A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and in quantity, they are voiced, are involved in prosodic variation such as tone and stress. Vowel sounds are produced with an open vocal tract; the word vowel comes from the Latin word vocalis, meaning "vocal". In English, the word vowel is used to refer both to vowel sounds and to the written symbols that represent them. There are two complementary definitions of one phonetic and the other phonological. In the phonetic definition, a vowel is a sound, such as the English "ah" or "oh", produced with an open vocal tract. There is no significant build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis; this contrasts with consonants, such as the English "sh", which have a constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract. In the phonological definition, a vowel is defined as syllabic, the sound that forms the peak of a syllable. A phonetically equivalent but non-syllabic sound is a semivowel.
In oral languages, phonetic vowels form the peak of many or all syllables, whereas consonants form the onset and coda. Some languages allow other sounds to form the nucleus of a syllable, such as the syllabic l in the English word table or the syllabic r in the Serbo-Croatian word vrt "garden"; the phonetic definition of "vowel" does not always match the phonological definition. The approximants and illustrate this: both are without much of a constriction in the vocal tract, but they occur at the onset of syllables which suggests that phonologically they are consonants. A similar debate arises over whether a word like bird in a rhotic dialect has an r-colored vowel /ɝ/ or a syllabic consonant /ɹ̩/; the American linguist Kenneth Pike suggested the terms "vocoid" for a phonetic vowel and "vowel" for a phonological vowel, so using this terminology, are classified as vocoids but not vowels. However and Emmory demonstrated from a range of languages that semivowels are produced with a narrower constriction of the vocal tract than vowels, so may be considered consonants on that basis.
Nonetheless, the phonetic and phonemic definitions would still conflict for the syllabic /l/ in table, or the syllabic nasals in button and rhythm. The traditional view of vowel production, reflected for example in the terminology and presentation of the International Phonetic Alphabet, is one of articulatory features that determine a vowel's quality as distinguishing it from other vowels. Daniel Jones developed the cardinal vowel system to describe vowels in terms of the features of tongue height, tongue backness and roundedness; these three parameters are indicated in the schematic quadrilateral IPA vowel diagram on the right. There are additional features of vowel quality, such as the velum position, type of vocal fold vibration, tongue root position; this conception of vowel articulation has been known to be inaccurate since 1928. Peter Ladefoged has said that "early phoneticians... thought they were describing the highest point of the tongue, but they were not. They were describing formant frequencies."
The IPA Handbook concedes that "the vowel quadrilateral must be regarded as an abstraction and not a direct mapping of tongue position."Nonetheless, the concept that vowel qualities are determined by tongue position and lip rounding continues to be used in pedagogy, as it provides an intuitive explanation of how vowels are distinguished. Vowel height is named for the vertical position of the tongue relative to either the roof of the mouth or the aperture of the jaw. However, it refers to the first formant, abbreviated F1, associated with the height of the tongue. In close vowels known as high vowels, such as and, the first formant is consistent with the tongue being positioned close to the palate, high in the mouth, whereas in open vowels known as low vowels, such as, F1 is consistent with the jaw being open and the tongue being positioned low in the mouth. Height is defined by the inverse of the F1 value: The higher the frequency of the first formant, the lower the vowel; the International Phonetic Alphabet defines seven degrees of vowel height, but no language is known to distinguish all of them without distinguishing another attribute: close near-close close-mid mid open-mid near-open open The letters are used for either close-mid or true-mid vowels.
However, if more precision is required, true-mid vowels may be written with a lowering diacritic. The Kensiu language, spoken in Malaysia and Thailand, is unusual in that it contrasts true-mid with close-mid and open-mid vowels, without any difference in other parameters like backness or roundness. Although English contrasts six heights in its vowels, they are interdependent with differences in backness, many are parts of diphthongs, it appears that some varieties of German have five vowel heights that contrast independently of length or other parameters. The Bavarian dialect of Amstetten h
The didgeridoo is a wind instrument developed by Indigenous Australians of northern Australia within the last 1,500 years and still in widespread use today both in Australia and around the world. It is sometimes described as a natural wooden trumpet or "drone pipe". Musicologists classify it as a brass aerophone. There are no reliable sources stating the didgeridoo's exact age. Archaeological studies of rock art in Northern Australia suggest that the people of the Kakadu region of the Northern Territory have been using the didgeridoo for less than 1,000 years, based on the dating of paintings on cave walls and shelters from this period. A clear rock painting in Ginga Wardelirrhmeng, on the northern edge of the Arnhem Land plateau, from the freshwater period shows a didgeridoo player and two songmen participating in an Ubarr Ceremony. A modern didgeridoo is cylindrical or conical, can measure anywhere from 1 to 3 m long. Most are around 1.2 m long. The longer the instrument, the lower its pitch or key.
However, flared instruments play a higher pitch than unflared instruments of the same length. There are numerous names for the instrument among the Aboriginal peoples of northern Australia, none of which resemble the word "didgeridoo". Many didgeridoo enthusiasts and some scholars advocate reserving local names for traditional instruments, this practice has been endorsed by some Aboriginal community organisations. However, in everyday conversation, bilingual Aboriginal people will use the word "didgeridoo" interchangeably with the instrument's name in their own language. "Didgeridoo" is considered to be an onomatopoetic word of Western invention. The earliest occurrences of the word in print include a 1908 edition of the Hamilton Spectator, a 1914 edition of The Northern Territory Times and Gazette, a 1919 issue of Smith's Weekly where it was referred to as an "infernal didjerry" which "produced but one sound – didjerry, didjerry and so on ad infinitum". A rival explanation, that didgeridoo is a corruption of the Irish language phrase dúdaire dubh or dúidire dúth, is controversial.
Dúdaire/dúidire is a noun that may mean, depending on the context, "trumpeter", "hummer", "crooner", "long-necked person", "puffer", "eavesdropper", or "chain smoker", while dubh means "black" and dúth means "native". Yiḏaki is one of the most used names, although – speaking – it refers to a specific type of instrument made and used by the Yolngu people of north-east Arnhem Land. However, since the death, in early 2011, of a Manggalili-clan man whose name sounds similar to yiḏaki, Yolngu themselves now use the synonym mandapul to refer to the instrument, out of respect for the deceased. There are numerous regional names for the didgeridoo; the following are some of the more common of these. Authentic Aboriginal didgeridoos are produced in traditionally oriented communities in Northern Australia or by makers who travel to Central and Northern Australia to collect the raw materials, they are made from hardwoods the various eucalyptus species that are endemic to the region. The main trunk of the tree is harvested, though a substantial branch may be used instead.
Aboriginal didgeridoo craftsmen hunt for suitably hollow live trees in areas with obvious termite activity. Termites attack these living eucalyptus trees, removing only the dead heartwood of the tree, as the living sapwood contains a chemical that repels the insects. Various techniques are employed to find trees with a suitable hollow, including knowledge of landscape and termite activity patterns, a kind of tap or knock test, in which the bark of the tree is peeled back, a fingernail or the blunt end of a tool, such as an axe, is knocked against the wood to determine if the hollow produces the right resonance. Once a suitably hollow tree is found, it is cut down and cleaned out, the bark is taken off, the ends trimmed, the exterior is shaped; this instrument may be left undecorated. A rim of beeswax may be applied to the mouthpiece end. Traditional instruments made by Aboriginal craftsmen in Arnhem Land are sometimes fitted with a "sugarbag" mouthpiece; this black beeswax has a distinctive aroma.
Non-traditional didgeridoos can be made from PVC piping, non-native hard woods, fiberglass, agave, clay and carbon fibre. These didges have an upper inside diameter of around 1.25" down to a bell end of anywhere between two and eight inches and have a length corresponding to the desired key. The mouthpiece can be constructed of beeswax, hardwood or sanded and sized by the craftsman. In PVC, an appropriately sized rubber stopper with a hole cut into it is acceptable, or to finely sand and buff the end of the pipe to create a comfortable mouthpiece. Modern didgeridoo designs are distinct from the traditional Australian Aboriginal didgeridoo, are innovations recognized by musicologists. Didgeridoo design innovation started in the late 20th century using non-traditional materials and non-traditional shapes. Many didgeridoos are painted using traditional or modern paints by either their maker or a dedicated artist, it is common to retain the natural wood grain with minimal or no decoration. Some modern makers deliberately avoid decoration if they are not of Indigenous Australian descent, or leave the instrument blank for an Indigenous Australian artist to decorate it at a stage.
The didgeridoo is played with continuou
A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones. It is known as articular ligament, articular larua, fibrous ligament, or true ligament. Other ligaments in the body include the: Peritoneal ligament: a fold of peritoneum or other membranes. Fetal remnant ligament: the remnants of a fetal tubular structure. Periodontal ligament: a group of fibers that attach the cementum of teeth to the surrounding alveolar bone. Ligaments are similar to tendons and fasciae; the differences in them are in the connections that they make: ligaments connect one bone to another bone, tendons connect muscle to bone, fasciae connect muscles to other muscles. These are all found in the skeletal system of the human body. Ligaments cannot be regenerated naturally; the study of ligaments is known as desmology. "Ligament" most refers to a band of dense regular connective tissue bundles made of collagenous fibers, with bundles protected by dense irregular connective tissue sheaths. Ligaments connect bones to other bones to form joints.
Some ligaments prevent certain movements altogether. Capsular ligaments are part of the articular capsule, they act as mechanical reinforcements. Extra-capsular ligaments join together in harmony with the other ligaments and provide joint stability. Intra-capsular ligaments, which are much less common provide stability but permit a far larger range of motion. Cruciate ligaments are paired ligaments in the form of a cross. Ligaments are viscoelastic, they strain when under tension and return to their original shape when the tension is removed. However, they cannot retain their original shape when extended past a certain point or for a prolonged period of time; this is one reason why dislocated joints must be set as as possible: if the ligaments lengthen too much the joint will be weakened, becoming prone to future dislocations. Athletes, gymnasts and martial artists perform stretching exercises to lengthen their ligaments, making their joints more supple; the term hypermobility refers to people with more-elastic ligaments, allowing their joints to stretch and contort further.
The consequence of a broken ligament can be instability of the joint. Not all broken ligaments need surgery, but, if surgery is needed to stabilise the joint, the broken ligament can be repaired. Scar tissue may prevent this. If it is not possible to fix the broken ligament, other procedures such as the Brunelli procedure can correct the instability. Instability of a joint can over time lead to wear of the cartilage and to osteoarthritis. One of the most torn ligaments in the body is the anterior cruciate ligament; the ACL is one of the ligaments crucial to knee stability and persons who tear their ACL seek to undergo reconstructive surgery, which can be done through a variety of techniques and materials. One of these techniques is the replacement of the ligament with an artificial material. An artificial ligament is a reinforcing material, used to replace a torn ligament, such as the ACL. Artificial ligaments are a synthetic material composed of a polymer, such as polyacrylonitrile fiber, polypropylene, PET, or polyNaSS poly.
Certain folds of peritoneum are referred to as ligaments. Examples include: The hepatoduodenal ligament, that surrounds the hepatic portal vein and other vessels as they travel from the duodenum to the liver; the broad ligament of the uterus a fold of peritoneum. Certain tubular structures from the fetal period are referred to as ligaments after they close up and turn into cord-like structures: Broström procedure
The vestibular fold is one of two thick folds of mucous membrane, each enclosing a narrow band of fibrous tissue, the vestibular ligament, attached in front to the angle of the thyroid cartilage below the attachment of the epiglottis, behind to the antero-lateral surface of the arytenoid cartilage, a short distance above the vocal process. The lower border of this ligament, enclosed in mucous membrane, forms a free crescentic margin, which constitutes the upper boundary of the ventricle of the larynx; the vestibular folds of the larynx play a significant role in the maintenance of the laryngeal functions of breathing and preventing food and drink from entering the airway during swallowing. They aid phonation by suppressing dysphonia. In some ethnic singing and chanting styles, such as in Tibet and Mongolia, the vestibular folds may be used in co-oscillation with the vocal folds, producing low pitched sounds. Conversely, people who have had their epiglottis removed because of cancer do not choke any more than when it was present.
They have a minimal role in normal phonation, but are used to produce deep sonorous tones in Tibetan chant and Tuvan throat singing, as well as in musical screaming and the death growl singing style used in various forms of metal. Simultaneous voicing with the vocal and vestibular folds is diplophonia; some voice actors employ small amounts of this phonation for its dark, growling quality while portraying a "villainous" or antagonistic voice. They are lined with respiratory epithelium, while true vocal cords have stratified squamous epithelium. Vocal folds Larynx This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1079 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy lesson11 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Anatomy photo: respiratory/airways/larynx1/larynx4 - Comparative Organology at University of California, Davis
The rima glottidis is the opening between the true vocal cords and the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx. It is subdivided into two parts: that between the arytenoid cartilages is called the intercartilaginous part, that between the vocal folds the intermembranous part or glottis vocalis, it is closed by the arytenoid muscle. It is opened by the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles, it is limited posteriorly by interarytenoid fold of mucous membrane. It is the narrowest part of larynx, it is longer in males than in females. All of these muscles receive their innervation from the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve; this nerve can be vulnerable in thyroid surgery, if damaged control to the rima glottidis may be affected resulting in a hoarse voice, aphonia or difficulty breathing. Anatomy photo:32:st-1300 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
The Adam's apple, or laryngeal prominence, is a feature of the human neck, is the lump or protrusion, formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx seen in males. The structure of the Adam's apple forms a bump under the skin, it is larger in adult males, in whom it is clearly visible and palpable. In females, the bump is much less visible and is hardly perceived on the upper edge of the thyroid cartilage. An Adam's apple is a feature of adult males, because its size in males tends to increase during puberty. However, some women have an Adam's apple, its development is considered a secondary sexual characteristic of males that appears as a result of hormonal activity. Its level of development varies among individuals and the widening of that area in the larynx can occur suddenly and quickly; the Adam's apple, in conjunction with the thyroid cartilage which forms it, helps protect the walls and the frontal part of the larynx, including the vocal cords. Another function of the Adam's apple is related to the deepening of the voice.
During adolescence, the thyroid cartilage grows together with the larynx. The laryngeal prominence grows in size in men. Together, a larger soundboard is made up in phonation apparatus and, as a result, the man gets a deeper voice note. Cosmetic surgery to reshape the Adam's apple is called chondrolaryngoplasty; the surgery is effective, such that complications tend to be few and, transient. There are two main theories as to the origin of the term "Adam's apple"; the "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable" and the 1913 edition of Webster's Dictionary point at an ancient belief that a piece of forbidden fruit was embedded in the throat of Adam, who according to the Abrahamic religions was the first man. However, neither the Bible nor other Judeo-Christian or Islamic writings mention such a story. In fact, the biblical story does not specify the type of fruit that Adam ate. Linguist Alexander Gode claimed that the Latin phrase to designate the laryngeal prominence was probably translated incorrectly from the beginning.
The phrase in Latin was "pomum Adami". This, in turn, came from the Hebrew "tappuach ha adam" meaning "apple of man"; the confusion lies in the fact that in Hebrew language the proper name "Adam" means "man", while the Hebrew word "apple" means "swollen", thus in combination: the swelling of a man. Proponents of this version contend that the subsequent phrases in Latin and other Romance languages represent a mistranslation from the start; the medical term "prominentia laryngea" was introduced by the Basle Nomina Anatomica in 1895. In the American South, goozle is used colloquially to describe the Adam's apple derived from guzzle. Hyoid bone Larynx Media related to Laryngeal prominence at Wikimedia Commons lesson11 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
The cricotracheal ligament connects the cricoid cartilage with the first ring of the trachea. It resembles the fibrous membrane which connects the cartilaginous rings of the trachea to each other; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1077 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy