A banner can be a flag or other piece of cloth bearing a symbol, slogan or other message. A flag whose design is the same as the shield in a coat of arms is called a banner of arms. A bar shape piece of non-cloth advertising material sporting a name, slogan, or other marketing message. Banner-making is an ancient craft. Church banners portray the saint to whom the church is dedicated; the word derives from French word "bannière" and late Latin bandum, a cloth out of which a flag is made. The German language developed the word to mean an official edict or proclamation and since such written orders prohibited some form of human activity, bandum assumed the meaning of a ban, interdict or excommunication. Banns has the same origin meaning an official proclamation, abandon means to change loyalty or disobey orders, semantically "to leave the cloth or flag"; the vexillum was a flag-like object used as a military standard by units in the Ancient Roman army. The word vexillum itself is a diminutive of the Latin word, meaning a sail, which confirms the historical evidence that vexilla were "little sails" i.e. flag-like standards.
In the vexillum the cloth was draped from a horizontal crossbar suspended from the staff. A heraldic banner called banner of arms, displays the basic coat of arms only: i.e. it contains the design displayed on the shield and omits the crest, helmet or coronet, supporters, motto or any other elements associated with the coat of arms. A heraldic banner is square or rectangular. A distinction exists between the heraldic standard; the distinction, however, is misunderstood or ignored. For example, the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom is in fact a banner of the royal arms. In the old testament, the prophet Isaiah was commanded to exalt his voice. Habakkuk received a similar order to write a vision upon tables that could be read by one who runs past it. Banners in churches have, in the past, been used for processions, both inside and outside of the church building. However, the emphasis has, in recent years, shifted markedly towards the permanent or transient display of banners on walls or pillars of churches and other places of worship.
A famous example of large banners on display is Liverpool R. C. Cathedral, where the banners are designed by a resident artist. Banners are used to communicate the testimony of Jesus Christ by evangelists and public ministers engaged in Open Air Preaching; the iconography of these banners included mines, factories, but visions of the future, showing a land where children and adults were well-fed and living in tidy brick-built houses, where the old and sick were cared for, where the burden of work was lessened by new technology, where leisure time was increasing. The same kind of banners are used in many other countries. Many, but not all of them, have red as a dominant colour. In Australia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, trade union banners were unfurled with pride in annual Eight Hour Day marches which advocated ‘Eight Hours Labour, Eight Hours Recreation and Eight Hours Rest’; these marches were one of the most prominent annual celebrations. In Sydney alone, by the early twentieth century, thousands of unionists representing up to seventy different unions would take part in such parades, marching behind the banner emblematic of their trade.
Most of these banners have not survived. The State Library of NSW in Sydney has a small collection of trade union banners that were donated to the Library in the early 1970s such that of a Federated Society of Boilermakers, Iron & Steel Shipbuilders of Australia banner thought to have been made c. 1913-1919. The Federated Society of Boilermakers, Iron & Steel Shipbuilders of Australia was formed in 1873 and joined the Amalgamated Metal Workers Union in 1972; the banner features a kneeling figure in the centre surrounded by scroll work and is decorated with Australian native flowers and images representative of the work of the Union's members such as a New South Wales Government Railways 34 class steam locomotive, the Hawkesbury River rail bridge built in 1889, a furnace. The reverse of the banner shows the warship "Australia" at sea; the banner is canvas and was painted by Sydney firm Althouse & Geiger, master painters and decorators. Founded in 1875, the company is still in operation; the banner is a powerful interpretive tool in communicating the experience and the history of the Australian labour movement.
For more on the design and making of these banners, see Banner-making. Sports fans buy or make banners to display in the grandstands. Team banners contain the logo, name or nickname and the team colors. Banners on individual competitors can contain a drawing of the player. Sports banners may honor notable players or hall-of-fame athletes and commemorate past championships won; these types of sports banners are hung from rafters in stadiums. The Miami Heat, an NBA Team, hangs division titles and championship banners at the top of the rafters in their home stadium, American Airlines Arena. Similar to other sports banners, they feature the color palette of the team's logo, the logo, names of players, championship winning years. In North American indoor
Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country; the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate.
Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation; the country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister; the country's official language is a standard form of the Malay language.
English remains an active second language. Since independence, Malaysian GDP has grown at an average of 6.5% per annum for 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism and medical tourism. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world, it is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία; the word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to accelerate or run.
This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra. Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu". Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area known as the East Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.
In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, smaller islands that lie between these areas. The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE; the name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.
In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries, their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fifth century; the Kingdom of
Flag of Canada
The flag of Canada referred to as the Canadian flag, or unofficially as the Maple Leaf and l'Unifolié, is a national flag consisting of a red field with a white square at its centre in the ratio of 1:2:1, in the middle of, featured a stylized, red, 11-pointed maple leaf charged in the centre. It is the first specified by law for use as the country's national flag. In 1964, Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson formed a committee to resolve the ongoing issue of the lack of an official Canadian flag, sparking a serious debate about a flag change to replace the Union Flag. Out of three choices, the maple leaf design by George Stanley, based on the flag of the Royal Military College of Canada, was selected; the flag made its first official appearance on February 15, 1965. The Canadian Red Ensign was unofficially used since the 1890s and approved by a 1945 Order in Council for use "wherever place or occasion may make it desirable to fly a distinctive Canadian flag"; the Royal Union Flag remains an official flag in Canada.
There is no law dictating how the national flag is to be treated, but there are conventions and protocols to guide how it is to be displayed and its place in the order of precedence of flags, which gives it primacy over the aforementioned and most other flags. Many different flags created for use by Canadian officials, government bodies, military forces contain the maple leaf motif in some fashion, either by having the Canadian flag charged in the canton, or by including maple leaves in the design; the flag is horizontally symmetric and therefore the obverse and reverse sides appear identical. The width of the Maple Leaf flag is twice the height; the white field is a Canadian pale. In heraldic terminology, the flag's blazon as outlined on the original royal proclamation is "gules on a Canadian pale argent a maple leaf of the first"; the maple leaf has been used as a Canadian emblem since the 18th century. It was first used as a national symbol in 1868 when it appeared on the coat of arms of both Ontario and Quebec.
In 1867, Alexander Muir composed the patriotic song "The Maple Leaf Forever", which became an unofficial anthem in English-speaking Canada. The maple leaf was added to the Canadian coat of arms in 1921. From 1876 until 1901, the leaf appeared on all Canadian coins and remained on the penny after 1901; the use of the maple leaf by the Royal Canadian Regiment as a regimental symbol extended back to 1860. During the First World War and Second World War, badges of the Canadian Forces were based on a maple leaf design; the maple leaf would adorn the tombstones of Canadian military graves. By proclaiming the Royal Arms of Canada, King George V in 1921 made red and white the official colours of Canada; these colours became "entrenched" as the national colours of Canada upon the proclamation of the Royal Standard of Canada in 1962. The Department of Canadian Heritage has listed the various colour shades for printing ink that should be used when reproducing the Canadian flag. 0-712. No. 4T51577. 62539/0 Rieger Inks, No. 25564 Sinclair and Valentine, No.
RL163929/0. The number of points on the leaf has no special significance; the image of the maple leaf used on the flag was designed by Jacques Saint-Cyr. The colours 0/100/100/0 in the CMYK process, PMS 032, or PMS 485 in the Pantone colour specifier can be used when reproducing the flag. For the Federal Identity Program, the red tone of the standard flag has an RGB value of 255–0–0. In 1984, the National Flag of Canada Manufacturing Standards Act was passed to unify the manufacturing standards for flags used in both indoor and outdoor conditions; the first flag known to have flown in Canada was the St George's Cross carried by John Cabot when he reached Newfoundland in 1497. In 1534, Jacques Cartier planted a cross in Gaspé bearing the French royal coat of arms with the fleurs-de-lis, his ship flew a red flag with the French naval flag at the time. New France continued to fly the evolving French military flags of that period; as the de jure national flag of the United Kingdom, the Union Flag was used in Canada since the 1621 British settlement in Nova Scotia.
Its use continued after Canada's independence from the United Kingdom in 1931 until the adoption of the current flag in 1965. Shortly after Canadian Confederation in 1867, the need for distinctive Canadian flags emerged; the first Canadian flag was that used as the flag of the Governor General of Canada, a Union Flag with a shield in the centre bearing the quartered arms of Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick surrounded by a wreath of maple leaves. In 1870 the Red Ensign, with the addition of the Canadian composite shield in the fly, began to be used unofficially on land and sea and was known as the Canadian Red Ensign; as new provinces joined the Confederation, their arms w
Flag of Australia
The flag of Australia is a defaced Blue Ensign: a blue field with the Union Jack in the canton, a large white seven-pointed star known as the Commonwealth Star in the lower hoist quarter. The fly contains a representation of the Southern Cross constellation, made up of five white stars – one small five-pointed star and four, seven-pointed stars. There are other official flags representing its people and core functions of government; the flag's original design was chosen in 1901 from entries in a competition held following Federation, was first flown in Melbourne on 3 September 1901, the date proclaimed as Australian National Flag Day. A different design was approved by King Edward VII in 1903; the seven-pointed commonwealth star version was introduced by a proclamation dated 8 December 1908. The dimensions were formally gazetted in 1934, in 1954 the flag became recognised by, defined in, the Flags Act 1953, as the "Australian National Flag". Constituent parts of the flag of Australia The Australian flag uses three prominent symbols: the Union Flag, the Commonwealth Star and the Southern Cross.
In its original usage as the flag of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Union Flag combined three heraldic crosses which represent the constituent countries of the United Kingdom: The red St George's Cross of England The white diagonal St Andrew's Cross of Scotland The red diagonal St Patrick's Cross of IrelandThe Union Flag is thought to symbolise Australia's history as six British colonies and the principles upon which the Australian Federation is based, although a more historic view sees its inclusion in the design as demonstrating loyalty to the British Empire. The Commonwealth Star known as the Federation Star had six points, representing the six federating colonies. In 1908, a seventh point was added to symbolise any future territories. Another rationale for the change was to match the star used on the Coat of Arms, created in the same year; the Commonwealth Star does not have any official relation to Beta Centauri, despite the latter's brightness and location in the sky.
The Southern Cross is one of the most distinctive constellations visible in the Southern Hemisphere, has been used to represent Australia since the early days of British settlement. Ivor Evans, one of the flag's designers, intended the Southern Cross to refer to the four moral virtues ascribed to the four main stars by Dante: justice, prudence and fortitude; the number of points on the stars of the Southern Cross on the modern Australian flag differs from the original competition-winning design, in which they ranged between five and nine points each, representing their relative brightness in the night sky. The stars are named after the first five letters of the Greek alphabet, in decreasing order of brightness in the sky. In order to simplify manufacture, the British Admiralty standardised the four larger outer stars at seven points each, leaving the smaller, more central star with five points; this change was gazetted on 23 February 1903. A complete specification for the official design was published in the Commonwealth Gazette in 1934.
Under the Flags Act, the Australian National Flag must meet the following specifications: the Union Flag occupying the upper quarter next the staff. The location of the stars is. Alpha Crucis – 7-pointed star, straight below centre fly 1⁄6 up from bottom edge. Beta Crucis – 7-pointed star, 1⁄4 of the way left and 1⁄16 up from the centre fly. Gamma Crucis – 7-pointed star, straight above centre fly 1⁄6 down from top edge. Delta Crucis – 7-pointed star, 2⁄9 of the way right and 31⁄240 up from the centre fly. Epsilon Crucis – 5-pointed star, 1⁄10 of the way right and 1⁄24 down from the centre fly; the outer diameter of the Commonwealth Star is 3⁄10 of the flag's width, while that of the stars in the Southern Cross is 1⁄7 of the flag's width, except for Epsilon, for which the fraction is 1⁄12. Each star's inner diameter is 4⁄9 of the outer diameter; the flag's width is the measurement of the hoist edge of the flag. The colours of the flag, although not specified by the Flags Act, have been given Pantone specifications by the Awards and Culture Branch of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet.
The Australian Government's Style Manual for Authors and Printers gives CMYK and RGB specifications for depicting the flag in print and on screen respectively. The blue shade has a web-safe colour of #000099, used for certain digital screens that may have trouble displaying the shade of blue in the table above; the flag may be reproduced in a single colour, with the colour being either black or one of the two colours of the flag, albeit blue is preferred for single-colour productions. Guidelines for flying the flag are laid out in the 1953 Flags Act and in a pamphlet entitled "The Australian National Flag", published by the Australian Government on an infrequent basis; the guidelines say that the Australian National Flag is allowed to be flown on every day of the year, that it "should be treated with respect and dignity it deserves as the nation
A finial or hip-knob is an element marking the top or end of some object formed to be a decorative feature. In architecture it is a decorative device carved in stone, employed to emphasize the apex of a dome, tower, roof, or gable or any of various distinctive ornaments at the top, end, or corner of a building or structure. Where there are several such elements they may be called pinnacles. Smaller finials in materials such as metal or wood are used as a decorative ornament on the tops or ends of poles or rods such as tent-poles or curtain rods or any object such as a piece of furniture; these are seen on top of bed posts or clocks. Decorative finials are commonly used to fasten lampshades, as an ornamental element at the end of the handles of souvenir spoons; the charm at the end of a pull chain is known as a finial. During the various dynasties in China, a finial was worn on the top of the hats civil or military officials wore during formal court ceremonies; the finial was changed to a knob for other daily usage.
The Pickelhaube is a Central European military helmet with a finial topped by a spike. In Java and Bali, a rooftop finial is known as kemuncak. A "ball-style" finial is mounted to the top of a stationary flagpole; the United States Army, Marine Corps and Coast Guard employ a variety of different finials depending on the flag in question, the Marines and Coast Guard deferring to the Navy's protocols. Bed posts and public garden railings end in finials. Wooden posts tend to have turned wood finials. While the purpose of finials on bed posts is decorative, they serve a purpose on curtain rods, providing a way to keep a curtain from slipping off the end of a straight rod. Curtain rod finials can be seen to act much like a barometer of public taste. Many designs hark back to the Gothic and Neogothic of architectural finials, while other contemporary finials reflect minimalist, art nouveau and other traditional styles of décor; the use of different materials is as wide as the range of designs with brass, stainless steel, various woods and aluminium being employed with a variety of finishes such as ‘satin steel’ and'antique brass'.
The durability and machinability of modern alloys have lent themselves to intricate and dazzling designs. Some lampshades or light fittings in glass terminate in a finial which serves to affix the shade to the lamp or fixture. Finials are twisted onto the lamp harp; the finial is externally decorative whilst hiding an internal screw thread. There are several standard thread sizes. Acroterion Alem Crocket Souvenir spoon Word-of-the-day on finial
The gonfalon, gonfalone is a type of heraldic flag or banner pointed, swallow-tailed, or with several streamers, suspended from a crossbar in an identical manner to the ancient Roman vexillum. It was first adopted by Italian medieval communes, by local guilds and districts; the difference between a gonfanon with long tails and a standard is that a gonfanon displays the device on the non-tailed area, the standard displays badges down the whole length of the flag. A gonfalon can include a coat of arms, or decoration. Today, every Italian comune has a gonfalon sporting its coat of arms; the gonfalon has long been used for ecclesiastical processions. The papal "ombrellino", a symbol of the pope, is mistakenly called "gonfalone" by the Italians because the pope's ceremonial umbrella was depicted on the banner. Gonfalone was the name given to a neighbourhood meeting in medieval Florence, each neighbourhood having its own flag and coat of arms, leading to the word Gonfalone becoming associated with the flag.
Gonfalons are used in some university ceremonies, such as those at The College of New Jersey, University of Chicago,Rowan University, Rutgers University, Princeton University, University of Toronto, Loyola University New Orleans and the University of St. Thomas. A Gonfalon of State is part of the Regalia of the Netherlands; the banner is made of silk and it has been painted with the souvereign's coat of arms as they were in the 19th. Century; the Gonfalon of State is only used when queen is sworn in. A picture of a gonfalon is itself a heraldic charge in the coat of arms of the Counts Palatine of Tübingen and their cadet branches. Gonfalons had great significance as Christian religious objects in Europe during the Medieval period in central Italy; these religious objects consisted of a cloth of canvas but of silk, supported by a wooden frame with a T-shaped support on the back, a long pole to hold up the banner during ceremonies and processions. The banners were painted with oil paints, sometimes on both sides.
Images on the gonfalons included the patron saints of cities, confraternities or guilds, the Virgin and Child, Jesus Christ, God the Father, plague saints, the Virgin Mary as Queen of Heaven, Theotokos, or Madonna of Mercy. Because these banners were associated with a particular group unusual and individual iconography could appear; these gonfalons were commissioned and kept by confraternities, lay religious groups who gathered together for devotional purposes such as the singing of hymns, the performance of charitable works, or flagellation. The banners would be either displayed on the wall of the oratory or packed away until they were needed for their primary use, religious processions. During processions, the banner would be carried on its pole by members of the confraternity; this devotional act of carrying the banner in procession was believed to be a holy act of worship, it was hoped that the act would gain divine favour from God, Jesus and the saints portrayed on the banner. From the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries, plague banners were produced and carried in processions as a way to plead for divine intercession to prevent or cure the plague.
Khorugv, a gonfalone analogue in Christian churches of East-European origin Baseball's Sad Lexicon, 1910 poem referring to a baseball championship pennant as a "gonfalon"Gonfaloniere Coat of arms Flagellant Confraternities Fanion Pennon Vexillum General sourceArmorial Display:Banners and HeatersCitations
A jack is a national flag flown from a short jackstaff at the bow of a vessel, while the ensign is flown on the stern. Jacks on bowsprits or foremasts appeared in the 17th century; the word "jack" is said to result from the signature Jacques of King James I in whose reign the Union Jack was designed. A country may have different jacks for different purposes when the naval jack is forbidden to other vessels; the United Kingdom has an official civil jack. In some countries, ships of other government institutions may fly the naval jack, e.g. the ships of the U. S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the case of the jack of the United States. Certain organs of the UK's government have their own departmental jacks. Commercial or pleasure craft may fly the flag of an administrative division or municipality at the bow. Merchant ships may fly a house flag. Yachts may fly officer's flag or the owner's private signal at the bow. Practice may be regulated by custom, or personal judgment.
A naval jack is flown when the ship is not under way, but is moored or at anchor, or when it is dressed overall on special occasions. The Union Jack of the Royal Navy must be run up; the same regulations are applied by the Royal Canadian NavyIn the United States, the First Navy Jack is used as embroidered sleeve patches by the US Navy on its uniforms. A recent controversy at The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina over a Confederate naval jack, model 1863–1865, ended when the school's Board of Visitors voted in favor of moving the flag from the Chapel to what was called "an appropriate location on campus." Naval jacks are rectangular square, smaller than the national ensign or war flag. Some countries fly its canton on its own. France and some other countries use the same flag or ensign for all purposes, civil or military, as their naval jack. Japan and some other countries with civil and war ensigns of different designs fly the civil ensign as a jack and the war ensign at the ship's stern.
A shortened, square version of the national flag is used by some countries. A larger group of jacks show the country's national coat of arms, either as a banner of arms, or as a badge displayed on the field. Most countries have chosen a different design for their naval jacks with some national or maritime symbol, with the same colours as in their flags. Countries that use their war ensign as a jack, will fly a smaller version at the bow. United or confederated states have in many cases adopted a jack representing their national union; the best known is the Union Jack of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy, composed in 1606 by joining together the flags of England and Scotland. When the Kingdom of Ireland merged with Great Britain in 1801, a red saltire was added to form the present Union Flag; the design of the British Union Jack inspired jacks of other nations, e.g. Russia and the Union Jack of Norway and Sweden; the Russian jack in its turn inspired the jacks of Bulgaria and Latvia. From 1777 until September 2002, the United States Navy flew the union jack, the blue canton with white stars from the U.
S. national ensign. Since September 11, 2002, the U. S. Navy has flown the First Navy Jack used 1775–76, with a rattlesnake and the motto "Dont Tread on Me" superimposed on thirteen alternating red and white stripes; that jack will be replaced with the pre-2002 naval jack. The Confederate States followed the same pattern for its first naval jack, the canton of its first navy ensign, with seven stars forming a circle on a "medium blue" field. Versions had up to fifteen stars; the second Confederate naval jack was a rectangular cousin of the Confederate army's battle flag and was in use from 1863 until 1865. The Union Jack of Norway and Sweden 1844–1905 was a rectangular cross flag divided per saltire, combining the national colours of Sweden and Norway; the naval jack was used as flag for the common diplomatic representations abroad. British ensigns Flag terminology Naval ensign Vexillology - the study of flags Album des pavillons nationaux et des marques distinctives. National flags and distinctive markings, Service hydrographique et océanographique de la marine, Brest, 2000 FOTW website on jacks FOTW Dictionary of Vexillology: J