Kostas Karagiorgis was the alias of Kostas Gyftodimos, a prominent Greek communist who played an important role in the Greek Resistance and in the Greek Civil War. He was born in 1905 in the town of Limni in Euboea, he studied at the Medical School of the University of Athens, where he became politically active as director of Neolaia, the newspaper of the Central Committee of the Young Communist League of Greece, assistant editor of the Communist Party of Greece's official newspaper, Rizospastis. After a time in prison, he left Greece in 1931 and moved to Vienna and thence to Paris in 1933, he worked there before moving to the Soviet Union. He returned to Greece after the establishment of the dictatorial Metaxas Regime, but was arrested and imprisoned in Aegina. After completing his compulsory military service, he was sent to internal exile to the islands of Sifnos and Kimolos, along with fellow KKE members Miltiadis Porfyrogennis, Chrysa Hatzivasileiou, Petros Rousos. Following the start of the Greco-Italian War, they managed to escape.
Karagiorgis returned to Athens, where he played a major role in the Party's underground press and the mobilization of civil servants. In the December 1943 party congress, he was elected alternate member of the Central Committee, sent to Thessaly to supervise the operations of the National Liberation Front and its armed wing, the Greek People's Liberation Army. Throughout the subsequent period until the end of the Axis occupation of Greece, he was the senior KKE and EAM official in Thessaly. In 1944 he was elected to the National Council. After liberation in 1944, he became director of the weekly Rizos tis Defteras. After the outbreak of the Greek Civil War and the closing of Rizospastis, he fled Athens to the mountains of Thessaly, where he joined the Communist-run Democratic Army of Greece. In March 1948, he was moved from Thessaly to the command of the DSE General Headquarters for Southern Greece. Wounded in action, he was sent to Hungary to be operated on, on his return was made a member of the communists' "Mountain Government" as Minister for War Supply.
After the defeat of the DSE and the end of the conflict in autumn 1949, he accused KKE General Secretary Nikos Zachariadis as responsible for the defeat, for which he was dismissed from all his Party offices and membership, imprisoned in Romania. He was interrogated by KKE members and by the Romanian Securitate, died in prison in Mărăcineni in 1955
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records, its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Armenian, Coptic and many other writing systems; the Greek language holds an important place in the history of Christianity. Greek is the language in which many of the foundational texts in science astronomy and logic and Western philosophy, such as the Platonic dialogues and the works of Aristotle, are composed. Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, the study of the Greek texts and society of antiquity constitutes the discipline of Classics. During antiquity, Greek was a spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world, West Asia and many places beyond.
It would become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire and develop into Medieval Greek. In its modern form, Greek is the official language in two countries and Cyprus, a recognised minority language in seven other countries, is one of the 24 official languages of the European Union; the language is spoken by at least 13.2 million people today in Greece, Italy, Albania and the Greek diaspora. Greek roots are used to coin new words for other languages. Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC, or earlier; the earliest written evidence is a Linear B clay tablet found in Messenia that dates to between 1450 and 1350 BC, making Greek the world's oldest recorded living language. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now-extinct Anatolian languages; the Greek language is conventionally divided into the following periods: Proto-Greek: the unrecorded but assumed last ancestor of all known varieties of Greek.
The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age. Mycenaean Greek: the language of the Mycenaean civilisation, it is recorded in the Linear B script on tablets dating from the 15th century BC onwards. Ancient Greek: in its various dialects, the language of the Archaic and Classical periods of the ancient Greek civilisation, it was known throughout the Roman Empire. Ancient Greek fell into disuse in western Europe in the Middle Ages, but remained in use in the Byzantine world and was reintroduced to the rest of Europe with the Fall of Constantinople and Greek migration to western Europe. Koine Greek: The fusion of Ionian with Attic, the dialect of Athens, began the process that resulted in the creation of the first common Greek dialect, which became a lingua franca across the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East. Koine Greek can be traced within the armies and conquered territories of Alexander the Great and after the Hellenistic colonization of the known world, it was spoken from Egypt to the fringes of India.
After the Roman conquest of Greece, an unofficial bilingualism of Greek and Latin was established in the city of Rome and Koine Greek became a first or second language in the Roman Empire. The origin of Christianity can be traced through Koine Greek, because the Apostles used this form of the language to spread Christianity, it is known as Hellenistic Greek, New Testament Greek, sometimes Biblical Greek because it was the original language of the New Testament and the Old Testament was translated into the same language via the Septuagint. Medieval Greek known as Byzantine Greek: the continuation of Koine Greek, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. Medieval Greek is a cover phrase for a whole continuum of different speech and writing styles, ranging from vernacular continuations of spoken Koine that were approaching Modern Greek in many respects, to learned forms imitating classical Attic. Much of the written Greek, used as the official language of the Byzantine Empire was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine.
Modern Greek: Stemming from Medieval Greek, Modern Greek usages can be traced in the Byzantine period, as early as the 11th century. It is the language used by the modern Greeks, apart from Standard Modern Greek, there are several dialects of it. In the modern era, the Greek language entered a state of diglossia: the coexistence of vernacular and archaizing written forms of the language. What came to be known as the Greek language question was a polarization between two competing varieties of Modern Greek: Dimotiki, the vernacular form of Modern Greek proper, Katharevousa, meaning'purified', a compromise between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek, developed in the early 19th century and was used for literary and official purposes in the newly formed Greek state. In 1976, Dimotiki was declared the official language of Greece, having incorporated features of Katharevousa and giving birth to Standard Modern Greek, used today for all official purposes and in education; the historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language is emphasised.
Although Greek h
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
1963 Cannes Film Festival
The 16th Cannes Film Festival was held from 9 to 23 May 1963. The Palme d'Or went to the Il Gattopardo by Luchino Visconti; the festival opened with The Birds, directed by Alfred Hitchcock. The following people were appointed as the Jury of the 1963 film competition:Feature films Armand Salacrou Jury President Rouben Mamoulian Vice President Jacqueline Audry Wilfrid Baumgartner François Chavane Jean De Baroncelli Robert Hossein Rostislav Yurenev Kashiko Kawakita Steven Pallos Gian Luigi Rondi Short films Henri Alekan President Robert Alla Karl Schedereit Ahmed Sefrioui Semih Tugrul The following feature films competed for the Palme d'Or: The following films were selected to be screened out of competition: 8½ by Federico Fellini The Birds by Alfred Hitchcock The following short films competed for the Short Film Palme d'Or: The following feature films were selected to be screened for the 2nd International Critics' Week: The following films and people received the 1963 Official selection awards: Palme d'Or: The Leopard by Luchino Visconti Jury Special Prize: The Cassandra Cat by Vojtěch Jasný Harakiri by Masaki Kobayashi Best Screenplay: Dumitru Carabat, Henri Colpi and Yves Jamiaque for Codine Best Actress: Marina Vlady for The Conjugal Bed Best Actor: Richard Harris for This Sporting LifeShort films Short Film Palme d'Or: Le Haricot by Edmond Séchan In wechselndem Gefälle by Alexander J. Seiler Jury Prize - Short Film: Moj Stan by Zvonimir Berković Special Mention - Short Film: Di Domenica by Luigi Bazzoni & You by István Szabó Short Film Technical Prize: Zeilen by Hattum Hoving FIPRESCI FIPRESCI Prize: This Sporting Life by Lindsay Anderson Le Joli Mai by Chris Marker, Pierre Lhomme Commission Supérieure Technique Technical Grand Prize: The Cassandra Cat by Vojtěch Jasný Codine by Henri ColpiOCIC Award The Fiances by Ermanno OlmiOther awards Gary Cooper Award: To Kill a Mockingbird by Robert Mulligan Best Evocation of a World-Shattering Epic: Optimistic Tragedy by Samson Samsonov 1963 Cannes Film Festival Official website Retrospective 1963 Cannes Film Festival:1963 at Internet Movie Database