Glossary of diabetes

The following is a glossary of diabetes which explains terms connected with diabetes. Acanthosis nigricans A brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin present in the posterior and lateral folds of the neck, the axilla, groin and other areas; this occurs due to insulin spillover into the skin. The most common cause would be insulin resistance from type 2 diabetes mellitus. ACE inhibitor Angiotensin conversion enzyme. A class of drugs used to decrease hypertension by interfering with the renin kidney—blood pressure control cycle. An example is Ramparil.. Adult-onset diabetes One of the former terms for Type 2 diabetes. See: Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acetohexamide A pill taken to lower the level of glucose in the blood. People with Type 2 diabetes may take these pills. See also: Oral hypoglycemic agents. One of the sulfonylurea drugs. Acetone A byproduct of fat metabolism. One of three ketone body substances. Produced in high levels during periods of stress, etc leading to diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious condition.

It can sometimes be smelled on the breath of those in, or about to enter diabetic ketoacidosis as a fruity sort of smell. It is rapidly released into via the lungs into the breath, unlike the other ketone bodies, it is chemically a ketone. Acidosis An acidic condition in body fluids, chiefly blood. If prolonged, or severe, it can cause death regardless of cause. For a person with diabetes, this can be caused by insufficient glucose absorption combined with metabolic ketosis, it can lead to a medical emergency. Acute Happens for a limited period of time. Adrenal gland An endocrine gland located on top of the human kidney. Secretes adrenaline, one of the primary'fight or flight' stress hormones, which have substantial counterregulatory effects. Adverse effect A harmful result. Albuminuria release of the protein albumin in urine; as this protein is conserved, this is evidence of abnormal kidney function. Aldose reductase inhibitor Alpha cell one of the types of cell in the pancreas. Alpha cells make and release a hormone called glucagon, which raises the level of glucose in the blood.

Amino acid a weak acid carbon compound containing carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. The nitrogenous amine group is characteristic of each. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and there are about 20 used in the human body, of which about half can be constructed internally; the rest must come in the diet—they are the essential amino acids. Amyotrophy A type of diabetic neuropathy that causes muscle weakness and wasting. Amylin A peptide thought to be involved in beta cell loss in type 2 diabetes. Angiopathy A process that damages the blood vessels. Anomalies Abnormalities, as in peculiar results or developments. For instance, diabetes can develop in an anomalous, way. Antibodies Chemicals produced by the immune system which are carefully tuned to attach only to particular substances in foreign bodies When they attach to their target substances, other parts of the immune system attack and destroy the tagged protein or cell, it is an inappropriate antibody reaction to normal proteins found on beta cells that are thought to be the main mechanism of beta cell destruction in Type 1 diabetes.

Anti-diabetic drug A kind of medication that helps a person with diabetes control the level of glucose in the blood so that the body works as it should. See also: Insulin. Antigen The substance in a foreign body which evokes production of antibodies specific to it. Antiseptic A product that reduces the presence of infective agents. ARB Angiotensisn Receptor Blocker. An agent which interferes with the renin cycle. An example is Atacand.. Arteriosclerosis Hardening of the blood vessels, it causes inflexibility of the arterial walls, so they are not flexible as in a healthy condition. It usually involves atherosclerosis, i.e. deposits on the interior surface of many arteries, which are composed of LDL and assorted other debris. Broken pieces of those deposits or closure of the arterial opening can cause myocardial infarction or stroke. What causes it is not known, but diabetics have increased risk of both heart attack and stroke, so some of the tissue damage diabetes produces may be involved. Equivalent to atherosclerosis.

Artery Blood vessel with muscular walls on the'supply side' of the blood circulation, in the network of vessels between the left ventricle output and capillary beds throughout the body. Artificial pancreas A large machine used in hospitals that measures glucose in the blood and, in response, releases the right amount of insulin. Scientists are working to develop a small unit that could be implanted in the body, functioning like a real pancreas. Note that the pancreas is a complex multi-functional organ, replacement of properly regulated insulin production would be only partial functional duplication. Aspartame An artificial sweetener that can replace sugar in many uses. Chemically it is two amino acids and is therefore a kind of miniature protein, a small peptide, it is sweet because, in a way not clear now, it interacts with the taste buds to cause a sweet taste. A

2009–10 New Zealand Football Championship

The NZFC 2009–10 season is the sixth season of the New Zealand Football Championship competition. The previous season's champion, Auckland City FC, premier Waitakere United will be competing in the 2009–10 O-League which will run alongside the NZFC season. Otago United will return to Carisbrook after using Sunnyvale Park as their home ground during the previous season. Waitakere United will now play their home fixtures at Fred Taylor Park. Canterbury United had announced in mid June they would not be competing; however they re-entered the competition. There was hope from some parties to have a youth/reserve team for Wellington Phoenix FC to participate in the competition. However, the FIFA rules and regulations preventing a professional Australian team from competing in a New Zealand amateur competition meant this was not feasible; the NZF has looked at including alternative teams in case any of the current eight franchises pull out. In September 2009,a syndicate from North Shore and another from Manukau were approached and asked if they could step in at late notice if one of the eight franchises withdrew.

This season is the final one in the five-year licences for each franchise and NZF are undertaking a major review of their competition structures, including the national league. Significant changes like reverting to a winter league and a club competition complete with promotion/relegation are being considered; the competition fixtures were announced on 21 September 2009 Official NZFC website

Controlled natural language

Controlled natural languages are subsets of natural languages that are obtained by restricting the grammar and vocabulary in order to reduce or eliminate ambiguity and complexity. Traditionally, controlled languages fall into two major types: those that improve readability for human readers, those that enable reliable automatic semantic analysis of the language; the first type of languages, for example ASD Simplified Technical English, Caterpillar Technical English, IBM's Easy English, are used in the industry to increase the quality of technical documentation, simplify the automatic translation of the documentation. These languages restrict the writer by general rules such as "Keep sentences short", "Avoid the use of pronouns", "Only use dictionary-approved words", "Use only the active voice"; the second type of languages have a formal syntax and semantics, can be mapped to an existing formal language, such as first-order logic. Thus, those languages can be used as knowledge representation languages, writing of those languages is supported by automatic consistency and redundancy checks, query answering, etc.

Existing controlled natural languages include: Controlled Natural Languages