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Glossary of French expressions in English

Around 45 percent of English vocabulary is of French origin, most coming from the Anglo-Norman spoken by the upper classes in England for several hundred years after the Norman Conquest, before the language settled into what became Modern English. English words of French origin, such as art, force, money, publicity, role and table, are pronounced according to English rules of phonology, rather than French, are used by English speakers without any consciousness of their French origin; this article, on the other hand, covers French words and phrases that have entered the English lexicon without losing their character as Gallicisms: they remain unmistakably "French" to an English speaker. They are most common in written English, where they retain French diacritics and are printed in italics. In spoken English, at least some attempt is made to pronounce them as they would sound in French; some of them were never "good French", in the sense of being idiomatic French usage. Some others were once normal French but have become old-fashioned, or have acquired different meanings and connotations in the original language, to the extent that they would not be understood by a native French speaker.

À la short for à la manière de. À propos regarding/concerning aide-de-camp lit. "camp helper". "memory aid". Amuse-bouche or amuse-gueule lit. "mouth-amuser". In France, the exact expression used is amuse-gueule, gueule being slang for mouth, although the expression in itself is not vulgar; the expression refers to a small mouthful of food, served at the discretion of the chef before a meal as an hors d'oeuvre or between main courses. Ancien régime a sociopolitical or other system that no longer exists, an allusion to pre-revolutionary France aperçu preview. Apéritif or aperitif lit. " opening the appetite", a before-meal drink. In colloquial French, un apéritif is shortened to un apéro. Appellation contrôlée supervised use of a name. For the conventional use of the term, see Appellation d'origine contrôlée appetence 1. A natural craving or desire 2. An attraction or affinity. Après moi, le déluge lit. "After me, the deluge", a remark attributed to Louis XV of France in reference to the impending end of a functioning French monarchy and predicting the French Revolution.

It is derived from Madame de Pompadour's après nous, le déluge, "after us, the deluge". The Royal Air Force No. 617 Squadron, famously known as the "Dambusters", uses this as its motto. Arête a narrow ridge. In French fishbone. Armoire a type of cabinet. Arrière-pensée ulterior motive. Art nouveau a style of architecture of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it takes a capital in French. Attaché a person attached to an embassy. Au contraire on the contrary. Au courant up-to-date. Au fait being conversant in or with, or instructed in or with. Au gratin "with gratings", anything, grated onto a food dish. In English, specifically'with cheese'. Au jus lit. "with juice", referring to a food course served with sauce. Redundantly formulated, as in'Open-faced steak sandwich, served with au jus.' No longer used in French, except for the colloquial, être au jus. au naturel 1. A. Nude. b. In a natural state: an au naturel hairstyle. 2. Cooked simply. Au pair a young foreigner who does domestic chores in exchange for board.

In France, those chores are child care/education. Au revoir! "See you later!" In French, a contraction of Au plaisir de vous revoir. Avant-garde applied to cutting-edge or radically innovative movements in art and literature. Avant la lettre used to describe something or someone seen as a forerunner of something before that something was recognized and named, e.g. "a post-modernist avant la lettre", "a feminist avant la lettre". The expression means "before the letter", i.e. "before it had a name". The French modern form of this expression is avant l'heure. Avoirdupois used in Middle English, avoir de pois = commodities sold by weight, alteration of Old French aveir de peis = "goods of weight" baguette a long, narrow loaf of bread with a crisp crust called "French bread" or "French stick" in the United Kingdom. In French, a baguette is any long and narrow stick-like object, for example a "chopstick". A

Whole-body counting

In health physics, whole-body counting refers to the measurement of radioactivity within the human body. The technique is applicable to radioactive material that emits gamma rays. Alpha particle decays can be detected indirectly by their coincident gamma radiation. In certain circumstances, beta emitters can be with degraded sensitivity; the instrument used is referred to as a whole body counter. This must not be confused with a "whole body monitor" which used for personnel exit monitoring, the term used in radiation protection for checking for external contamination of a whole body of a person leaving a radioactive contamination controlled area. If a gamma ray is emitted from a radioactive element within the human body due to radioactive decay, its energy is sufficient to escape it can be detected; this would be by means of either a scintillation detector or a semiconductor detector placed in close proximity to the body. Radioactive decay may give rise to gamma radiation which cannot escape the body due to being absorbed or other interaction whereby it can lose energy.

There are many ways a person can be positioned for this measurement: sitting, standing. The detectors can either be stationary or moving; the advantages of whole-body counting are that it measures body contents directly, does not rely on indirect bio-assay methods as it can measure insoluble radionuclides in the lungs. On the other hand, disadvantages of whole-body counting are that except in special circumstances it can only be used for gamma emitters due to self-shielding of the human body, it can misinterpret external contamination as an internal contamination. To prevent this latter case scrupulous de-contamination of the individual must be performed first. Whole body counting may be unable to distinguish between radioisotopes that have similar gamma energies. Alpha and beta radiation is shielded by the body and will not be detected externally, but the coincident gamma from alpha decay may be detected, as well as radiation from the parent or daughter nuclides. Any radiation detector is a relative instrument, to say the measurement value can only be converted to an amount of material present by comparing the response signal to the signal obtained from a standard whose quantity is well known.

A whole-body counter is calibrated with a device known as a "phantom" containing a known distribution and known activity of radioactive material. The accepted industry standard is the Bottle Manikin Absorber phantom; the BOMAB phantom consists of 10 high-density polyethylene containers and is used to calibrate in vivo counting systems that are designed to measure the radionuclides that emit high energy photons. Because many different types of phantoms had been used to calibrate in vivo counting systems, the importance of establishing standard specifications for phantoms was emphasized at the 1990 international meeting of in vivo counting professionals held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the consensus of the meeting attendees was that standard specifications were needed for the BOMAB phantom. The standard specifications for the BOMAB phantom provide the basis for a consistent phantom design for calibrating in vivo measurement systems; such systems are designed to measure radionuclides that emit high-energy photons and that are assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the body.

A well designed counting system can detect levels of most gamma emitters at levels far below that which would cause adverse health effects in people. A typical detection limit for radioactive caesium is about 40 Bq; the Annual Limit on Intake is about 2,000,000 Bq. The amount of occurring radioactive potassium present in all humans is easily detectable. Risk of death by potassium deficiency approaches 100 %; the reason that these instruments are so sensitive is that they are housed in low background counting chambers. This is a small room with thick walls made of low-background steel and sometimes lined with a thin layer of lead; this shielding can reduce background radiation inside the chamber by several orders of magnitude. Depending on the counting geometry of the system, count times can be from 1 minute to about 30 minutes; the sensitivity of a counter does depend on counting time so the longer the count, for the same system, the better the detection limit. The detection limit referred to as the Minimum Detectable Activity, is given by the formula: M D A = 2.707 + 4.65 N E T...where N is the number of counts of background in the region of interest.

This quantity is twice the Decision Limit, another statistical quantity, that can be used to decide if there is any activity present.. Kramer GH and Inn KGW. "A Summary of the Proceedings of the Workshop on Standard Phantoms for In-Vivo Radioactivity Measurement". Health Physics 61, pp.893-894. Https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/cdphe/radiochemistry-laboratory

Panta Lunjevica

Panta Lunjevica was a Serbian higher administrative officer, the chief of the Šabac district, at one point of the Belgrade district. He was educated working as a military officer and policeman, he was a loyal to a liberal. Panta was the son of Nikola Lunjevica, a commander of the Serbian Revolution and close comrade of Prince Miloš. With his mother Đurđija, Panta renovated the Vujan Monastery in 1858, which had earlier been renovated by his father in 1800, he founded the library in Aranđelovac. With his wife Anđelija Koljević, he had seven children. Draga was the Queen consort of Serbia as the wife of King Aleksandar Obrenović. Jovanović, Slobodan. Влада Милана Обреновића, од Слободана Јовановића... Издавачка књижарница Г. Кона. Malenić, Milivoj J.. Posle četrdeset godina: u spomen proslave četrdesetogodišnjice Sv. Andrejske velike narodne skupštine. U Drž. štamp. Kralj. Srbije. Schreiber, Georg. Balkan aus erster Hand. Geschichte u. Gegenwart in Berichten von Augenzeugen u. Zeitgenossen. Arena-Verlag. Stoimirović, Milan Jovanović.

Siluete starog Beograda. I. Jovanović-Stojimirović

Shayne Day

Shayne Day is an Australian former rugby league footballer who played in the 1960s and 1970s. He played for South Sydney in the New South Wales Rugby League competition. Day made his first grade debut for South Sydney in 1969 but only managed one first grade appearance over two seasons at the club. In 1972, Day was selected to play for NSW Country against NSW City. In 1973, Day became a regular feature in the side. Day missed out on playing in the club's 1974 preliminary final defeat against Eastern Suburbs. In 1978, Day was part of the Western Suburbs side which won the minor premiership under new coach Roy Masters who turned Wests from also-rans to a competitive force. Day played in both of Western Suburbs finals games which were a 14-10 defeat against Cronulla-Sutherland and the preliminary final defeat against Manly-Warringah; the loss to Manly would be Day's final game and he retired at the end of 1978

San Martín Line

The San Martín line is a 70-kilometre, 22-station commuter rail service in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The San Martín line operates from the city-centre terminus of Retiro north-west to Doctor Cabred in Luján Partido along a broad gauge line built by the British-owned Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway; the line is operated by State-owned company Operadora Ferroviaria Sociedad del Estado after the Government of Argentina rescinded the contract with former operator Corredores Ferroviarios in March 2015. Passenger numbers in 2015 beat historical records for the line, attributed to the newer rolling stock and refurbished stations; the first line had been built and operated by the Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway, a British-owned company. The original projects included a railway to connect Argentina and Chile, but instead the BAPR focused on getting access to Buenos Aires; when the Government of Argentina granted concession to build the line, the company opened a 100-km length Mercedes−Palermo segment.

On 13 February 1947, the Government of Argentina acquired the Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway, changing its name to Ferrocarril General San Martín one year when the entire Argentine railway network nationalised by Juan Perón's administration. After nationalisation, there was a project to electrify the line, however this never came to fruition. During the 1960s the line was restructured. Therefore, the steam locomotives of San Martín line were replaced by diesel ones; the old coaches made of wood were replaced by new wagons manufactured in Fiat Ferroviaria factory in Córdoba Province. In the 1970s the modernisation continued. In addition, most of the stations were remodelled while the orange colour was adopted to identify the line. In 1978 a restructuring of the San Martín line was carried out by the de facto Military Government, so the terminus was set in Pilar, Buenos Aires Province. From that point on, Doctor Cabred and intermediate stop Manzanares were used for long-distance services something, reverted in years.

With the privatisation of the entire rail network led in the early 1990s by President Carlos Menem, Ferrocarriles Argentinos ceased to operate metropolitan services. A new State-owned transitional company, Ferrocarriles Metropolitanos S. A. was created to operate those services. On 1 March 1994, private company Metropolitano took over the line, which it operated until 7 January 2005, when the contract was revoked by the Government of Argentina. In spite of the large government subsidies received by TMS, a serious decline in the standard of their rail services has led to the original concession being revoked and the service was taken over by the consortium UGOFE. With the line managed by UGOFE, several projects were announced to improve the San Martín line services, with an estimated 36 million passengers transported yearly and which were seeing an annual increment of 15% in ridership. In 2008 the Government of Argentina announced that the electrification using overhead lines for the whole system was to be started in June 2008.

The project included a new maintenance yard, new tracks for the entire line with all level road crossings to be eliminated and replaced with bridges and tunnels.. New rolling stock consisting of 24 diesel-electric CSR SDD7 locomotives and 160 coaches arrived from China to serve the line, which raised questions about the line's electrification. On February 12, 2014, the operation of San Martín Line was granted to private company Corredores Ferroviarios. In April of the same year the San Martín line completed the modernisation of its entire fleet, putting into service 24 CSR SDD7 diesel locomotives and 160 coaches acquired from Chinese company CSR; the units had been bought in 2008 but they were unable to run so the stations had to modify their platforms for the new coaches. Once works were concluded, the Chinese trains made their debut in Argentina; the new rolling stock replaced the Materfer trains built in the 1960s and 1970s. State-owned company Operadora Ferroviaria Sociedad del Estado took over Belgrano Sur and Roca and Mitre and San Martín lines after the Government of Argentina rescinded the contracts signed with both companies on March 2, 2015.

The contract terms specified that the concession could be cancelled with no right to claim compensation. The agreements had been signed in February 2014, committing Argentren and Corredores Ferroviarios to operate the lines. In December 2014, plans were made between the Ministry of the Interior and Transport and City of Buenos Aires to elevate the entire line using a new viaduct from La Paternal station to the existing viaduct at Palermo station, together with a similar project for the belgrano Sur Line. Both governments cited benefits such as the improvement of road traffic and rail frequencies as reasons for building the 4.9 km viaduct. The electrification of the San Martín line has been an ongoing issue given that it is the only broad gauge line in Buenos Aires not to be electrified. Interest in electrifying the line came about as early as 1907 when it was still part of the Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway. More concrete plans emerged in 1947 which included elevating the track through the centre of the city, with the nationalisation of the railways in 1948, these plans were shelved.

By 1987, these plans were revisited and Ferrocarriles Argentinos signed a contract with the Soviet company Tecnostroyexport to use 25 kV AC railway electrification like that installed on the Roca Line, with the difference that electric locomotives would be used to pull the existing

Livedoid dermatitis

Livedoid dermatitis is a iatrogenic cutaneous reaction that occurs after a drug injection. It presents as an immediate, extreme pain around the injection site, with overlying skin becoming erythematous, violaceous, or blanched and sometimes with reticular pattern; the reaction leads to variable degrees of necrosis to the skin and underlying tissue. The wound heals, but can lead to atrophic, disfiguring scarring; the reaction is associated with a range of both injection drugs. It was first reported by Freudenthal in 1924 following an injection of bismuth salts for syphilis. Although initial reports were following intramuscular injections, the reaction has since been reported following subcutaneous and intraarticular injections. Livedoid dermatitis has been reported to occur with many different drug injections, including: penicillins, local anesthetics, corticosteroids, NSAIDs, more; the cause of this condition is poorly understood. Microscopic examination of affected tissue shows ischemic necrosis, so various hypotheses exist to explain this ischemia, including vasospasm from needle prick, the injected drug, or cold compresses applied to the wound.

The diagnosis is clinical. Skin biopsies of the site show necrosis caused by ischemia. Radiographic imaging may help to delineate the extent of the wound. Depending on the extent and state of infection of the wound, the condition may require antibiotics, wound debridement in early stages, corrective plastic surgery in late stages. Injection site reactions List of cutaneous conditions