published a British edition of The Living New Testament with Hodder & Stoughton in 1974 and merged with another publisher, Victory Press, in 1977.
The British company became Kingsway Publications Ltd, sold to Kingsway Trust in 1979, joined Cook Communications Ministries in 1993. Kingsway Books was one of the most prominent Christian paperback producers in the UK, until it ceased trading in 2013. SaltRiver and Tyndale Momentum are imprints of Tyndale House Publishers. Taylor, Kenneth, My Life: A Guided Tour: The Autobiography of Kenneth N. Taylor, Wheaton: Tyndale, 1991. Tyndale House Publishers Tyndale Tyndale YouTube channel Tyndale on FaceBook Tyndale on Twitter Tyndale on Pinterest Tyndale on Google+ Crazy4Fiction Tyndale Blog Network My Reader Rewards Club
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle is a family of light, four-wheel drive, military trucks and utility vehicles produced by AM General. It has supplanted the roles performed by the original jeep, others such as the Vietnam War-era M151 jeep, the M561 "Gama Goat", their M718A1 and M792 ambulance versions, the Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle, other light trucks. Used by the United States military, it is used by numerous other countries and organizations and in civilian adaptations; the Humvee saw widespread use in the Gulf War of 1991, where it negotiated the treacherous desert terrain. After going through a replacement process, the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle was chosen as its successor. Since the World War II ¼-ton reconnaissance truck was green-lit for mass-deployment, became known as the "jeep", the United States military had continued to rely on jeeps as general utility vehicles, as a mass-transport for soldiers in small groups. Although the US Army had let Ford redesign the jeep from the ground up during the 1950s, the resulting M151 jeep incorporated significant innovations, it adhered to the original concept—a compact, low profile vehicle, with a folding windshield, that a layman could distinguish from the preceding Willys jeeps.
The jeeps were shorter than a Volkswagen Beetle and weighed just over one metric ton, seating three with an 800 lb payload. During and after the war, the light, 1⁄4-ton jeeps were complemented by the 3⁄4-ton Dodge WC and Korea War M37 models. By the mid-1960s, the U. S. military felt a need to reevaluate their ageing light vehicle fleet. For starters, from the mid 1960s, the U. S. Army had tried to modernize, through replacing the larger, purpose-built Dodge M37s by militarized, "commercial off the shelf" 4×4 trucks—initially the M715 Jeep trucks, succeeded in the 1970s by the Dodge M880 series, but these didn't satisfy newer requirements either—what was wanted was a versatile light military truck, that could replace multiple outdated vehicles; when becoming aware of the U. S. Army's desire for a versatile new light weapons carrier / reconnaissance vehicle, as early as 1969 FMC Corporation started development on their XR311 prototype, offered it for testing in 1970. At least a dozen of these were built for testing under the High Mobility Combat Vehicle, or HMCV program much more as an enhanced capability successor to the M151 jeep, than as a general purpose load lugger.
In 1977, Lamborghini developed the Cheetah model in an attempt to meet the Army contract specifications. In 1979, the U. S. Army drafted final specifications for a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, to replace all the tactical vehicles in the 1/4 to 1 1/4-ton range, namely the M151 quarter-ton jeep and M561 Gama Goat, as one "jack-of-all-trades" light tactical vehicle to perform the role of several existing trucks; the specification called for excellent on and off-road performance, the ability to carry a large payload, improved survivability against indirect fire. Compared to the jeep, it was larger and had a much wider track, with a 16 in ground clearance, double that of most sport-utility vehicles; the new truck was to traverse a 40 percent slope. The air intake was to be mounted flush on top of the right fender (or to be raised on a stovepipe to roof level to ford 5 ft of water and electronics waterproofed to drive through 2.5 ft of water were specified. The radiator was to be mounted sloping over the engine on a forward-hinged hood.
Out of 61 companies that showed interest, only three submitted prototypes. In July 1979, AM General, a subsidiary of American Motors Corporation began preliminary design work. Less than a year the first prototype was in testing. Chrysler Defense and Teledyne Continental produced competing designs. In June 1981, the Army awarded AM General a contract for development of several more prototype vehicles to be delivered to the government for another series of tests; the original M998 A0 series had a curb weight of 5,200 lb, a payload of 2,500 lb, a 6.2 L V-8 diesel engine and 6.3 L gasoline, a three-speed automatic transmission. The three companies were chosen to design and build eleven HMMWV prototypes, which covered over 600,000 miles in trials which included off-road courses in desert and arctic conditions. AM General was awarded an initial contract in 1983 for 2,334 vehicles, the first batch of a five-year contract that would see 55,000 vehicles delivered to the U. S. military, including 39,000 vehicles for the Army.
S. and foreign customers by the Persian Gulf War of 1991, 100,000 were delivered by the Humvee's 10th anniversary in 1995. Ft. Lewis and the 2nd Battalion 1st Infantry, 9th Infantry Division was the testing unit to employ HMMWV in the new concept of a motorized division. Yakima Training Center in Yakima, Washington was the main testing grounds for HMMWVs from 1985 through December 1991, when the motorized concept was abandoned and the division inactivated. HMMWVs first saw combat in Operation Just Cause, the U. S. invasion of Panama in 1989. The HMMWV was designed for personnel and light cargo transport behind front lines, not as a front line fighting vehicle. Like the previous jeep, the basic HMMWV has no armor or protection against chemical, radiological or nuclear threats. Losses were low in conventional operations, such as the Gulf War. Vehicles and crews suffered considerable damage and losses during the Battle of Mogadishu in 1993 due to
Petra known to its inhabitants as Raqmu, is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan. Petra lies on the slope of Jabal Al-Madbah in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of the Arabah valley that runs from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Petra is believed to have been settled as early as 9,000 BC, it was established in the 4th century BC as the capital city of the Nabataean Kingdom; the Nabataeans were nomadic Arabs who invested in Petra's proximity to the trade routes by establishing it as a major regional trading hub. The trading business gained the Nabataeans considerable revenue and Petra became the focus of their wealth; the earliest historical reference to Petra was an attack to the city ordered by Antigonus I in 312 BC recorded by various Greek historians. The Nabataeans were, unlike their enemies, accustomed to living in the barren deserts, were able to repel attacks by utilizing the area's mountainous terrain, they were skillful in harvesting rainwater and stone carving.
Petra flourished in the 1st century AD when its famous Khazneh structure – believed to be the mausoleum of Nabataean King Aretas IV – was constructed, its population peaked at an estimated 20,000 inhabitants. Although the Nabataean Kingdom became a client state for the Roman Empire in the first century BC, it was only in 106 AD that they lost their independence. Petra fell to the Romans, who renamed Nabataea to Arabia Petraea. Petra's importance declined as sea trade routes emerged, after a 363 earthquake destroyed many structures; the Byzantine Era witnessed the construction of several Christian churches, but the city continued to decline, by the early Islamic era became an abandoned place where only a handful of nomads lived. It remained unknown to the world; the city is accessed through a 1.2-kilometre-long gorge called the Siq, which leads directly to the Khazneh. Famous for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system, Petra is called the Rose City due to the color of the stone out of which it is carved.
It has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985. UNESCO has described it as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's cultural heritage". In 2007, Al-Khazneh was voted in as one of the New7Wonders of the World. Petra is a symbol of Jordan, as well as Jordan's most-visited tourist attraction. Tourist numbers peaked at 1 million in 2010. However, tourist numbers have picked up and around 800,000 tourists visited the site in 2018. Pliny the Elder and other writers identify Petra as the capital of the Tadeanos and the center of their caravan trade. Enclosed by towering rocks and watered by a perennial stream, Petra not only possessed the advantages of a fortress, but controlled the main commercial routes which passed through it to Gaza in the west, to Bosra and Damascus in the north, to Aqaba and Leuce Come on the Red Sea, across the desert to the Persian Gulf. Excavations have demonstrated that it was the ability of the Nabataeans to control the water supply that led to the rise of the desert city, creating an artificial oasis.
The area is visited by flash floods, archaeological evidence demonstrates the Nabataeans controlled these floods by the use of dams and water conduits. These innovations stored water for prolonged periods of drought and enabled the city to prosper from its sale. In ancient times, Petra might have been approached from the south on a track leading across the plain of Petra, around Jabal Haroun, the location of the Tomb of Aaron, said to be the burial-place of Aaron, brother of Moses. Another approach was from the high plateau to the north. Today, most modern visitors approach the site from the east; the impressive eastern entrance leads steeply down through a dark, narrow gorge called the Siq, a natural geological feature formed from a deep split in the sandstone rocks and serving as a waterway flowing into Wadi Musa. At the end of the narrow gorge stands Petra's most elaborate ruin, Al Khazneh, hewn into the sandstone cliff. While remaining in remarkably preserved condition, the face of the structure is marked by hundreds of bullet holes made by the local Bedouin tribes that hoped to dislodge riches that were once rumored to be hidden within it.
A little further from the Treasury, at the foot of the mountain called en-Nejr, is a massive theatre, positioned so as to bring the greatest number of tombs within view. At the point where the valley opens out into the plain, the site of the city is revealed with striking effect; the theatre has been cut into several of the tombs during its construction. Rectangular gaps in the seating are still visible. Enclosing it on three sides are rose-colored mountain walls, divided into groups by deep fissures and lined with knobs cut from the rock in the form of towers. In Petra, there is a semi-arid climate. Most rain falls in the winter; the Köppen-Geiger climate classification is BSk. The average annual temperature in Petra is 15.5 °C. About 193 mm of precipitation falls annually. By 2010 BC, some of the earliest recorded farmers had settled in Beidha, a pre-pottery settlement just north of Petra. Petra is listed in the Amarna letters as Pel, Sela or Seir. Though the city was founded late, a sanctuary has existed there since ancient times.
Historian Josephus describes the region as inhabited by the Madianite nation as early as 1340 BC, that
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with 200–260 million members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia; the church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Near East. Eastern Orthodox theology is based on the Nicene Creed; the church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains, its patriarchates, reminiscent of the pentarchy, autocephalous and autonomous churches reflect a variety of hierarchical organisation.
Of its innumerable sacred mysteries, it recognises seven major sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in synaxis. The church teaches that through consecration invoked by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ; the Virgin Mary is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the God-bearer, honoured in devotions. The Eastern Orthodox Church shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, triggered by disputes over doctrine the authority of the Pope. Before the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Oriental Orthodox churches shared in this communion, separating over differences in Christology; the majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Southeast and Eastern Europe, Cyprus and other communities in the Caucasus region, communities in Siberia reaching the Russian Far East. There are smaller communities in the former Byzantine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, in the Middle East where it is decreasing due to persecution.
There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity. In keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term "Catholic", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church"; the official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the "Orthodox Catholic Church". It is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the church as Catholic; this name and longer variants containing "Catholic" are recognised and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the church, "Eastern Orthodox Church", is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished, Greek, being the language in which the New Testament was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church.
For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" before the Great Schism of 1054. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with Rome; this identification with Greek, became confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of Southeastern Europe resulted in the conversion of some churches to Rome, which also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites. Today, many of those same churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, do not use Greek as the language of worship. "Eastern" indicates the geographical element in the Church's origin and development, while "Orthodox" indicates the faith, as well as communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
There are additional Christian churches in the east that are in communion with neither Rome nor Constantinople, who tend to be distinguished by the category named "Oriental Orthodox". While the church continues to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Roman Catholic Church; the first known use of the phrase "the catholic Church" occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. The letter states: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be as where Jesus may be, there is the universal Church." Thus from the beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the "One, Holy and Apostolic Church". The Eastern Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same early Church. A number of other Christian churches make a similar claim: the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox.
In the Eastern Orthodox v
An archangel is an angel of high rank. The word "archangel" itself is associated with the Abrahamic religions, but beings that are similar to archangels are found in a number of religious traditions; the English word archangel is derived from the Greek ἀρχάγγελος. It appears only twice in the New Testament in the phrase "with the voice of the archangel, with the trump of God" and in relation to'the archangel Michael'; the corresponding but different Hebrew word in the Hebrew Scripture is found in two places as in "Michael, one of the chief princes" and in "Michael, the great prince". Michael and Gabriel are recognized as archangels in Judaism, the Baha'i Faith, by most Christians; some Protestants consider Michael to be the only archangel. Raphael—mentioned in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit—is recognized as an archangel in the Catholic and Orthodox churches. Gabriel and Raphael are venerated in the Roman Catholic Church with a feast on September 29, in the Eastern Orthodox Church on November 8.
The named archangels in Islam are Jibrael, Mikael and Azrael. Jewish literature, such as the Book of Enoch mentions Metatron as an archangel, called the "highest of the angels", though the acceptance of this angel is not canonical in all branches of the faith; some branches of the faiths mentioned have identified a group of seven Archangels, but the named angels vary, depending on the source. Gabriel and Raphael are always mentioned. In Zoroastrianism, sacred texts allude to the six great Amesha Spenta of Ahura Mazda. An increasing number of experts in anthropology and philosophy, believe that Zoroastrianism contains the earliest distillation of prehistoric belief in angels; the Amesha Spentas of Zoroastrianism are likened to archangels. They individually inhabit immortal bodies that operate in the physical world to protect and inspire humanity and the spirit world; the Avesta explains the nature of archangels or Amesha Spentas. To maintain equilibrium, Ahura Mazda engaged in the first act of creation, distinguishing his Holy Spirit Spenta Mainyu, the Archangel of righteousness.
Ahura Mazda distinguished from himself six more Amesha Spentas, along with Spenta Mainyu, aided in the creation of the physical universe. He oversaw the development of sixteen lands, each imbued with a unique cultural catalyst calculated to encourage the formation of distinct human populations; the Amesha Spentas were charged with protecting these holy lands and through their emanation believed to align each respective population in service to God. The Amesha Spentas as attributes of God are: Spenta Mainyu: lit.'Bountiful Spirit' Asha Vahishta: lit.'Highest Truth' Vohu Mano: lit.'Righteous Mind' Khshathra Vairya: lit.'Desirable Dominion' Spenta Armaiti: lit.'Holy Devotion' Haurvatat: lit.'Perfection or Health' Ameretat: lit.'Immortality' The Hebrew Bible uses the term מלאכי אלוהים, The Hebrew word for angel is "malach," which means messenger, for the angels מלאכי יי are God's messengers to perform various missions - e.g.'angel of death'. Other terms are used in texts, such as העליונים. References to angels are uncommon in Jewish literature except in works such as the Book of Daniel, though they are mentioned in the stories of Jacob and Lot.
Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name. It is therefore speculated that Jewish interest in angels developed during the Babylonian captivity. According to Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish of Tiberias, specific names for the angels were brought back by the Jews from Babylon. There are no explicit references to archangels in the canonical texts of the Hebrew Bible. In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels came to take on a particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Though these archangels were believed to have ranked amongst the heavenly host, no systematic hierarchy developed. Metatron is considered one of the highest of the angels in Merkavah and Kabbalist mysticism and serves as a scribe, he is mentioned in the Talmud, figures prominently in Merkavah mystical texts. Michael, who serves as a warrior and advocate for Israel, is looked upon fondly. Gabriel is mentioned in the Book of Daniel and in the Talmud, as well as many Merkavah mystical texts.
The earliest references to archangels are in the literature of the intertestamental periods. In the Kabbalah there are ten archangels, each assigned to one sephira: Metatron, Tzaphkiel, Khamael, Haniel, Michael and Sandalphon. Chapter 20 of the Book of Enoch mentions seven holy angels who watch, that are considered the seven archangels: Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Sa