The Glosas Emilianenses are glosses written in a Latin codex. These marginalia are important as early examples of writing in a form of Romance similar to Spanish, in Basque; the anonymous author is assumed to have been a monk at the monastery now known as Suso, one of the twin monasteries of San Millán de la Cogolla. He wrote about a thousand years ago in three languages: A simplified version of Latin The medieval form of a Hispanic Romance language; the Glosses were considered to include the first instances of early Spanish. However, in November 2010, the Real Academia Española declared that the first appearances of written Spanish can be found in the Cartularies of Valpuesta, medieval documents in Latin from the province of Burgos; the codex was preserved in the monastery library at Yuso. Its significance was recognised in the early twentieth century when it was brought to the attention of the philologist Ramón Menéndez Pidal; the manuscript's current location is the Real Academia de la Historia in Madrid.
There is still some debate as to whether the Iberian Romance language of the glosses should be classed as an early form of Castilian or of Aragonese, although some recent studies show that most features belong indeed to the latter. It is not the only text to be difficult to classify: other texts traditionally assumed to be in Old Spanish, like the Kharjas, are proved to be in a different medieval Romance, which happens to be classified along with Aragonese in a Pyrenean-Mozarabic group; some scholars have proposed that it is anachronistic to classify such varieties of Ibero-Romance according to dialectal labels based on geographical particularism before the thirteenth century, leaving the Glosas to be understood as "in an unspecialized informal register of Ibero-Romance". However, should the Romance language of the glosses be classified, San Millán de la Cogolla's former reputation as the "birthplace of the Spanish language" was important in its designation as a World Heritage Site in 1997.
The longest gloss appears on page 72 of the manuscripts. The Spanish philologist Dámaso Alonso called this little prayer the "first cry of the Spanish language". Old textCon o aiutorio de nuestrodueno Christo, qual duenoget ena honore et qualduenno tienet elamandatione con opatre con o spiritu sanctoen os sieculos de lo sieculos. Facanos Deus Omnipotestal serbitio fere kedenante ela sua facegaudioso segamus. Amen. TranslationWith the help of our Lord Christ, LordSavior, Lordwho is in honor,Lord that hascommand withthe Father, with the Holy Spiritfor and ever. God Omnipotent, make usdo such a service thatbefore His facejoyful. Amen. Comparison of some words used in the glosses, along with their current corresponding forms in Aragonese and Latin language. English translation provided. Aemilianensis 60 has been publicized as the earliest known codex with inscriptions in Basque, though other codices are posited. Only two of the glosses in Aemilianensis 60 are in Basque; these short texts can be seen on the 1974 plaque.
However, it has been suggested that some of the Romance glosses reflect the influence of the Basque language, the implication being that their author was a fluent Basque-speaker. Spanish language Monasteries of San Millán de la Cogolla Navarro-Aragonese dialect Early Spanish Literature and the Middle Ages Basque language Wikisource: Glosas Emilianenses
In law, common law is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals. The defining characteristic of "common law" is. In cases where the parties disagree on what the law is, a common law court looks to past precedential decisions of relevant courts, synthesizes the principles of those past cases as applicable to the current facts. If a similar dispute has been resolved in the past, the court is bound to follow the reasoning used in the prior decision. If, the court finds that the current dispute is fundamentally distinct from all previous cases, legislative statutes are either silent or ambiguous on the question, judges have the authority and duty to resolve the issue; the court states an opinion that gives reasons for the decision, those reasons agglomerate with past decisions as precedent to bind future judges and litigants. Common law, as the body of law made by judges, stands in contrast to and on equal footing with statutes which are adopted through the legislative process, regulations which are promulgated by the executive branch.
Stare decisis, the principle that cases should be decided according to consistent principled rules so that similar facts will yield similar results, lies at the heart of all common law systems. The common law—so named because it was "common" to all the king's courts across England—originated in the practices of the courts of the English kings in the centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066; the British Empire spread the English legal system to its historical colonies, many of which retain the common law system today. These "common law systems" are legal systems that give great precedential weight to common law, to the style of reasoning inherited from the English legal system. Today, one-third of the world's population lives in common law jurisdictions or in systems mixed with civil law, including Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Cameroon, Cyprus, Fiji, Grenada, Hong Kong, Ireland, Jamaica, Liberia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Namibia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Tobago, the United Kingdom, the United States, Zimbabwe.
Some of these countries have variants on common law systems. The term common law has many connotations; the first three set out here are the most-common usages within the legal community. Other connotations from past centuries are sometimes seen and are sometimes heard in everyday speech; the first definition of "common law" given in Black's Law Dictionary, 10th edition, 2014, is "The body of law derived from judicial decisions, rather than from statutes or constitutions. This usage is given as the first definition in modern legal dictionaries, is characterized as the “most common” usage among legal professionals, is the usage seen in decisions of courts. In this connotation, "common law" distinguishes the authority. For example, the law in most Anglo-American jurisdictions includes "statutory law" enacted by a legislature, "regulatory law" or “delegated legislation” promulgated by executive branch agencies pursuant to delegation of rule-making authority from the legislature, common law or "case law", i.e. decisions issued by courts.
This first connotation can be further differentiated into pure common law arising from the traditional and inherent authority of courts to define what the law is in the absence of an underlying statute or regulation. Examples include most criminal law and procedural law before the 20th century, today, most contract law and the law of torts. Interstitial common law court decisions that analyze and determine the fine boundaries and distinctions in law promulgated by other bodies; this body of common law, sometimes called "interstitial common law", includes judicial interpretation of the Constitution, of legislative statutes, of agency regulations, the application of law to specific facts. Publication of decisions, indexing, is essential to the development of common law, thus governments and private publishers publish law reports. While all decisions in common law jurisdictions are precedent, some become "leading cases" or "landmark decisions" that are cited often. Black's Law Dictionary 10th Ed. definition 2, differentiates "common law" jurisdictions and legal systems from "civil law" or "code" jurisdictions.
Common law systems place great weight on court decisions, which are considered "law" with the same force of law as statutes—for nearly a millennium, common law courts have had the authority to make law where no legislative statute exists, statutes mean what courts interpret them to mean. By contrast, in civil law jurisdictions, courts lack authority to act. Civil law judges tend to give less weight to judicial precedent, which means that a
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline in universities and seminaries. Theology is the study of deities or their scriptures in order to discover what they have revealed about themselves, it occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but especially with epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship. Theology is derived from the Greek theologia, which derived from Τheos, meaning "God", -logia, meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" which had passed into Latin as theologia and into French as théologie.
The English equivalent "theology" had evolved by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; the term can, however, be used for a variety of fields of study. Theology begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical, mental, or social realities, that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others; the study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives.
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, test, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics. As in philosophy of ethics and case law, arguments assume the existence of resolved questions, develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations; the study of theology may help a theologian more understand their own religious tradition, another religious tradition, or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology may be used to propagate, reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare, challenge, or oppose a religious tradition or world-view. Theology might help a theologian address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world. Greek theologia was used with the meaning "discourse on god" in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch. 18. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike and theologike, with the last corresponding to metaphysics, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.
Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical and civil. Theologos related to theologia, appears once in some biblical manuscripts, in the heading to the Book of Revelation: apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy, "the revelation of John the theologos". There, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a different sense of the root logos, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, logoi toy theoy; some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine, followed Varro's threefold usage, though Augustine used the term more to mean'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity'In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, teaching about, the essential nature of God. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality.
Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin usage. In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition. In the Renaissance with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority, it is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching
Fingerspelling is the representation of the letters of a writing system, sometimes numeral systems, using only the hands. These manual alphabets, have been used in deaf education, have subsequently been adopted as a distinct part of a number of sign languages. Manual alphabets have had a number of additional applications—including use as ciphers, as mnemonics, in silent religious settings; as with other forms of manual communication, fingerspelling can be comprehended visually or tactually. The simplest visual form of fingerspelling is tracing the shape of letters in the air, or tactually, tracing letters on the hand. Fingerspelling can be one-handed such as in American Sign Language, French Sign Language and Irish Sign Language, or it can be two-handed such as in British Sign Language. There are two families of manual alphabets used for representing the Latin alphabet in the modern world; the more common of the two is produced on one hand, can be traced back to alphabetic signs used in Europe from at least the early 15th century.
The alphabet, first described by Spanish monks, was adopted by the Abbé de l'Épée's deaf school in Paris in the 18th century, was spread to deaf communities around the world in the 19th and 20th centuries via educators who had learned it in Paris. Over time, variations have emerged, brought about by natural phonetic changes that occur over time, adaptions for local written forms with special characters or diacritics, avoidance of handshapes that are considered obscene in some cultures; the most used modern descendant is the American manual alphabet. Two-handed manual alphabets are used by a number of deaf communities; some of the letters are represented by iconic shapes, in the BANZSL languages the vowels are represented by pointing to the fingertips. Letters are formed by a dominant hand, on top of or alongside the other hand at the point of contact, a subordinate hand, which uses either the same or a simpler handshape as the dominant hand. Either the left or right hand can be dominant. In a modified tactile form used by deafblind people, the signer's hand acts as the dominant hand, the receiver's hand becomes the subordinate hand.
Some signs, such as the sign used for the letter C, may be one-handed. Manual alphabets based on the Arabic alphabet, the Ethiopian Ge'ez script and the Korean Hangul script use handshapes that are more or less iconic representations of the characters in the writing system; some manual representations of non-Roman scripts such as Chinese, Devanagari, Greek and Russian alphabets are based to some extent on the one-handed Latin alphabet described above. In some cases however, the "basis" is more theory than practice. Thus, for example, in the Japanese manual syllabary only the five vowels and the Ca letters derive from the American manual alphabet. In the Nepali Sign Language it is only four "letters" which derive from the American manual alphabet: अ /a/, ब /b/, म /m/, र /r/); the Yugoslav manual alphabet represents characters from the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet as well as Gaj's Latin alphabet. Fingerspelling has been introduced into certain sign languages by educators, as such has some structural properties that are unlike the visually motivated and multi-layered signs that are typical in deaf sign languages.
In many ways fingerspelling serves as a bridge between the sign language and the oral language that surrounds it. Fingerspelling registers for different purposes, it may be used to represent words from an oral language which have no sign equivalent, or for emphasis, clarification, or when teaching or learning a sign language. In American Sign Language, more lexical items are fingerspelled in casual conversation than in formal or narrative signing. Different sign language speech communities use fingerspelling to a lesser degree. At the high end of the scale, fingerspelling makes up about 8.7% of casual signing in ASL, 10% of casual signing in Auslan. The proportion is higher in older signers, suggesting that the use of fingerspelling has diminished over time. Across the Tasman Sea, only 2.5% of the corpus of New Zealand Sign Language was found to be fingerspelling. Fingerspelling has only become a part of NZSL since the 1980s. Fingerspelling does not seem to be used much in the sign languages of Eastern Europe, except in schools, Italian Sign Language is said to use little fingerspelling, for foreign words.
Sign languages that make no use of fingerspelling at all include Kata Kolok and Ban Khor Sign Language. The speed and clarity of fingerspelling varies between different signing communities. In Italian Sign Language, fingerspelled words are slow and produced, whereas fingerspelling in standard British Sign Language is rapid so that the individual letters become difficult to distinguish, the word is grasped from the overall hand movement. Most of the letters of the BSL alphabet are produced with two hands, but when one hand is occupied, the dominant hand may fingerspell onto an "imaginary"
Novum Testamentum Graece
Novum Testamentum Graece is a critical edition of the New Testament in its original Koine Greek, forming the basis of most modern Bible translations and biblical criticism. It is known as the Nestle-Aland edition after its most influential editors, Eberhard Nestle and Kurt Aland; the text, edited by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, is in its 28th edition, abbreviated NA28. The title is sometimes applied to the United Bible Societies edition; the latter edition is aimed at translators and so focuses on variants that are important for the meaning whereas the NA includes more variants. The Greek text as presented is what biblical scholars refer to as the "critical text"; the critical text is an eclectic text compiled by a committee that compares readings from a large number of manuscripts in order to determine which reading is most to be closest to the original. They use a number of factors to help determine probable readings, such as the date of the witness, the geographical distribution of a reading, the likelihood of accidental or intentional corruptions.
In the book, a large number of textual variants, or differences between manuscripts, are noted in the critical apparatus—the extensive footnotes that distinguish the Novum Testamentum Graece from other Greek New Testaments. Most scholars view uncial text as the most accurate; this view has been criticized by Bruce Metzger among others. Since the majority of old manuscripts in existence are minuscules, they are referred to as the Majority Text, it is worth noting, that the Majority Text as a whole is classified by the editors of the NA28 as a "consistently cited witness of the first order," meaning that whenever the text presented differs from the majority text this is recorded in the apparatus along with the alternate reading. Other cited references include the full corpus of papyrus manuscripts available to the authors as well as a wide range of other manuscripts including a selection of both minuscules and uncials; the Novum Testamentum Graece apparatus summarizes the evidence for, sometimes against, a selection of the most important variants for the study of the text of the New Testament.
While eschewing completeness, this edition does provide informed readers with a basis by which they can judge for themselves which readings more reflect the originals. The Greek text of the 28th edition is the same as that of the 5th edition of the United Bible Societies The Greek New Testament although there are a few differences between them in paragraphing, capitalization and spelling; the critical apparatus is different in the two editions. The first edition published by Eberhard Nestle in 1898 combined the readings of the editions of Tischendorf and Hort and Weymouth, placing the majority reading of these in the text and the third reading in the apparatus. In 1901, he replaced the Weymouth New Testament with Bernhard Weiss's text. In editions, Nestle began noting the attestation of certain important manuscripts in his apparatus. Eberhard's son Erwin Nestle took over after his father's death and issued the 13th edition in 1927; this edition introduced a separate critical apparatus and introduced consistency to the majority reading principle.
In the apparatus only a few minuscules were included. Kurt Aland became the associate editor of the 21st edition in 1952. At Erwin Nestle's request, he reviewed and expanded the critical apparatus, adding many more manuscripts; this led to the 25th edition of 1963. The most important Papyri and newly discovered Uncials, as 0189, a few Minuscules also lectionaries were taken into account; the great manuscript discoveries of the 20th century had made a revision of the text necessary and, with Nestle's permission, Aland set out to revise the text of Novum Testamentum Graece. Aland submitted his work on NA to the editorial committee of the United Bible Societies Greek New Testament and it became the basic text of their third edition in 1975, four years before it was published as the 26th edition of Nestle-Aland. Members of the Editorial Committee of the United Bible Societies' Greek New Testament comprise: UBS1, 1966Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Bruce Metzger, Allen Wikgren. UBS2, 1968Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Bruce Metzger, Allen Wikgren.
UBS3, 1975Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo Maria Martini, Bruce Metzger, Allen Wikgren. UBS4, 1993Barbara Aland, Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo Maria Martini, Bruce MetzgerUBS5, 2014Barbara Aland, Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo Maria Martini, Bruce Metzger in co-operation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, MünsterIn 2011 the Global Board of the United Bible Societies appointed a new editorial committee that will prepare future editions of the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece as well as of the Greek New Testament; the committee consists of Christos Karakolis, David Parker, Stephen
A glossary known as a vocabulary or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. Traditionally, a glossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book that are either newly introduced, uncommon, or specialized. While glossaries are most associated with non-fiction books, in some cases, fiction novels may come with a glossary for unfamiliar terms. A bilingual glossary is a list of terms in one language defined in a second language or glossed by synonyms in another language. In a general sense, a glossary contains explanations of concepts relevant to a certain field of study or action. In this sense, the term is related to the notion of ontology. Automatic methods have been provided that transform a glossary into an ontology or a computational lexicon. A core glossary is a simple glossary or defining dictionary that enables definition of other concepts for newcomers to a language or field of study, it contains a small working vocabulary and definitions for important or encountered concepts including idioms or metaphors useful in a culture.
Computational approaches to the automated extraction of glossaries from corpora or the Web have been developed in the recent years. These methods start from domain terminology and extract one or more glosses for each term of interest. Glosses can be analyzed to extract hypernyms of the defined term and other lexical and semantic relations. Wikipedia glossaries Index Terminology extraction Frahang-i Pahlavig, a glossary of Pahlavi logograms maxprograms.com: Introduction to GlossML This article presents Glossary Markup Language, an open XML vocabulary specially designed to facilitate the exchange of glossaries. Glossarist.com: The Glossarist - Large list of glossaries www.ontopia.net: The TAO of Topic Maps www.babel-linguistics.com: Babel Linguistics Glossaries Selected Multilingual Glossaries by Industry www.maxprograms.com: Anchovy Anchovy is a free multilingual cross-platform glossary editor and term extraction tool based on the open Glossary Markup Language format
The Iberian Peninsula known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal, comprising most of their territory, it includes Andorra, small areas of France, the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of 596,740 square kilometres ), it is both the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula, by population, after the Balkan Peninsula; the word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originated by the Ancient Greek word Ἰβηρία by Greek geographers under the rule of the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula. At that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabo's'Iberia' was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the entire land mass southwest of there. With the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the new Castillian language in Spain, the word "Iberia" appeared for the first time in use as a direct'descendant' of the Greek word "Ἰβηρία" and the Roman word "Hiberia".
The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, by voyaging westward on the Mediterranean. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms.
The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia translates to "land of the Hiberians"; this word was derived from the river Ebro. Hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro; the first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics; the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became politically interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for'near' and'far' Hispania. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Lusitania. Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. Whatever language may have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees.
The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so well known. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "the whole of Spain" Hiberia because of the Hiberus River; the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, Polybius states that the "native name" is Ibēr the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination; the early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from today's southern Spain to today's southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian." Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks for their residence on the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations on etymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must remain unknown.
In modern Basque, the word ibar means "valley" or "watered meadow", while ibai means "river", but there is no proof relating the etymology of the Ebro River with these Basque names. The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1.2 million years as remains found in the sites in the Atapuerca Mountains demonstrate. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and one million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor. Around 200,000 BP, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70,000 BP, during the Middle Paleolithic period, the last glacial event began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established. Around 37,000 BP, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began. Emanating from Southern France, this culture extended into the north of the p