International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of language, phonemes, intonation. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a letter, or with a letter plus diacritics. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription, thus, /t/ is less specific than, occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed, or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters,52 diacritics and these are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA.
In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, for example, the sound was originally represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, the idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention in 1989, a minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives. The alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap, apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces.
Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990, the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do hard, the IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as selectiveness. These are organized into a chart, the chart displayed here is the chart as posted at the website of the IPA. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet, for this reason, most letters are either Latin or Greek, or modifications thereof. Some letters are neither, for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a question mark
In linguistics, tongue shape describes the shape that the tongue assumes when making a sound. Tongue shape is important for the sibilant sounds. Because these sounds have such a high prominence, small changes in tongue shape are easily audible. Usually, only one of these articulations can co-occur with a given sound. In addition, the quality of velarization and pharyngealization is very similar, as a result. The following varieties of tongue shapes are defined for sibilants, from sharpest and highest-pitched to dullest and lowest-pitched and this groove channels a high-velocity jet of air into the teeth, which results in a high-pitched, piercing hissing sound. Because of the prominence of these sounds, they are the most common and they occur in English, where they are denoted with a letter s or z, as in soon or zone. Grooved palatalized, Combination of grooved shape with palatalization, alveolo-palatal, i. e. flat palatalized, with a convex, V-shaped tongue, and highly palatalized. Palato-alveolar, i. e.
domed, with a domed tongue and these sounds occur in English, where they are denoted with letter combinations such as sh, ch, g, j or si, as in shin, chin and vision. Retroflex, with a flat or concave tongue, and no palatalization and these sounds occur in a large number of varieties, some of which go by other names. The subapical palatal or true retroflex sounds are the very dullest and lowest-pitched of all the sibilants, the latter three types of sounds are often known as hushing sounds because of their quality, as opposed to the hissing grooved sounds. Note that palatalization is an inherent part of the definition of the above varieties, and cannot normally be varied independently
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. It is the 14th largest city in the European Union and it is the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe with waxing and waning fortunes during its history and it was an important city to the Habsburg Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire. Prague is home to a number of cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence. Main attractions include the Prague Castle, the Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The city has more than ten major museums, along with theatres, cinemas. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, also, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe.
Prague is classified as an Alpha- global city according to GaWC studies, Prague ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016. Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city more than 6.4 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fifth most visited European city after London, Istanbul, the region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. In the last century BC, the Celts were slowly driven away by Germanic tribes, around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map of Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the following century, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in Levý Hradec, Butovice and in the Šárka valley. The construction of what came to be known as the Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which was founded in 1344, but completed in the 20th century.
The legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied, I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars. She ordered a castle and a town called Praha to be built on the site, a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c.1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. The region became the seat of the dukes, and kings of Bohemia, under Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973
In the past, hats were an indicator of social status. In the military, hats may denote nationality, branch of service, Police typically wear distinctive hats such as peaked caps or brimmed hats, such as those worn by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Some hats have a protective function, some hats are worn for ceremonial purposes, such as the mortarboard, which is worn during university graduation ceremonies. Some hats are worn by members of a profession, such as the Toque worn by chefs. Some hats have religious functions, such as the mitres worn by Bishops, while there are not many official records of hats before 3,000 BC, they probably were commonplace before that. Archaeologists think that the Venus of Brassempouy from 26,000 years ago may depict a hat. One of the earliest known confirmed hats was worn by a bronze age man whose body was frozen in a mountain between Austria and Italy, where hed been since around 3,300 BC. He was found wearing bearskin cap with a strap, made of several hides stitched together.
One of the first pictorial depictions of a hat appears in a painting from Thebes, Egypt. Hats were commonly worn in ancient Egypt, many upper-class Egyptians shaved their head, covered it in a headdress intended to help them keep cool. Ancient Mesopotamians often wore conical hats or ones shaped somewhat like an inverted vase. Other early hats include the Pileus, a skull like cap, the Phrygian cap, worn by freed slaves in Greece and Rome, and the Greek petasos. Women wore veils, hoods and wimples, like Otzi, Tollund Man was preserved to the present day with a hat on, probably having died around 400 BC in a Danish bog, which mummified him. He wore a cap made of sheepskin and wool, fastened under the chin by a hide thong. St. Clement, the saint of felt hatmakers, is said to have discovered wool felt when he filled his sandals with flax fibers to protect his feet. In the Middle Ages, hats were a marker of social status, the 1215 Fourth Council of the Lateran required that all Jews identify themselves by wearing the Judenhat, marking them as targets for anti-Semitism.
The hats were usually yellow and were pointed or square. In the Middle Ages, hats for women ranged from simple scarves to elaborate hennin, structured hats for women similar to those of male courtiers began to be worn in the late 16th century
Linguolabials or apicolabials are consonants articulated by placing the tongue tip or blade against the upper lip, which is drawn downward to meet the tongue. They represent one extreme of a coronal articulatory continuum which extends from linguolabial to subapical palatal places of articulation, cross-linguistically, linguolabial consonants are very rare, but they do not represent a particularly exotic combination of articulatory configurations, unlike click consonants or ejectives. They are found in a cluster of languages in Vanuatu, in the Kajoko dialect of Bijago in Guinea-Bissau, and in Umotína and they are relatively common in disordered speech, and the diacritic is specifically provided for in the extensions to the IPA. Place of articulation List of phonetics topics Ladefoged, Maddieson, the Sounds of the Worlds Languages. In VICAL1, Oceanic Languages, Part II, Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, New Zealand, January 1988, ed. by R. Harlow & R.
Hooper, Linguistic Society of New Zealand. Olson, Kenneth S. D. William Reiman, Fernando Sabio & Filipe Alberto da Silva, the voiced linguolabial plosive in Kajoko
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration and this is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology and speech production in general. Voiceless and supra-glottal phonations are included under this definition, the phonatory process, or voicing, occurs when air is expelled from the lungs through the glottis, creating a pressure drop across the larynx. When this drop becomes sufficiently large, the vocal folds start to oscillate, the minimum pressure drop required to achieve phonation is called the phonation threshold pressure, and for humans with normal vocal folds, it is approximately 2–3 cm H2O. The motion of the vocal folds during oscillation is mostly lateral, there is almost no motion along the length of the vocal folds. The oscillation of the vocal folds serves to modulate the pressure and flow of the air through the larynx, the sound that the larynx produces is a harmonic series.
In other words, it consists of a fundamental tone accompanied by harmonic overtones, in linguistics, a phone is called voiceless if there is no phonation during its occurrence. In speech, voiceless phones are associated with folds that are elongated, highly tensed. Fundamental frequency, the main acoustic cue for the percept pitch, large scale changes are accomplished by increasing the tension in the vocal folds through contraction of the cricothyroid muscle. Variation in fundamental frequency is used linguistically to produce intonation and tone, There are currently two main theories as to how vibration of the vocal folds is initiated, the myoelastic theory and the aerodynamic theory. These two theories are not in contention with one another and it is possible that both theories are true and operating simultaneously to initiate and maintain vibration. A third theory, the theory, was in considerable vogue in the 1950s. Pressure builds up again until the cords are pushed apart. The rate at which the open and close—the number of cycles per second—determines the pitch of the phonation.
The aerodynamic theory is based on the Bernoulli energy law in fluids, the push occurs during glottal opening, when the glottis is convergent, whereas the pull occurs during glottal closing, when the glottis is divergent. Such an effect causes a transfer of energy from the airflow to the fold tissues which overcomes losses by dissipation. The amount of pressure needed to begin phonation is defined by Titze as the oscillation threshold pressure. During glottal closure, the air flow is cut off until breath pressure pushes the folds apart and this theory states that the frequency of the vocal fold vibration is determined by the chronaxie of the recurrent nerve, and not by breath pressure or muscular tension
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel. It is labialization of a vowel, when a rounded vowel is pronounced, the lips form a circular opening, and unrounded vowels are pronounced with the lips relaxed. In most languages, front vowels tend to be unrounded, in the International Phonetic Alphabet vowel chart, rounded vowels are the ones that appear on the right in each pair of vowels. There are diacritics, U+0339 ̹ COMBINING RIGHT HALF RING BELOW and U+031C ̜ COMBINING LEFT HALF RING BELOW, to greater and lesser degrees of rounding. The more and less rounded diacritics are used with consonants to indicate degrees of labialization. There are two types of rounding and compression. In protruded rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together, in compressed rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together, but the lips are drawn together horizontally and do not protrude, with only their outer surface visible. That is, in protruded vowels the inner surfaces of the form the opening.
Catford observes that back and central rounded vowels, such as German /o/ and /u/, are typically protruded, whereas front rounded vowels such as German /ø/ and /y/ are typically compressed. Back or central compressed vowels and front protruded vowels are uncommon, there are no dedicated IPA diacritics to represent the distinction, but the superscript IPA letter ⟨◌ᵝ⟩ can be used for compression and ⟨◌ʷ⟩, ⟨◌ᶣ⟩ or ⟨◌̫⟩ for protrusion. Compressed vowels may be pronounced either with the corners of the mouth drawn in, by some definitions rounded, or with the spread and, by the same definitions. The distinction may be transcribed ⟨ɨᵝ ɯᵝ⟩ and ⟨ʉᵝ uᵝ⟩, the distinction between protruded and compressed holds for the semivowels and as well as labialization. In Akan, for example, the is compressed, as are labio-palatalized consonants as in Twi Twi and adwuma work, whereas, in Japanese, the /w/ is compressed rather than protruded, paralleling the Japanese /u/. The distinction applies marginally to other consonants, some vowels transcribed with rounded IPA letters may not be rounded at all.
An example is /ɒ/, which in English has very little if any rounding of the lips, the throaty sound of English /ɒ/ is instead accomplished with sulcalization, a furrowing of the back of the tongue found in non-rhotic /ɜː/. It is possible to mimic the effect of rounded vowels by narrowing the cheeks, so-called cheek rounding. The technique is used by ventriloquists to mask the visible rounding of back vowels like and it is not clear if it is used by languages with rounded vowels that do not use visible rounding. Protruded rounding is the equivalent of consonantal labialization