Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Amadeo I of Spain
Amadeo I was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was the son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta. He was elected by the Cortes as Spains monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabella II, amadeos reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, and the Cuban independence movement. He abdicated and returned to Italy in 1873, and the First Spanish Republic was declared as a result, Prince Amedeo of Savoy was born in Turin. He was the son of King Vittorio Emanuele II and of Archduchess Adelaide of Austria. He was styled the Duke of Aosta from birth, in 1867 his father yielded to the entreaties of parliamentary deputy Francisco Cassins, and on 30 May of that year, Amedeo was married to Donna Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo. The King initially opposed the match on the grounds that her family was of insufficient rank, despite her princely title, Donna Maria Vittoria was not of royal birth, belonging rather to the Piedmontese nobility.
In March 1870, the Duchess appealed to the King to remonstrate with his son for marital infidelities that caused her hurt and embarrassment. But the King wrote in reply that, while understanding her feelings, he considered that she had no right to dictate her husbands behaviour and that her jealousy was unbecoming. The wedding day of Prince Amedeo and Donna Maria Vittoria was marred by the death of a stationmaster who was crushed under the wheels of the honeymoon train, after the Spanish revolution deposed Isabella II, the new Cortes decided to reinstate the monarchy under a new dynasty. The Duke of Aosta was elected King as Amadeus on 16 November 1870 and he swore to uphold the constitution in Madrid on 2 January 1871. The election of the new King coincided with the assassination of General Marqués de los Castillejos and he could count on the support of only the progressive party, whose leaders were trading off in the government thanks to parliamentary majority and electoral fraud. The progressives divided into monarchists and constitutionalists, which made the instability worse, there was a Carlist uprising in the Basque and Catalan regions, and after that, republican uprisings happened in cities across the country.
The artillery corps of the went on strike, and the government instructed the King to discipline them. With the possibility of reigning without popular support, Amadeus issued an order against the artillery corps, at ten oclock that same night, Spain was proclaimed a republic, at which time Amadeo made an appearance before the Cortes, proclaiming the Spanish people ungovernable. Completely disgusted, the ex-monarch left Spain and returned to Italy and they had one child, who died of the flu during the First World War. Amadeo remained in Turin, Italy until his death on 18 January 1890 and his friend Puccini composed the famous elegy for string quartet Crisantemi in his memory. Lake Amadeus in central Australia is named after him, as is the Philippine municipality of Amadeo, by Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo, Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta Marshal of Italy married to Princess Hélène of Orléans and had issue
Rafael del Riego
Rafael del Riego y Nuñez was a Spanish general and liberal politician, who played a key role in the outbreak of the Liberal Triennium. Riego was born on 9 April 1784 in Tineo in Asturias, after graduating from the University of Oviedo in 1807, he moved to Madrid, where he joined the army. In 1808, during the Spanish War of Independence he was taken captive by the French and imprisoned in El Escorial, on 10 November he took part in the Battle of Espinosa de los Monteros, after which he once again was taken prisoner. Three days he was sent to France, and after he changed his name to Riego, was eventually released and he traveled around England and the German states, and in 1814 he returned to Spain right before the Spanish Constitution of 1812 was abolished by Fernando VII. In Spain, Riego once again joined the army with a rank of lieutenant colonel, during the six years of absolutism that followed the restoration of King Fernando VII, Spanish liberals wished to restore the Spanish Constitution, which the King had abolished in May 1814.
Riego joined the freemasons and collaborated with liberals in several conspiracies against the King, in 1819, the King was forming an army of ten battalions to fight in the Spanish American wars of independence. Riego was given command of the Asturian Battalion, after arriving in Cádiz, together with other liberal officers, he started a mutiny on 1 January 1820, demanding the return of the 1812 Constitution. Riegos troops marched through the cities of Andalusia with the hope of starting an anti-absolutist uprising, an uprising, took in Galicia, and it quickly spread throughout Spain. On 7 March 1820, the palace in Madrid was surrounded by soldiers under the command of General Francisco Ballesteros, and on 10 March. The new progressive government promoted Riego to field marshal and made him Captain General of Galicia, on 8 January 1821 he took command of Aragon, and moved to Zaragoza. On 18 June, he married his cousin Maria Teresa del Riego y Bustillos, on 4 September 1821, because of a failed republican revolt, he was wrongly accused of republicanism and imprisoned.
However, his popularity grew, and demonstrations took place in Madrid demanding his release, in March 1822, he was elected to the Cortes Generales and eventually released from prison. On 7 April 1823, the French army crossed the borders, Riego took command of the Third Army and resisted the invaders as well as local absolutist groups. On 15 September he was betrayed and taken prisoner in an estate near the village of Arquillos. Despite asking for clemency from the King, Riego was found guilty of treason, on 7 November 1823, he was hanged at La Cebada Square in Madrid. El Himno de Riego, a written in honour of Riego. Currently his portrait is displayed in the building of the Cortes Generales
First Spanish Republic
The next day,11 February the republic was declared by a parliamentary majority made up of radicals and democrats. The Constituent Cortes was called upon to write a federal constitution, the radicals preferred a unitary republic, with a much lesser role for the provinces, and once the republic had been declared the two parties turned against each other. Initially, the radicals were largely driven from power, joining those who had already driven out by the revolution of 1868 or by the Carlist War. The first republican attempt in the history of Spain was an experience, characterized by profound political and social instability. The period was marked by three civil wars, the Third Carlist War, the Cantonal Revolution, the Petroleum Revolution in Alcoy. The gravest problems for the consolidation of the regime were the lack of true republicans, the monarchists and Republicans refused, leaving the unitary Radicals and Constitutionalists as the only group willing to govern, again a narrow political base.
General Francisco Serrano formed a new government and was appointed President of the Republic although it was a mere formality since the Cortes had been dissolved. However the other monarchists had taken the name of Alfonsists as supporters of Alfonso, the son of the former Queen Isabel, and were organised by Cánovas del Castillo. This period of the Republic lasted until Brigadier Martínez-Campos pronounced for Alfonso in Sagunto on 29 December 1874, the government collapsed, leading to the end of the republic and the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy with the proclamation of Alfonso XII as king. King Amadeo I abdicated from the Spanish throne on 11 February 1873, there was a small republican minority in the National Assembly, ideologically divided between federalism and centralism. An Executive Power shall be elected directly by the Cortes, in the same session, the first government of the Republic was elected. Federal republican Estanislao Figueras was elected the first President of the Executive Power, no President of the Republic was ever elected, as the Constitution creating such office was never enacted.
In his speech, Figueras said that the Republic was like a rainbow of peace, the passage of these resolutions surprised and stunned most Spaniards, as the recently elected Cortes had a wide majority of monarchists. The first government of the Republic was formed of federalists and progressives who had been ministers during the monarchy, four ministers, in particular, had served with King Amadeo, Becerra, Fernández de Córdoba and Berenguer. At the beginning, they were plagued by a terrible situation, with a 546M peseta budgetary deficit, 153M in debts requiring immediate payment. The Artillery Corps had been dissolved in the most virulent moment of the Carlist and Cuban wars, for there were not enough soldiers or armament. Besides, Spain was going through an economic crisis matching the Panic of 1873. This prompted the first remodeling of the government in which the progressives were ousted and replaced with federalists, twelve days after the establishment of the Republic, compulsory military service was removed and voluntary service set up with a daily salary of 1 peseta and one crust of bread
Assassination is the murder of a prominent person, often a political leader or ruler, usually for political reasons or payment. The word assassin is believed to derive from the word Hashshashin. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Persians who worked against various Arab, founded by the Persian Hassan-i Sabbah, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut in Iran from the 8th to the 14th centuries, and controlled the castle of Masyaf in Syria. The group killed members of the Persian, Seljuq, the word for murder in many Romance languages is derived from this same root word. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics and it dates back at least as far as recorded history. The Old Testament story of Judith illustrates how a woman frees the Israelites by tricking and assassinating Holofernes, a warlord of the rival Assyrians, with whom the Israelites were at war. King Joash of Judah was recorded as being assassinated by his own servants, Joab assassinated Absalom, King Davids son, chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra.
His student Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire, made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, and Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome often met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later, the practice was well known in ancient China, as in Jing Kes failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC. Whilst many assassination were performed by an individual or a small group, the earliest were the sicarii in 6 A. D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe and strangling in the bathtub were the most commonly used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe and this account is, contentious among historians, it being most commonly asserted that he died of natural causes.
The myth of the Curse of King Zvonimir is based on the legend of his assassination, in 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, the de facto King of Jerusalem, was killed by an assassin. The reigns of King Przemysł II of Poland, William the Silent of the Netherlands, in Russia alone, two emperors, Paul I and his grandson Alexander II, were assassinated within 80 years. In the United Kingdom, only one Prime Minister of the United Kingdom has ever been assassinated—Spencer Perceval on May 11,1812. In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, there have been at least 20 known attempts on U. S. presidents lives. Huey Long, a Senator, was assassinated in September of 1935, the Polish Home Army conducted a regular campaign of assassinations against top Nazi German officials in occupied Poland. Adolf Hitler, was almost killed by his own officers, indias Father of the Nation, Mohandas K. Gandhi, was shot to death on January 30,1948, by Nathuram Godse
Ferdinand II of Portugal
In keeping with Portuguese law, only after the birth of his son in 1837 did he acquire the title of king. Ferdinands reign came to an end with the death of his wife in 1853 and he and Maria founded the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which would rule Portugal until 1910. Born Ferdinand August Franz Anton in Vienna, he was the eldest son of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and his wife Princess Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág, heiress to the House of Koháry. The younger Ferdinand grew up in places, the family estates in modern-day Slovakia, the imperial court of Austria. In 1826, his title changed from Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, after the birth of their eldest son and heir, the future Pedro V of Portugal, Ferdinand was proclaimed King Dom Fernando II. Although it was Maria who reigned by right, the couple formed an effective team during their joint reign. Eventually, Maria II died as a result of the birth of their eleventh child, however, he would assume the regency of Portugal from 1853 to 1855, during the minority of his son King Pedro V.
In 1869 he rejected an offer to assume the throne of Spain, Ferdinand was an intelligent and artistically-minded man with modern and liberal ideas. He was adept at etching and painting aquarelles and he was the president of the Royal Academy of Sciences and the Arts, lord-protector of the university of Coimbra and Grand-Master of the Rosicrucians. The monastery consisted of the cloister and its outbuildings, the chapel, the sacristy and the bell tower, Ferdinand began by making repairs to the former monastery, according to the historical sources of that time, was in poor condition. He refurbished the whole of the floor, replacing the fourteen cells used by the monks with larger-sized rooms. In 1843, the decided to enlarge the palace by building a new wing with even larger rooms. Ferdinand would spend his last years in this castle with his second wife, in 1836 Ferdinand married Maria II, Queen-regnant of Portugal, the daughter and heiress of King Pedro IV. Eleven children were born to the couple before Maria died of complications due to childbirth in 1853.
Ferdinand was destined to outlive eight of his eleven children, in late 1861, an attack of cholera or typhoid fever struck the royal family and Ferdinand suffered the tragedy of witnessing the death of three of his five surviving sons. Later in his life, Ferdinand married again in Lisbon on 10 June 1869 to actress Elisa Hensler, just before the marriage, she was created Gräfin von Edla by Ferdinands cousin Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Andrew Russia, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St
The Peninsula Paris
The Peninsula Paris is a historic luxury hotel, formerly known as the Hotel Majestic, located on Avenue Kléber in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France. It opened in 1908 and was converted to government offices in 1936, the hotel served as a field hospital for wounded officers during World War I, staffed largely by British aristocrats. During World War II it served as the headquarters of the German military high command in France during the Nazi occupation of Paris, the hotel played a pivotal role in the deportation of Parisian Jews and the 1944 assassination attempt on Hitler. The building reopened as The Peninsula Paris in August 2014 following a complicated, Avenue Kléber, part of Baron Haussmanns rebuilding plan for Paris, was originally known as avenue du Roi de Rome in tribute to Napoleon I’s son. In 1864, a rich Russian nobleman named Alexandr Basilewski constructed a palace at 19 avenue du Roi de Rome, Basilewski sold the palace in 1868 to Queen Isabella II of Spain, who established the palace as her home in exile during the First Spanish Republic.
She continued to live there for the next 36 years and the palace was known as the Palais de Castille, after the queen’s death, the property was acquired by hotel magnate Leonard Tauber after a bidding war that involved the United States government and the King of Belgium. Tauber constructed the luxurious Hotel Majestic on the site, retaining Queen Isabellas bathroom accoutrements, including her marble bath, designed by Armand Sibien, construction began in 1906 and the hotel opened in December 1908. The hotel was purchased by Henry Devenish Harben for use as a hospital at the outbreak of World War I in 1914. It was damaged during its service, and was not renovated and reopened until 1916. In 1922 it was the site of a dinner hosted by Violet and Sydney Schiff and attended by Marcel Proust, Igor Stravinsky. The dinner party of the century, was immortalised in Richard Davenport-Hiness book, Proust at the Majestic, the 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad was held at the hotel in 1924. George Gershwin wrote An American in Paris while staying at the hotel in 1928, the hotel was purchased by the French government in 1936 to serve as offices for the Ministry of Defence.
It served as the headquarters of the German military high command in France from October 1940 to July 1944 during the occupation of Paris in World War II and he spoke of experiments for the killing of Jews using a specially prepared truck whose exhaust fumes would kill the deportees. In this context the word “gassing” was first used outside of Hitlers inner circle in relation to the extermination of the Jewish population of Paris, militärbefehlshaber Frankreich staff at The Majestic were soon processing hundreds of deportation orders against the Jewish population of Paris. Stülpnagel opposed the policy and decided to act against Hitler, on 20 July 1944, Stülpnagels co-conspirator Claus von Stauffenberg made his assassination attempt on Hitler at the Wolfsschanze in East Prussia. For his part, Stülpnagel put his part of the plot into operation from The Majestic, ordering Hans Otfried von Linstow to round up all SS and Gestapo officers in Paris and imprison them. These events were witnessed by Walter Bargatzky, a high ranking German officer who wrote Hotel Majestic, after the plot failed, Bargatzky left his office at The Majestic and returned to room 409 in The Raphael to await his arrest.
It never came and like other members of the plot
Juan Bautista Topete
Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo, Spanish admiral and politician. He was born in San Andrés Tuxtla and his father and grandfather were Spanish admirals. He served on the West Indian station for three years, and was engaged in repressing the slave trade before he was promoted captain in 1857. He was promoted chief of staff to the fleet during the Moroccan War,1859, after which he received the crosses of Saint Ferdinad, having been appointed chief of the Carrara arsenal at Cádiz, he was elected a deputy and joined the Union Liberal of ODonnell and Serrano. On his return to Spain, Topete was made captain at Cádiz. He initially opposed the election of Amadeus, but latter sat on several cabinets seats of that kings reign and he was prosecuted by the federal republic of 1873 and again took charge of the marine under Serrano in 1874. After the Restoration, he was held aloof for many years, later, he sat in the Senate as a life peer until his death in Madrid. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
The Italians gave him the epithet Father of the Fatherland. Victor Emmanuel was born the eldest son of Charles Albert, Prince of Carignano and his father succeeded a distant cousin as King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1831. He lived for years of his youth in Florence and showed an early interest in politics, the military. In 1842, he married his cousin Adelaide of Austria and he was styled as the Duke of Savoy prior to becoming King of Sardinia-Piedmont. He took part in the First Italian War of Independence under his father King Charles Albert, fighting in the front line at the battles of Pastrengo, Santa Lucia and Custoza. He became King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1849 when his father abdicated the throne after a military defeat by the Austrians at the Battle of Novara. Victor Emmanuel was immediately able to obtain a rather favorable armistice at Vignale by the Austrian imperial army commander Radetzky, after new elections, the peace with Austria was accepted by the new Chamber of Deputies. In 1849 Victor Emmanuel fiercely suppressed a revolt in Genoa, defining the rebels as a vile, in 1852, he appointed Count Camillo Benso of Cavour as Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia.
This turned out to be a choice, since Cavour was a political mastermind. Victor Emmanuel II soon became the symbol of the Risorgimento, the Italian unification movement of the 1850s and he was especially popular in the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont because of his respect for the new constitution and his liberal reforms. Following Victor Emmanuels advice, Cavour joined Britain and France in the Crimean War against Russia, Cavour was reluctant to go to war due to the power of Russia at the time and the expense of doing so. Victor Emmanuel, was convinced of the rewards to be gained from the alliance created with Britain and, more importantly, the Italo-French campaign against Austria in 1859 started successfully. After several quarrels about the outcome of the war, Cavour resigned, that same year, Victor Emmanuel II sent his forces to fight the papal army at Castelfidardo and drove the Pope into Vatican City. His success at these goals led him to be excommunicated from the Catholic Church, Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered Sicily and Naples, and Sardinia-Piedmont grew even larger.
On 17 March 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was officially established, Victor Emmanuel supported Giuseppe Garibaldis Expedition of the Thousand, which resulted in the rapid fall of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in southern Italy. However, the king halted Garibaldi when he appeared ready to attack Rome, still under the Papal States, in 1860, through local plebiscites, Modena and Romagna decided to side with Sardinia-Piedmont. Victor Emmanuel marched victoriously in the Marche and Umbria after the battle of Castelfidardo over the Papal forces. The king subsequently met with Garibaldi at Teano, receiving from him the control of southern Italy, another series of plebiscites in the occupied lands resulted in the proclamation of Victor Emmanuel as the first King of Italy by the new Parliament of unified Italy, on 17 March 1861